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1.
Phytochem Anal ; 32(5): 794-803, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501663

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Arenaria kansuensis Maxim. (AKM) is one of the most valued medicinal and edible herbs widely used in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and there is also a large number of AKM bioactive constituents for health benefits of human beings. However, few works have referred to phytochemical content, fingerprint analysis and quality control of AKM. Therefore, the establishment of validated analytical methods is urgently needed for fingerprint comparison and quantitative analysis of AKM multicomponent. OBJECTIVES: To determine quantitatively and compare the phytochemical constituents of AKM located at different areas. METHODOLOGY: The chemical constituents in AKM samples were separated, identified, and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a diode array detector. The discrimination and separation models for the chemical constituents were developed by chemometric analysis. RESULTS: The flavones and ß-carboline alkaloids were rich in AKM herbs, and the overall pattern of phytochemical profiles was the same, while the significant differences were detected in the total flavonoids, total ß-carboline alkaloids and individual contents, especially the predominant compounds such as tricin and arenarine B. This demonstrated that ecogeographical origin gave an important impact on phytochemical compositions which could be considered as reliable parameters for classifying the AKM resources. Moreover, the contents of AKM constituents were higher in July and/or August than other months of the year, and there were no significant differences in the main phytochemical contents between cultivated and wild AKM herbs. CONCLUSION: This study could provide credible data and method for geographical origin trace, comprehensive evaluation and further utilization of AKM resources.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Arenaria (Planta) , Flavonas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Tibet
2.
Phytother Res ; 35(2): 974-986, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996197

RESUMO

Pulmonary fibrosis is a key feature of COVID-19, Chinese herbal medicine Arenaria kansuensis has been used for curing pulmonary disease and antivirus for a long time and it has the potential against COVID-19. In this work, protective effect of A. kansuensis ethanol extract (AE) on pulmonary fibrosis was evaluated through paraquat (PQ)-induced pulmonary fibrosis animal model. Results showed that AE could significantly improve the survival rate, increase the body weight and reduce the lung index of mice at the raw drug doses of 700 and 350 mg/kg. Histopathological observation results showed that the destruction degree of lung tissue structure in mice was significantly improved with the increase of AE dosage. Collagen deposition in lung interstitium was significantly reduced. The marker protein alpha-SMA involved in PF were significantly inhibited through repressing TGF-beta1/Smads pathway. The degree of inflammatory infiltration was significantly reduced and inflammatory cytokines were significantly inhibited in mice through inhibiting the NF-kB-p65. Besides, oxidant stress level including upregulated ROS and down-regulated SOD and GSH was efficiently improved by AE through upregulation of Nrf2 and downregulation of NOX4. In summary, this study firstly showed that the protective effect of AE on pulmonary fibrosis was partly due to activation of Nrf2 pathway and the inhibition of NF-kB/TGF-beta1/Smad2/3 pathway.


Assuntos
Arenaria (Planta)/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda , Animais , Arenaria (Planta)/fisiologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Etanol/química , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Paraquat , Fitoterapia , Edema Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Edema Pulmonar/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Smad2/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 267: 113630, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246118

