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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e259137, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364510

RESUMO

The edge effect has impacts on seed and seedling survival due to modifications in biotic and abiotic factors. Often, large-seeded tree species lost seed vectors in the forest edge due to the rarity or absence of large frugivores at this habitat type. In this study, I compared the seedling abundance and distribution of the palm Syagrus flexuosa between edges and interiors of three large Cerrado remnants. In every remnant, the number of seedlings around parent palms in the edge was smaller than around palm individuals located in the Cerrado interior. Moreover, the distribution of seedlings around parent palms differed between edges and interiors. In the edges, most seedlings were found under parent crowns, while in the interiors, the contrary occurred. The high concentration of seedlings under parent palms suggests a decrease of seed dispersal at the edges. Because S. flexuosa is a widely distributed palm that serves as an important resource for several animals along Cerrado habitats, changes on the regeneration process of this palm due to edge effects can further impact frugivore populations. Therefore, the decline of seedling establishment along forest edges implies changes in the Cerrado regeneration dynamics, which may compromise the persistence of ecological processes and animal communities.


O efeito de borda tem impactos severos na sobrevivência de sementes e plântulas devido a modificações dos fatores bióticos e abióticos. Frequentemente, espécies arbóreas com sementes grandes perdem seus dispersores na borda da floresta devido à raridade ou ausência de grandes frugívoros neste tipo de habitat. Neste estudo, comparei a abundância e distribuição de plântulas de S. flexuosa entre bordas e interiores de três grandes remanescentes de Cerrado. Em cada remanescente, o número de plântulas ao redor das palmeiras-mãe, na borda, era menor do que ao redor dos indivíduos no interior do Cerrado. Nas bordas, a maioria das plântulas foi encontrada junto às plantas mãe, enquanto no interior ocorreu o contrário. A alta concentração de plântulas sob as plantas adultas sugere diminuição da dispersão de sementes nas bordas. Como S. flexuosa é uma palmeira amplamente distribuída que serve como um recurso importante para vários animais nos habitats do Cerrado, mudanças no processo de regeneração dessa palmeira devido aos efeitos de borda podem impactar ainda mais as populações de frugívoros. Portanto, o declínio do estabelecimento de plântulas ao longo das bordas do Cerrado implica em mudanças na dinâmica de regeneração do Cerrado, o que pode comprometer a persistência de processos ecológicos e comunidades animais.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Arecaceae , Plântula , Dispersão de Sementes
3.
Comput Biol Chem ; 102: 107801, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36528019

RESUMO

A high-quality reference genome is an important resource that can help decipher the genetic basis of traits in combination with linkage or association analyses. The publicly available oil palm draft genome sequence of AVROS pisifera (EG5) accounts for 1.535 Gb of the 1.8 Gb oil palm genome. However, the assemblies are fragmented, and the earlier assembly only had 43% of the sequences placed on pseudo-chromosomes. By integrating a number of SNP and SSR-based genetic maps, a consensus map (AM_EG5.1), comprising of 828.243 Mb genomic scaffolds anchored to 16 pseudo-chromosomes, was generated. This accounted for 54% of the genome assembly, which is a significant improvement to the original assembly. The total length of N50 scaffolds anchored to the pseudo-chromosomes increased by ∼18% compared to the previous assembly. A total of 139 quantitative trait loci for agronomically important quantitative traits, sourced from literature, were successfully mapped on the new pseudo-chromosomes. The improved assembly could also be used as a reference to identify potential errors in placement of specific markers in the linkage groups of the genetic maps used to assemble the consensus map. The 3422 unique markers from five genetic maps, anchored to the pseudo-chromosomes of AM_EG5.1, are an important resource that can be used preferentially to either construct new maps or fill gaps in existing genetic maps. Synteny analysis further revealed that the AM_EG5.1 had high collinearity with the date palm genome cultivar 'Barhee BC4' and shared most of its segmental duplications. This improved chromosomal-level genome is a valuable resource for genetic research in oil palm.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Consenso , Ligação Genética , Genômica , Arecaceae/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites
4.
Am Nat ; 201(1): 52-64, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36524929