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Previously, the phytochemical constituents of Biebersteinia heterostemon Maxim (BHM) and Arenaria kansuensis Maxim (AKM) were studied and the evaluation of anxiolytic effect based on their extracts was also investigated. The two traditional Tibetan herbs, BHM and AKM, have been widely used in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau for cardiopulmonary disorders and neuropsychiatric diseases. The anxiolytic activities of a number of agents mediated by α2/3-containing GABAA receptors (GABAARs) have been demonstrated through the genetic and pharmacological studies. Flavonoids, such as flavones and flavanols, are a class of ligands that act at GABAARs and exhibit anxiolytic effects in vivo. Here, the flavonoids are the predominant constituents isolated from BHM and AKM. And our purpose is to investigate structure-activity relationships of the flavonoid compounds with binding to BZ-S of GABAAR complexes, and to search for anxiolytic constituents that lack undesirable-effects such as sedation and myorelaxation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The flavonoid constituents were separated and purified through the repeatedly silica gel or/and C18 column chromatography. The affinities of the compounds for BZ-S of GABAARs were detected by the radioreceptor binding assay with bovine cerebellum membranes, in which the different recombinant subunits-containing GABAARs were expressed in HEK 293T cells. The behavior tests, including elevated plus maze, locomotor activity, holeboard, rotarod and horizontal wire, were used to determine and evaluate the anxiolytic, sedative, and myorelaxant effects of these flavonoids. RESULTS: Eleven total flavonoid compounds were obtained from the Tibetan herbs (BHM and AKM). The flavones with 6-and/or 8-OMe possessed the most potent binding affinity to GABAARs, which were based on the result of structure-activity relationships analysis. Demethoxysudachitin (DMS, Ki = 0.59 µM), a flavone that binds to recombinant α1-3/5 subunit-containing GABAARs, was isolated from BHM, and exhibited high anxiolytic activity, without inducing sedation and myorelaxation. Moreover, the anxiolytic effect of DMS was antagonized by flumazenil, suggesting that a mode of action was mediated via the BZ-S of GABAARs. CONCLUSIONS: This present study indicated that the flavones, especially DMS, are novel GABAAR ligands and therapeutic potential candidates for anxiety.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Arenaria (Planta) , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Geraniaceae , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Receptores de GABA-A/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ansiolíticos/química , Ansiolíticos/isolamento & purificação , Ansiolíticos/toxicidade , Arenaria (Planta)/química , Arenaria (Planta)/toxicidade , Comportamento Exploratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/toxicidade , Geraniaceae/química , Geraniaceae/toxicidade , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Ligantes , Medicina Tradicional Tibetana , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estrutura Molecular , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Ligação Proteica , Ratos , Receptores de GABA-A/genética , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
4.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(1): 51-60, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, MOSAICO - Saúde integrativa | ID: biblio-1145969

RESUMO

El extracto de cloroformo (CE) y las fracciones obtenidas de las raíces de Aldama arenaria se evaluaron para determinar su actividad antiproliferativa in vitro contra 10 líneas celulares tumorales humanas [leucemia (K-562), mama (MCF-7), ovario que expresa un fenotipo resistente a múltiples fármacos (NCI/ADR-RES), melanoma (UACC-62), pulmón (NCI-H460), próstata (PC-3), colon (HT29), ovario (OVCAR-3), glioma (U251) y riñón (786-0)]. CE presentó actividad antiproliferativa débil a moderada (log GI50 medio 1.07), mientras que las fracciones 3 y 4, enriquecidas con diterpenos de tipo pimarane [ent-pimara-8 (14), ácido 15-dien-19-oico y ent-8(14),15-pimaradien-3ß-ol], presentaron actividad moderada a potente para la mayoría de las líneas celulares, con un log GI50 medio de 0.62 y 0.59, respectivamente. Los resultados mostraron una acción antiproliferativa in vitro prometedora de las muestras obtenidas de A. arenaria, con los mejores resultados para NCI/ADR-RES, HT29 y OVCAR-3, y valores de TGI que van desde 5.95 a 28.71 µg.mL-1, demostrando que los compuestos de esta clase pueden ser prototipos potenciales para el descubrimiento de nuevos agentes terapéuticos.


Chloroform extract (CE) and fractions obtained from Aldama arenaria roots were evaluated for their in vitro antiproliferative activity against 10 human tumor cell lines [leukemia (K-562), breast (MCF-7), ovary expressing a multidrug-resistant phenotype (NCI/ADR-RES), melanoma (UACC-62), lung (NCI-H460), prostate (PC-3), colon (HT29), ovary (OVCAR-3), glioma (U251), and kidney (786-0)]. CE presented weak to moderate antiproliferative activity (mean log GI50 1.07), whereas fractions 3 and 4, enriched with pimarane-type diterpenes [ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid and ent-8(14),15-pimaradien-3ß-ol], presented moderate to potent activity for most cell lines, with mean log GI50 of 0.62 and 0.59, respectively. The results showed promising in vitro antiproliferative action of the samples obtained from A. arenaria, with the best results for NCI/ADR-RES, HT29, and OVCAR-3, and TGI values ranging from 5.95 to 28.71 µg.mL-1, demonstrating that compounds of this class may be potential prototypes for the discovery of new therapeutic agents.


Assuntos
Humanos , Arenaria (Planta)/química , Antineoplásicos , Plantas Medicinais , Técnicas In Vitro , Brasil , Extratos Vegetais , Cromatografia , Medicina Tradicional
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 243: 112096, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323300

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The plant Arenaria kansuensis is used in traditional medicine to treat lung inflammation for a long time. However, the anti-pulmonary fibrosis effect and its corresponding bioactive constituents of this plant have not been studied extensively. AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-pulmonary fibrosis effect and its corresponding bioactive constituents of A. kansuensis and its possible mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vivo experiment, the anti-pulmonary fibrosis effects of the fraction (Part1) enriched from ethyl acetate extracts of the whole plant A. kansuensis were evaluated through bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis mice (five groups, n = 10) daily at doses of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg for 15 days. In vitro experiment, the anti-inflammation and reversed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) effect of 12 ß-carboline alkaloids isolated from Part1 were evaluated through lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 inflammatory cell model and TGF-ß1 induced A549 cell model. RESULTS: In this study, a fraction named Part1 extracted from Arenaria kansuensis presented strong anti-pulmonary fibrosis effect at the dose of 150 mg/kg. Vivo experiments showed that the survival rate and body weight of mice significantly increased after Part1 treatment. Part1 could significantly inhibit the initial of inflammation, deposition of collagen and expression of TGF-ß1 and α-SMA, moreover, the expression of E-cadherin was significantly elevated after administration of Part1. All the cure effects of Part1 were in dose dependent manner. A total of 12 ß-carboline alkaloids were identified in Part1 and they all showed suppressive effect on inflammatory cytokines including MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1ß through inhibition of NF-kb/p65 phosphorylation, and that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process was reversed by different compounds in different levels. The expression of indicators of EMT including α-SMA, vimentin and E-cadherin was significantly improved after given different ß-carboline alkaloids. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that antifibrogenic effect of ß-carboline alkaloids was due to inhibiting the initial of inflammation through NF-kb/p65 pathway and reversing the process of EMT.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Anti-Inflamatórios , Arenaria (Planta) , Carbolinas , Extratos Vegetais , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Alcaloides/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Bleomicina , Carbolinas/farmacologia , Carbolinas/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Fibrose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
6.
J Chromatogr Sci ; 57(5): 418-425, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753465

RESUMO

Herbal plants are significant for the reason that they have a great potential in discovering drug precursors. However, how to purify compounds with higher purity from them is a question which needs to be discussed. In present study, an offline 2D reversed-phase (RP) preparative liquid chromatography coupled with solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was successfully developed for the separation of flavonolignan diastereoisomers from Arenaria kansuensis. Based on the analysis of results, the major conclusion that we have drawn from it is a RP-SPE was selected for enriching target flavonolignan sample from A. kansuensis. After that, an ODS preparative column was used for 1D preparation, and the target sample (4.6 g) was divided into five fractions with a recovery of 83.9%. Then, a C18HCE preparative column, a polar-modified RP (polar-copolymerized) type, was used for isolating flavonolignan diastereoisomers in the 2D preparation. By establishing optimal 2D chromatography, hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) columns and normal-phase (NP) columns were tested simultaneously, and the result showed that diastereoisomers are not suitable for HILIC and NP chromatography mode. Our study resulted in a tricin and five analogous derivative flavonolignans with purity >98% were successfully purified from A. kansuensis. This is the initial report of Salcolin C, Salcolin B, Tricin 4'-O-(C-veratroylglycol) ether and 5'-methoxyhydnocarpin D from A. kansuensis. In addition, it tended to be the first time that Tricin 4'-O-(C-veratroylglycol) ether is isolated from natural resource. This method has great potential for efficiently isolating flavonolignan diastereoisomers from A. kansuensis, and it shows a great prospect for the separation of flavonolignans from complex samples.