RESUMO

AbstractPollen dispersal is a key evolutionary and ecological process, but the degree to which variation in the density of concurrently flowering conspecific plants (i.e., coflowering density) shapes pollination patterns remains understudied. We monitored coflowering density and corresponding pollination patterns of the insect-pollinated palm Oenocarpus bataua in northwestern Ecuador and found that the influence of coflowering density on these patterns was scale dependent: high neighborhood densities were associated with reductions in pollen dispersal distance and gametic diversity of progeny arrays, whereas we observed the opposite pattern at the landscape scale. In addition, neighborhood coflowering density also impacted forward pollen dispersal kernel parameters, suggesting that low neighborhood densities encourage pollen movement and may promote gene flow and genetic diversity. Our work reveals how coflowering density at different spatial scales influences pollen movement, which in turn informs our broader understanding of the mechanisms underlying patterns of genetic diversity and gene flow within populations of plants.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Polinização , Pólen/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Reprodução/genética , Arecaceae/genética , Variação Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites
5.
Food Res Int ; 162(Pt A): 111995, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36461232

RESUMO

The fruits of palm trees (Arecaceae) are a very important food source for fauna and for humans, despite the still incipient role of these fruits in conventional diet. Seven palm tree species (plus one variety) that are native to the southern half of South America located east of the Andes (Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and the southern states of Brazil) were studied. For the first time, the fatty acid profiles of palm seeds and the content of both amino acids and phenolic compounds present in the pulp (yellowish fleshy mesocarps) of the fruits were determined. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was used to screen and quantify thirty-two phenols and HPLC was used to determine the amino acid contents and fatty acids profiles of the species. Twenty-five percent of the fatty acids in the seeds of B. lallemantii, Butia odorata (var. pulposa), B. witeckii, and Syagrus romanzoffiana were found to be unsaturated. One species (B. lallemantii) had a high and well-balanced amino acid content (28,900 mg/kg), while six species (B. odorata, B. catarinensis, B. witeckii, Euterpe edulis, and Syagrus romanzoffiana) contained more than 14,000 mg/kg of amino acids. A high content of the phenolic compounds ferulic acid, luteolin, quercetin-3-rutinoside, isoquercetin, and isorhamnetin were found in many species, most notably in B. odorata, B. catarinensis, and B. witeckii.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Humanos , Frutas , Árvores , Aminoácidos , Ácidos Graxos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fenóis , Brasil
6.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387702

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: The natural ecosystems of northern Mato Grosso, Brazil, are in process of fragmentation, mainly due to population growth and the expansion of agriculture. This endangers the palm Euterpe precatoria (locally known as açaí), used for construction, palm hearts, juices and ice cream. Objective: To evaluate the local diversity and genetic structure in native populations of E. precatoria. Methods: We collected leaves from 106 fruiting palms from five populations in Mato Grosso State, for analysis of microsatellite markers with Polymerase Chain Reaction. Results: The five SSR loci revealed a total of 30 alleles, ranging from 5 (EE23 and EE43) to 7 (EE2 and EE15), with an average of 6 alleles per locus. The mean PIC was 0.74 and confirmed low heterozygosity and inbreeding. The UPGMA dendrogram produced two groups and molecular variance revealed greater genetic differentiation within populations. The high levels of homozygous microsatellite loci indicate low genetic diversity. Conclusions: These populations have low gene diversity, high average number of alleles per locus, and rare and exclusive alleles. We recommend the establishment of permanent conservation units with corridors among them.


Resumen Introducción: Los ecosistemas naturales del norte de Mato Grosso, Brasil, están en proceso de fragmentación, principalmente debido al crecimiento de la población y la expansión de la agricultura. Esto pone en peligro la palma Euterpe precatoria (localmente conocida como açaí), utilizada para la construcción, extracción de palmito, preparación de jugos y helados. Objetivo: Evaluar la diversidad local y estructura genética en poblaciones nativas de E. precatoria. Métodos: Recolectamos hojas de 106 palmas fructíferas de cinco poblaciones en el estado de Mato Grosso, para análisis de marcadores microsatélites con el método de Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa (PCR). Resultados: Los cinco loci SSR revelaron un total de 30 alelos, que van desde 5 (EE23 y EE43) hasta 7 (EE2 y EE15), con un promedio de 6 alelos por locus. El PIC medio fue de 0.74 y confirmó baja heterocigosidad y endogamia en las poblaciones. El dendrograma UPGMA produjo dos grupos y la varianza molecular reveló una mayor diferenciación genética dentro de las poblaciones. Los loci de microsatélites presentaron un alto nivel de homocigotos lo que indica una baja diversidad genética. Conclusiones: Estas poblaciones tienen baja diversidad genética, alto promedio de alelos por locus y alelos raros y únicos. Recomendamos el establecimiento de unidades de conservación permanentes con corredores entre ellas.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/classificação , Euterpe/classificação , Brasil
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36499255