Assuntos
Arenaria (Planta)/química , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa/métodos , Flavonolignanos/análise , Flavonolignanos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Estereoisomerismo
7.
Phytomedicine ; 50: 1-7, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our previous studies on Asterothamnus centrali-asiaticus Novopokr. (ACN) and Arenaria kansuensis Maxim. (AKM) had led to the isolation of some phytochemical constituents and evaluation of anticonvulsant effect based on their extracts. ACN and AKM have been widely used in traditional Tibetan herbs for neuropsychiatric diseases and cardiopulmonary disorders. PURPOSE: The purpose is to investigate structure-activity relationships of flavonoids isolated from ACN and AKM, for binding to the benzodiazepine site (BZ-S) of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor complex, and to search for anticonvulsant compounds without undesirable effects such as myorelaxation and sedation. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The affinities of these flavonoids for the BZ-S of GABAA receptors were determined by [3H]flunitrazepam binding to mouse cerebellum membranes in vitro. And the anticonvulsant, myorelaxant and sedative effects were determined by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure and electrogenic seizure protection, rotarod test and locomotor activity test, respectively. RESULTS: Fifteen and thirteen flavonoids were isolated from ACN and AKM, respectively. Structure-activity relationships analysis indicated that 6-and/or 8-OMe flavones exhibited the most potent binding affinity to GABAA receptors. Furthermore, 2',4',5,7-tetrahydroxy-5',6-dimethoxyflavone (DMF, IC50 value of 0.10 µM), a flavone isolated from ACN, presented high anticonvulsant activity against chemical-induced seizures and electrogenic seizures, without myorelaxation and sedation. CONCLUSION: This study suggested that these flavones, especially DMF, are new BZ receptor ligands and prospective therapeutic candidates for seizures.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Arenaria (Planta)/química , Asteraceae/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de GABA-A/farmacologia , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anticonvulsivantes/isolamento & purificação , China , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flunitrazepam , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Tibetana , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estrutura Molecular , Pentilenotetrazol/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente
8.
Phytomedicine ; 38: 175-182, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29425650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In previous investigation, we have identified antioxidative effects of water-soluble ethanolic extracts (named as AKE) from Arenaria kansuensis and inferred that these extracts or their constituents may also have antihypoxic activity. A. kansuensis has been widely used in traditional Tibetan medicine for altitude sickness (AS) and has been known as the herb of anti-inflammatory and hypoxia resistance for a long time. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate protective effects of AKE and its major constituents against hypoxia-induced lethality in mice and RSC96 cells. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Hypoxia-induced lethality in mice was investigated by 3 experimental animal models of hypoxia. Meanwhile, we established a RSC96 cell model of hypoxia which applied to screen and assess the anti-hypoxic activity of compounds isolated from A. kansuensis. RESULTS: Results indicated that AKE dose-dependently prolonged survival time of hypoxia induced lethality in mice compared to vehicle group and exhibited significantly anti-hypoxic effect. AKE also enhanced the number of red blood cells (RBC) and the concentration of hemoglobin (HB). 8 compounds were bio-guided separated and purified from AKE based on the animal model and cell model of hypoxia. Among which pyrocatechol (C16) and tricin 7-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (C13) were confirmed to express better protective effects on cell damage induced by hypoxia, suggesting that these two compounds are major active constituents of AKE for anti-hypoxia. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that pyrocatechol and tricin 7-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside could be therapeutic candidates for treatment of AS. It is the first time to find the major active constituents of AKE for anti-hypoxia. Meanwhile, a RSC96 cell model of hypoxia was established to screen anti-hypoxic activity of compounds for the first time.


Assuntos
Arenaria (Planta)/química , Hipóxia/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Catecóis/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Flavonas/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Hipóxia/mortalidade , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química
9.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci ; 1068-1069: 282-288, 2017 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29127058

RESUMO

Traditional Chinese medicine is important for discovery of drug precursors. However, information about trace chemical composition of them is very limited due to the lack of appropriate enrichment and chromatographic purification methods In our work, A. kansuensis was taken as an example, a novel two-dimensional reversed-phase/hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with UniElut C18AEX solid-phase extraction re-enrichment method based on anti-inflammatory bioactivity-guided assay was developed for gathering and purifying trace ß-carboline alkaloids with high purity from the ethyl acetate extract of A. kansuensis. Extraction with ethyl acetate as the first enrichment method, then, a UniElut C18AEX column was employed to re-enrich trace fraction which was hardly detected by diode array detector during high performance liquid chromatography analysis, eighteen grams of UniElut C18AEX was used as sorbent material to pack a 60mL pipette tip for the extraction of ß-carboline alkaloids from 100mL of ethyl acetate sample. The whole extraction process was finished in 10min, and the volume of eluent used was only 120mL. The enriching fraction (100mg) was used for the following two-dimensional purification. First-dimensional preparation was carried on a RP-Megress-C18 prep column, and four anti-inflammatory fractions were obtained from the 100mg re-enriching sample with a recovery of 66.9%. A HILIC-XAmide prep column was selected for the second dimensional preparation. Finally, two pair of analogue ß-carboline alkaloids and one other ß-carboline alkaloid were purified from A. kansuensis. The purity of the isolated compounds was ≫>98%, which indicated that the method was efficient to re-enrich and manufacture single trace ß-carboline alkaloids with high purity from A. kansuensis. Additionally, this method showed great potential to serve as a good example for the purification and enrichment of analogue structure anti-inflammation carboline alkaloids from other plant materials.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/análise , Arenaria (Planta)/química , Carbolinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Alcaloides/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Carbolinas/química
10.
J Sep Sci ; 40(14): 2895-2905, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28493617

RESUMO

Bioactive equivalent combinatorial components play a critical role in herbal medicines. However, how to discover and enrich them efficiently is a question for herbal pharmaceuticals researchers. In our work, a novel two-dimensional reversed-phase/hydrophilic interaction high-performance liquid chromatography method was established to perform real-time components trapping and combining for preparation and isolation of coeluting components. Arenaria kansuensis was taken as an example, and solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid-liquid extraction as a simple and efficient method for enriching trace components, reversed phase column coupled with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography XAmide column as two-dimensional chromatography technology for isolation and preparation of coeluting constituents, enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay as bio-guided assay, and anti-inflammatory bioactivity evaluation for bioactive constituents. A combination of 12 ß-carboline alkaloids was identified as anti-inflammatory bioactive equivalent combinatorial components from A. kansuensis, which accounts for 1.9% w/w of original A. kansuensis. This work answers the key question of which are real anti-inflammatory components from A. kansuensis and provides a fast and efficient approach for discovering and enriching trace ß-carboline alkaloids from herbal medicines for the first time. More importantly, the discovery of bioactive equivalent combinatorial components could improve the quality control of herbal products and inspire a herbal medicine based on combinatorial therapeutics.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Arenaria (Planta)/química , Carbolinas/isolamento & purificação , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Plantas Medicinais/química , Extração em Fase Sólida
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28152453

RESUMO

Traditional Tibetan medicine is important for discovery of drug precursors. However, information about the chemical composition of traditional Tibetan medicine is very limited due to the lack of appropriate chromatographic purification methods. In the present work, A. kansuensis was taken as an example and a novel two-dimensional reversed-phase/hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography(HILIC) method based on on-line HPLC-DPPH bioactivity-guided assay was developed for the purification of analogue antioxidant compounds with high purity from the extract of A. kansuensis. Based on the separation results of many different chromatographic stationary phases, the first-dimensional (1D) preparation was carried on a RP-C18HCE prep column, and 2 antioxidant fractions were obtained from the 800mg crude sample with a recovery of 56.7%. A HILIC-XAmide prep column was selected for the second-dimensional (2D) preparation. Finally, a novel antioxidant ß-carboline Alkaloids (Glusodichotomine AK) and 4 known compounds (Tricin, Homoeriodictyol, Luteolin, Glucodichotomine B) were purified from A. kansuensis. The purity of the compounds isolated from the crude extract was >98%, which indicated that the method built in this work was efficient to manufacture single analogue antioxidant compounds of high purity from the extract of A. kansuensis. Additionally, this method showed great potential in the preparation of analogue structure antioxidant compounds and can serve as a good example for the purification of analogue structure antioxidant carboline alkaloids and flavonoids from other plant materials.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Arenaria (Planta)/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Alcaloides/análise , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Picratos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química
12.
Food Funct ; 5(8): 1848-55, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24933464