RESUMO

Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is an economically important tropical oil crop widely cultivated in tropical zones worldwide. Being a tropical crop, low-temperature stress adversely affects the oil palm. However, integrative leaf transcriptomic and proteomic analyses have not yet been conducted on an oil palm crop under cold stress. In this study, integrative omics transcriptomic and iTRAQ-based proteomic approaches were employed for three oil palm varieties, i.e., B × E (Bamenda × Ekona), O × G (E. oleifera × Elaeis guineensis), and T × E (Tanzania × Ekona), in response to low-temperature stress. In response to low-temperature stress at (8 °C) for 5 days, a total of 5175 up- and 2941 downregulated DEGs in BE-0_VS_BE-5, and a total of 3468 up- and 2443 downregulated DEGs for OG-0_VS_OG-5, and 3667 up- and 2151 downregulated DEGs for TE-0_VS_TE-5 were identified. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis showed 349 up- and 657 downregulated DEPs for BE-0_VS_BE-5, 372 up- and 264 downregulated DEPs for OG-0_VS_OG-5, and 500 up- and 321 downregulated DEPs for TE-0_VS_TE-5 compared to control samples treated at 28 °C and 8 °C, respectively. The KEGG pathway correlation of oil palm has shown that the metabolic synthesis and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites pathways were significantly enriched in the transcriptome and proteome of the oil palm varieties. The correlation expression pattern revealed that TE-0_VS_TE-5 is highly expressed and BE-0_VS_BE-5 is suppressed in both the transcriptome and proteome in response to low temperature. Furthermore, numerous transcription factors (TFs) were found that may regulate cold acclimation in three oil palm varieties at low temperatures. Moreover, this study identified proteins involved in stresses (abiotic, biotic, oxidative, and heat shock), photosynthesis, and respiration in iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis of three oil palm varieties. The increased abundance of stress-responsive proteins and decreased abundance of photosynthesis-related proteins suggest that the TE variety may become cold-resistant in response to low-temperature stress. This study may provide a basis for understanding the molecular mechanism for the adaptation of oil palm varieties in response to low-temperature stress in China.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Proteômica , Temperatura Baixa , Arecaceae/genética , Arecaceae/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Proteoma/genética , Proteoma/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Óleo de Palmeira
8.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364139

RESUMO

Elaeis guineensis Jacq. has gained a reputation in the food industry as an incredible crop capable of supplying the world's largest edible oil production. In Ecuador, an important oil palm-producing country, this crop is affected in a high percentage by the bud rot disease, which is responsible for palm death. The main objective of the investigation was dedicated to understanding the palm defense mechanism facing bud rot disease, translated in the induction of reactive oxygen species, activation of defensive machinery comprising enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative components, secondary metabolites, carotenoids accumulation in the palm during all stages of disease infection. For this, a survey was conducted in different oil palm plantations in the Esmeraldas province, one of the most representative for its highest incidence of bud rot disease. The survey completed DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, and other spectrophotometric analyses to underline the biochemical, biological, and physiological palm response front of bud rot incidence. The palm defense strategy in each disease stage could be represented by the phenolic compound's involvement, an increment of antioxidant activity, and the high enzymatic activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). The results of the investigation made understandable the palm defense strategy front of this disease, respectively, the antioxidative defense and the palm secondary compounds involved.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Arecaceae , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Equador , Arecaceae/metabolismo , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/metabolismo
9.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 637: 181-188, 2022 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36403481