RESUMO

The bioactivity (antioxidant and cytotoxic activities) of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Arenaria montana L., a plant commonly used in Portuguese folk medicine, was evaluated and compared. Furthermore, the phytochemical composition was determined based on hydrophilic (sugars, organic acids and phenolic compounds) and lipophilic (fatty acids and tocopherols) compounds, in order to valorize this plant material as a functional food/nutraceutical. Fructose, oxalic acid, methyl-luteolin 2''-O-feruloylhexosyl-C-hexoside, α-tocopherol, and linoleic acid were the main individual compounds found in A. montana. In general, the aqueous extract showed higher antioxidant and cytotoxic activities than the methanolic extract; the latter showed activity only against HeLa and HepG2 cell lines. Both aqueous and methanolic extracts showed some hepatotoxicity but at higher doses than the ones active for tumor cell lines. Moreover, the aqueous extract of A. montana may be used as a functional food or nutraceutical due to the high antioxidant and cytotoxic activities, and due to the presence of bioactive compounds. As far as we know, this is the first report on the phytochemical composition and bioactivity of A. montana.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Arenaria (Planta)/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células HeLa , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Fenóis/farmacologia , Tocoferóis/farmacologia
13.
Ann Bot ; 112(7): 1409-20, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23962409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Understanding the factors that shape variation in genetic diversity across the geographic ranges of species is an important challenge in the effort to conserve evolutionary processes sustaining biodiversity. The historical influences leading to a central-marginal organization of genetic diversity have been explored for species whose range is known to have expanded from refugia after glacial events. However, this question has rarely been addressed for Mediterranean endemic plants of azonal habitats such as rocky slopes or screes. In this context, this comprehensive study examined molecular and field data from Arenaria provincialis (Caryophyllaceae), a narrow endemic plant of south-eastern France. METHODS: Across the whole geographic range, an investigation was made of whether high levels of abundance and genetic diversity (estimated from amplified fragment length polymorphism markers) are centrally distributed, to evaluate the relevance of the central-marginal hypothesis. Phylogeographic patterns inferred from chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) were used, applying Bayesian methods to test the influence of past biogeographic events. Multivariate analysis combining phylogeographic and ecological data was used to reveal the historical and ecological distinctiveness of populations. KEY RESULTS: Despite the narrow distribution of A. provincialis, a high level of nucleotide variation is found within cpDNA loci, supporting its persistence throughout the Pleistocene period. The area characterized by the highest genetic diversity is centrally located. Structured phylogeography and Bayesian factor analysis supported the hypothesis that the central area of the distribution was the source of both westward and eastward migrations, probably during arid periods of the Pleistocene, and more recently was a crossroads of backward migrations. By contrast, the two areas located today at the range limits are younger, have reduced genetic diversity and are marginal in the ecological gradients. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights a case of strong population distinctiveness within a narrow range. Phylogeography sheds light on the historical role of the areas centrally situated in the distribution. The current range size and abundance patterns are not sufficient to predict the organization of genetic diversity.


Assuntos
Arenaria (Planta)/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Filogeografia , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , Sequência de Bases , DNA de Cloroplastos/genética , França , Haplótipos/genética , Região do Mediterrâneo , Filogenia
14.
Planta Med ; 79(8): 687-92, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23670630

RESUMO

Five new compounds, including one new xanthone, 1-hydroxy-5-methoxyxanthone 6-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (1), one new lignan, 3-(ß-D-glucopyranosyloxymethyl)-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-5-(3-acetoxypropyl)-7-methoxy-(2R,3S)-dihydrobenzofuran (2), and three new γ-pyrones, japonicumone A 4'-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (3), japonicumone B 3'-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (4), and japonicumone B 4'-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (5), together with eight known compounds (6-13) were isolated from the whole plants of Arenaria serpyllifolia. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis (UV, IR, HRESIMS, 1D- and 2D-NMR, and CD) as well as chemical methods. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Compounds 1-5, sacranoside A (9), and pedunculoside (13) showed potential nitric oxide inhibitory activities with IC50 values ranging from 14.92 µM to 52.23 µM.