RESUMO

The Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an enveloped RNA virus that has been identified in over 40 countries and is considered a growing threat to public health worldwide. However, there is no preventive vaccine or specific therapeutic drug for CHIKV infection. To identify a new inhibitor against CHIKV infection, this study constructed a subgenomic RNA replicon expressing the secretory Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) based on the CHIKV SL11131 strain. Transfection of in vitro-transcribed replicon RNA to BHK-21 cells revealed that Gluc activity in culture supernatants was correlated with the intracellular replication of the replicon genome. Through a chemical compound library screen using the Gluc reporter CHIKV replicon, we identified several compounds that suppressed CHIKV infection in Vero cells. Among the hits identified, CP-154,526, a non-peptide antagonist of the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type-1 (CRF-R1), showed the strongest anti-CHIKV activity and inhibited CHIKV infection in Huh-7 cells. Interestingly, other CRF-R1 antagonists, R121919 and NGD 98-2, also exhibited inhibitory effects on CHIKV infection. Time-of-drug addition and virus entry assays indicated that CP-154,526 suppressed a post-entry step of infection, suggesting that CRF-R1 antagonists acted on a target in the intracellular replication process of CHIKV. Therefore, the Gluc reporter replicon system established in this study would greatly facilitate the development of antiviral drugs against CHIKV infection.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Febre de Chikungunya , Vírus Chikungunya , Copépodes , Chlorocebus aethiops , Animais , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Febre de Chikungunya/tratamento farmacológico , Células Vero , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina , Replicon/genética , Luciferases/genética , Replicação Viral
10.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 24(12): 19-36, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36374979

RESUMO

This study aims to analyze the peach palm by-product (shells) bioconversion by culinary-medicinal mushroom Lentinula edodes to obtain a food ingredient for dietary supplementation containing high contents of dietary fiber, protein, and ß-glucans. The ß-glucans production by L. edodes mycelium was optimized through a solid-state fermentation, checking the influence of the heart of palm shells and supplements (rice bran, manioc flour, and sorghum flour) through an experimental mixing plan. The cultivation treatment that presented the highest tendency for ß-glucans production was analyzed by the centesimal composition and in vivo biological activity. Treatments 4 (with shells, rice bran, and manioc flour) and 6 (with shells, sorghum flour, and manioc flour) presented the highest ß-glucans content. A flour was obtained with high dietary fiber and protein content, and low lipids and carbohydrates content, and low caloric value. The in vivo biological activity demonstrated high protein quality and promoted a lower elevation of the glycemic curve. Thus, technology for the transformation of peach palm shells into a food ingredient was made feasible. It could generate a gluten-free and lactose-free dietary supplement that is both nutritive and bioactive, enhancing human health and well-being as well as environmental sustainability.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Arecaceae , Basidiomycota , Ingredientes de Alimentos , Cogumelos Shiitake , beta-Glucanas , Humanos , Brasil , Fibras na Dieta , Grão Comestível
11.
Nat Prod Res ; 36(22): 5753-5761, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36411528

RESUMO

Two new terpenoids (1 and 2), arenterpenoid D (1) and pinnasesquiterpene A (2), along with 16 phenylpropanoids (3-18) and 8 known terpenoids (19-26) were isolated from 70% EtOH extract of the Arenga pinnata (Wurmb) Merr. fruits. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including HR-ESI-MS, 1D, and 2D NMR. The absolute configuration of arenterpenoid D (1) was defined by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Furthermore, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of all compounds, and outcomes showed that 2 and 21 exposed moderate suppressive effects against NO generation in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Terpenos , Camundongos , Animais , Terpenos/farmacologia , Terpenos/análise , Frutas/química , Arecaceae/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Células RAW 264.7
12.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276408, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327224