Assuntos
Arenaria (Planta)/química , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Extratos Vegetais/química , Análise Espectral
15.
PLoS One ; 8(1): e50934, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23349668

RESUMO

Populations of the Large-flowered Sandwort (Arenaria grandiflora L.) in the Fontainebleau forest (France) have declined rapidly during the last century. Despite the initiation of a protection program in 1991, less than twenty individuals remained by the late 1990s. The low fitness of these last plants, which is likely associated with genetic disorders and inbreeding depression, highlighted the need for the introduction of non-local genetic material to increase genetic diversity and thus restore Fontainebleau populations. Consequently, A. grandiflora was introduced at three distant sites in the Fontainebleau forest in 1999. Each of these populations was composed of an identical mix of individuals of both local and non-local origin that were obtained through in vitro multiplication. After establishment, the population status (number of individuals, diameter of the plants, and number of flowers) of the introduced populations was monitored. At present, two populations (one of which is much larger than the other) persist, while the third one became extinct in 2004. Analyses of the ecological parameters of the introduction sites indicated that differences in soil pH and moisture might have contributed to the differences in population dynamics. This introduction plan and its outcome attracted interest of local community, with those who supported the plan and regarded its 10-year result as a biological success (i.e., persistent populations were created), but also those who expressed reservations or disapproval of the plan and its outcome. To understand this controversy, a sociological study involving 27 semi-structured interviews was carried out. From these interviews emerged three areas of controversy: alteration of the identity of the plant, alteration of the identity of its territory, and the biological and ethical consequences of the techniques used for the experimental conservation.


Assuntos
Arenaria (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Fenômenos Ecológicos e Ambientais , Atitude , Técnicas de Cultura , Dinâmica Populacional , Sociologia , Fatores de Tempo , Árvores
16.
Phytochemistry ; 72(6): 503-7, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21371724

RESUMO

Three oleanane-type saponins, 3-O-ß-d-glucopyranosylechinocystic acid 28-O-ß-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→4)-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl ester (1), 3-O-ß-d-glucopyranosylechinocystic acid 28-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)-ß-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→4)-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl ester (2), 3-O-ß-d-glucopyranosylcaulophyllogenin 28-O-ß-d-apiofuranosyl-(1→3)-ß-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→4)-[ß-d-apiofuranosyl-(1→3)]-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl ester (3) were isolated from the whole plant of Arenaria montana. Their unusual structures for the Caryophyllaceae family were established mainly by 2D NMR techniques and mass spectrometry.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Arenaria (Planta)/química , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Saponinas/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Estrutura Molecular , Ácido Oleanólico/química , Ácido Oleanólico/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Saponinas/farmacologia , Estereoisomerismo
17.
Mol Ecol ; 20(2): 190-2, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21265053

RESUMO

A long standing and at times fervid debate in biogeography revolves around the question whether arctic and high alpine organisms survived Pleistocene ice ages on small island-like areas protruding above the ice-sheet, socalled nunataks, or whether they did so in peripheral nonglaciated refugial areas. A common picture emerging from a plethora of molecular phylogeographic studies in the last decade is that both in the Arctic and in temperate mountain ranges such as the European Alps nunatak survival needs to be only rarely invoked to explain observed genetic patterns (for a rare example see Stehlik et al. 2002). As two studies in this issue show, depreciation of the nunatak hypothesis is, however, not warranted. In this issue of Molecular Ecology Westergaard et al. (2011) investigate genetic patterns of two arctic-alpine plant species distributed on both sides of the Atlantic exclusively in areas that were mostly covered by ice-sheets during Pleistocene glacial advances. In both species, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) data identified divergent and partly genetically diverse groups east and west of the Atlantic. This suggests, for the first time in Arctic plants, in situ survival on nunataks. In an entirely different geographic setting and on a different geographic scale, Lohse et al. (2011, this issue) study the colonization of high alpine areas in the Orobian Alps, situated within and adjacent to a prominent peripheral refugial area (massif de refuge) in the Southern Alps of northern Italy, by dispersal-limited carabid ground beetles. Using explicit hypothesis testing and inference of ancestral locations in a Bayesian framework, stepwise colonization from two separate southern refugia is found to shape the genetic pattern of these beetles, but at the northern edge, populations survived at least parts of the last glaciation in situ on nunataks.