RESUMO

Copernicia prunifera (Miller) H. E. Moore is a palm tree native to Brazil. The products obtained from its leaf extracts are a source of income for local families and the agroindustry. Owing to the reduction of natural habitats and the absence of a sustainable management plan, the maintenance of the natural populations of this palm tree has been compromised. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the diversity and genetic structure of 14 C. prunifera populations using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified through genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) to provide information that contributes to the conservation of this species. A total of 1,013 SNP markers were identified, of which 84 loci showed outlier behavior and may reflect responses to natural selection. Overall, the level of genomic diversity was compatible with the biological aspects of this species. The inbreeding coefficient (f) was negative for all populations, indicating excess heterozygotes. Most genetic variations occurred within populations (77.26%), and a positive correlation existed between genetic and geographic distances. The population structure evaluated through discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) revealed low genetic differentiation between populations. The results highlight the need for efforts to conserve C. prunifera as well as its distribution range to preserve its global genetic diversity and evolutionary potential.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Metagenômica , Humanos , Arecaceae/genética , Deriva Genética , Seleção Genética , Endogamia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Variação Genética
13.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 735, 2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil salinity is a problem in more than 100 countries across all continents. It is one of the abiotic stress that threatens agriculture the most, negatively affecting crops and reducing productivity. Transcriptomics is a technology applied to characterize the transcriptome in a cell, tissue, or organism at a given time via RNA-Seq, also known as full-transcriptome shotgun sequencing. This technology allows the identification of most genes expressed at a particular stage, and different isoforms are separated and transcript expression levels measured. Once determined by this technology, the expression profile of a gene must undergo validation by another, such as quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). This study aimed to select, annotate, and validate stress-inducible genes-and their promoters-differentially expressed in the leaves of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plants under saline stress. RESULTS: The transcriptome analysis led to the selection of 14 genes that underwent structural and functional annotation, besides having their expression validated using the qRT-PCR technique. When compared, the RNA-Seq and qRT-PCR profiles of those genes resulted in some inconsistencies. The structural and functional annotation analysis of proteins coded by the selected genes showed that some of them are orthologs of genes reported as conferring resistance to salinity in other species. There were those coding for proteins related to the transport of salt into and out of cells, transcriptional regulatory activity, and opening and closing of stomata. The annotation analysis performed on the promoter sequence revealed 22 distinct types of cis-acting elements, and 14 of them are known to be involved in abiotic stress. CONCLUSION: This study has helped validate the process of an accurate selection of genes responsive to salt stress with a specific and predefined expression profile and their promoter sequence. Its results also can be used in molecular-genetics-assisted breeding programs. In addition, using the identified genes is a window of opportunity for strategies trying to relieve the damages arising from the salt stress in many glycophyte crops with economic importance.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Estresse Salino/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Arecaceae/genética , Transcriptoma
14.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235583

RESUMO

This study aimed to compare the regulatory effects of Arenga pinnata retrograded starch (APRS), Arenga pinnata starch (APS), and whole Arenga pinnata flour (APF) on gut microbiota and improvement of intestinal inflammation in aged mice. APF, APS, and APRS altered gut microbiota composition and exhibited different prebiotic effects. Bifidobacterium showed the greatest increase in feces of aged mice fed APF. The abundance of genus Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136 was highest in the APS group. APRS supplementation led to a greatest increasement in abundance of Lactobacillus, Roseburia, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. APRS induced significantly more short-chain fatty acid (SCFAs) production than APF and APS. APF, APS, and APRS treatments improved intestinal inflammation in aged mice and the order of ameliorative effect was APRS > APS > APF. APRS significantly decreased relative mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1ß, and TNF-α) and increased anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10). In addition, APF, APS, and APRS significantly downregulated the relative mRNA expression of senescence-associated gene p53 and upregulated the expression of anti-aging gene Sirt1. These results provide potentially useful information about the beneficial effects of Arenga pinnata products on human health.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Inflamação , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Camundongos , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Amido Resistente , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Amido/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53
15.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235663

RESUMO

The fruits from the Arecaceae family, although being rich in bioactive compounds with potential benefits to health, have been underexplored. Studies on their composition, bioactive compounds, and effects of their consumption on health are also scarce. This review presents the composition of macro- and micronutrients, and bioactive compounds of fruits of the Arecaceae family such as bacaba, patawa, juçara, açaí, buriti, buritirana, and butiá. The potential use and reported effects of its consumption on health are also presented. The knowledge of these underutilized fruits is important to encourage production, commercialization, processing, and consumption. It can also stimulate their full use and improve the economy and social condition of the population where these fruits are found. Furthermore, it may help in future research on the composition, health effects, and new product development. Arecaceae fruits presented in this review are currently used as raw materials for producing beverages, candies, jams, popsicles, ice creams, energy drinks, and edible oils. The reported studies show that they are rich in phenolic compounds, carotenoids, anthocyanins, tocopherols, minerals, vitamins, amino acids, and fatty acids. Moreover, the consumption of these compounds has been associated with anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, antiobesity, and cardioprotective effects. These fruits have potential to be used in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Despite their potential, some of them, such as buritirana and butiá, have been little explored and limited research has been conducted on their composition, biological effects, and applications. Therefore, more detailed investigations on the composition and mechanism of action based on in vitro and/or in vivo studies are needed for fruits from the Arecaceae family.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Aminoácidos/análise , Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Arecaceae/química , Brasil , Carotenoides/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Frutas/química , Promoção da Saúde , Micronutrientes/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Tocoferóis/análise , Vitaminas/análise
16.
Food Res Int ; 161: 111848, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36192900