Assuntos
Clima Frio , Ecossistema , Camada de Gelo , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Arenaria (Planta) , Caryophyllaceae , Besouros , Fenômenos Genéticos , Variação Genética , Itália , Filogeografia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
18.
Mol Ecol ; 20(2): 376-93, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21156004

RESUMO

Biogeographers claimed for more than a century that arctic plants survived glaciations in ice-free refugia within the limits of the North European ice sheets. Molecular studies have, however, provided overwhelming support for postglacial immigration into northern Europe, even from the west across the Atlantic. For the first time we can here present molecular evidence strongly favouring in situ glacial persistence of two species, the rare arctic-alpine pioneer species Sagina caespitosa and Arenaria humifusa. Both belong to the 'west-arctic element' of amphi-Atlantic disjuncts, having their few and only European occurrences well within the limits of the last glaciation. Sequencing of non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA revealed only limited variation. However, two very distinct and partly diverse genetic groups, one East and one West Atlantic, were detected in each species based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), excluding postglacial dispersal from North America as explanation for their European occurrences. Patterns of genetic diversity and distinctiveness indicate that glacial populations existed in East Greenland and/or Svalbard (A. humifusa) and in southern Scandinavia (S. caespitosa). Despite their presumed lack of long-distance dispersal adaptations, intermixed populations in several regions indicate postglacial contact zones. Both species are declining in Nordic countries, probably due to climate change-induced habitat loss. Little or no current connectivity between their highly fragmented and partly distinct populations call for conservation of several populations in each geographic region.


Assuntos
Arenaria (Planta)/genética , Arenaria (Planta)/fisiologia , Caryophyllaceae/genética , Caryophyllaceae/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Camada de Gelo , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , Regiões Árticas , Clima Frio , DNA de Cloroplastos/genética , Europa (Continente) , Variação Genética , Filogeografia , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Estresse Fisiológico
19.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; 9(6-8): 569-74, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17885847

RESUMO

Two new cyclopeptides, arenariphilin G (1) and arenariphilin H (2), were isolated from the whole plants of Arenaria oreophila Hook. Their structures were determined as cyclo(Pro-Ile-Ser(2)-Gly-Ala(1)-Ala(2)-Val-Ser(1)) (1) and cyclo(Pro-Gly- Phe-Ser-Leu) (2), respectively, by detailed spectroscopic analysis.


Assuntos
Arenaria (Planta)/química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Peptídeos Cíclicos/química , Espectrometria de Massas de Bombardeamento Rápido de Átomos , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 32(10): 918-20, 2007 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17655145

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the chemical constituents of Arenaria kansuensis. METHOD: Column chromatographic techniques were applied to isolated constituents. A combination of physico-chemical properties and spectroscopic analysis were used to identify structures of constituents. RESULT: Five compounds were obtained and elucidated as tricin (1), tricin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), tricin 4'-O-beta-guaiacylglyceryl ether (3), isoscoparin (4) and isovitexin (5). CONCLUSION: Compound 2, 3 and 5 were isolated from A. kansuensis for the first time, compound 3 was obtained from the family Caryophyllaceae for the first time.


Assuntos
Apigenina/isolamento & purificação , Arenaria (Planta)/química , Flavonas/isolamento & purificação , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais/química , Apigenina/química , Flavonas/química , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Glucosídeos/química , Tibet
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