RESUMO

The consumption of plant proteins is increasing worldwide. These proteins have an important role in human nutrition as well as in the technological properties of foods. Thus, there is a great interest in exploring new sources of plant proteins, such as macauba (Acrocomia aculeata), which is a promising tropical palm tree, native to Brazil, whose fruits are rich in oil, proteins and dietary fiber. Hence, the objective of this work was to obtain and evaluate the physico-chemical and techno-functional properties of the macauba kernel protein isolate (MKPI). Defatted macauba kernel flour was obtained and used to produce the MKPI by isoelectric precipitation. Then, the proximate composition, amino acid profile, and physico-chemical and techno-functional properties of the MKPI were determined. The MKPI stood out for its high protein content (94.9%) and high levels of arginine (16.21%) and glutamate (20.84%). The MKPI average isoelectric point was at pH 4.9 and its proteins showed low solubility in the pH range from 4.0 to 6.0. Moreover, the hydrophobicity of MKPI proteins was higher at pH 3.5 than at pH 7.0, and they had higher oil holding capacity (153.77%) than water holding capacity (97.29%). Regarding the MKPI emulsifying and gelling properties, emulsions with 0.5% and 1.0% of MKPI remained stable during storage and the minimum gelling concentration was 14%. Thus, the MKPI has a great potential to be produced and used by the food industry due to its nutritional and techno-functional properties.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Arecaceae/química , Arginina/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Glutamatos , Humanos , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo
17.
Mycologia ; 114(6): 947-963, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36239960

RESUMO

Ganoderma boninense, the causal agent of basal stem rot (BSR) disease, has been recognized as a major economic threat to commercial plantings of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in Southeast Asia, which supplies 86% of the world's palm oil. High genetic diversity and gene flow among regional populations of 417 G. boninense isolates collected from Sabah, Sarawak, and Peninsular Malaysia (Malaysia) and Sumatra (Indonesia) were demonstrated using 16 microsatellite loci. Three genetic clusters and different admixed populations of G. boninense across regions were detected, and they appeared to follow the spread of the fungus from the oldest (Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra) to younger generations of oil palm plantings (Sabah and Sarawak). Low spatial genetic differentiation of G. boninense (FST = 0.05) among the sampling regions revealed geographically nonrestricted gene dispersal, but isolation by distance was still evident. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) confirmed the little to no genetic differentiation among the pathogen populations and the three genetic clusters defined by STRUCTURE and minimum spanning network. Despite G. boninense being highly outcrossing and spread by sexual spores, linkage disequilibrium was detected in 7 of the 14 populations. Linkage disequilibrium indicated that the reproduction of the fungus was not entirely by random mating and genetic drift could be an important structuring factor. Furthermore, evidence of population bottleneck was indicated in the oldest oil palm plantations as detected in genetic clusters 2 and 3, which consisted mainly of Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra isolates. The population bottleneck or founding event could have arisen from either new planting or replanting after the removal of large number of palm hosts. The present study also demonstrated that migration and nonrandom mating of G. boninense could be important for survival and adaptation to new palm hosts.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Fluxo Gênico , Malásia , Indonésia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Arecaceae/microbiologia , Reprodução
18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 4303506, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36277886

RESUMO

Background. Chamaerops humilis L. var. argentea Andre is a plant widely spread in the region of Taza (North-East of Morocco); it is used in traditional phytotherapy against cancer, diabetes, inflammations, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, and for the treatment of digestive disorders. Objective and Methods. The objective of our work is to contribute firstly, to the study of the in vitro antimitotic potential by the phytotest of Lepidium sativum and the evaluation of the in vitro antidiabetic activity of three enzymes (α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and ß-galactosidase) on nine aqueous and organic extracts prepared from the leaves of Chamaerops humilis. In addition, a correlation study was carried out on the chemical composition and the antimitotic and antidiabetic activities of Chamaerops humilis leaves. Then, we tested the acute toxicity of the decocted extract and the ethanolic extract. Results. The results of the antimitotic activity showed that the decocted extract showed a higher inhibitory activity than the other aqueous extracts (IC50 = 9.624 × 103 ± 95.97 µg/mL); for the organic extracts, the ethanolic extract and ethanolic macerated expressed the highest values for the cell growth inhibition test with an IC50 of 5.638 × 103 ± 22.61 and 5.599 × 103 ± 45.51 µg/mL with statistically nonsignificant difference. Regarding the antidiabetic activity, the decocted showed a higher inhibitory activity than the other aqueous extracts for α-amylase (IC50 = 1.781 · 105 ± 358.30 µg/mL), α-glucosidase (2.540 × 102 ± 3.14 µg/mL), and ß-galactosidase (7.118 × 102 ± 16.13 µg/mL); the ethanolic extract also revealed the highest inhibitory activity for α-amylase (IC50 = 8.902 × 103 ± 57.81 µg/mL), α-glucosidase (2.216 × 102 ± 1.39 µg/mL), and ß-galactosidase (2.003 × 102 ± 7.41 µg/mL). A strong correlation was recorded between the antimitic activity and the inhibitory capacity of ß-galactosidase and between these two activities and the chemical composition of Chamaerops humilis leaves. The acute toxicity study showed that the decocted and the ethanolic extract are weakly toxic with an LD50 greater than or equal to 5000 mg/kg. Conclusion. Chamaerops humilis could become a good source in traditional herbal medicine.


Assuntos
Antimitóticos , Arecaceae , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/química , alfa-Glucosidases , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , alfa-Amilases , beta-Galactosidase , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17439, 2022 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36261485

RESUMO

The African coconut beetle Oryctes monoceros and Asiatic rhinoceros beetle O. rhinoceros have been associated with economic losses to plantations worldwide. Despite the amount of effort put in determining the potential geographic extent of these pests, their environmental suitability maps have not yet been well established. Using MaxEnt model, the potential distribution of the pests has been defined on a global scale. The results show that large areas of the globe, important for production of palms, are suitable for and potentially susceptible to these pests. The main determinants for O. monoceros distribution were; temperature annual range, followed by land cover, and precipitation seasonality. The major determinants for O. rhinoceros were; temperature annual range, followed by precipitation of wettest month, and elevation. The area under the curve values of 0.976 and 0.975, and True skill statistic values of 0.90 and 0.88, were obtained for O. monoceros and O. rhinoceros, respectively. The global simulated areas for O. rhinoceros (1279.00 × 104 km2) were more than that of O. monoceros (610.72 × 104 km2). Our findings inform decision-making and the development of quarantine measures against the two most important pests of palms.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Besouros , Solanaceae , Animais , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Aprendizado de Máquina , Perissodáctilos
20.
Food Funct ; 13(21): 11342-11352, 2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36254703

RESUMO

Macauba (Acrocomia aculeata) has aroused interest in the food industry due to the high nutritional value of its fruits. This study aimed to evaluate the protein quality and influence on biochemical markers, short chain fatty acids content, intestinal morphology, and intestinal functionality in Wistar rats of macauba kernel. Male young rats were divided into three groups (n = 8) that received a control diet (casein), and two test diets (M30: 30% semi-defatted macauba kernel flour or M50: 50% semi-defatted macauba kernel flour) for 29 days. Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER), Net Protein Ratio (NPR), True Digestibility (TD), biochemical, and intestinal morphology and functionality markers were evaluated. The PER and NPR values were lower in test groups compared to the control group. TD did not differ between M30 and M50. The animals that were fed the macauba kernel flour had lower concentrations of total cholesterol and triglycerides compared to the control group. The concentration of acetic and propionic acids was higher and the fecal pH was lower in M30 and M50 groups compared to the control group. Gene expression of aminopeptidase (AP) and sodium-glucose transport protein 1 (SGLT1) did not differ among the groups, and the M50 group had lower expression of peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) and sucrase isomaltase (SI) than the control group. Crypts thickness was higher in the M50 group compared to the other groups, while the intestinal muscle layer width did not differ among groups. Therefore, macauba kernel flour proved to be a good plant protein alternative, and its consumption reduced blood lipids and increased short chain fatty acids content.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Ratos , Animais , Ratos Wistar , Arecaceae/química , Farinha , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Lipídeos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo
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