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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(20): 5194-5200, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738419

RESUMO

Arisaematis Rhizoma included in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia is the dried tuber of Arisaema erubescens, A. heterophyllum or A. amurense in the family Araceae. This paper mainly focuses on the classification and summary of the chemical components and structures reported in recent years in the above three varieties of this medicinal material included in the pharmacopoeia, including alkaloids, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, lignans and benzene ring derivatives, steroids and terpenes, glycosides and esters, etc. Then we reviewed the reported biological activities of these chemical components, including cytotoxicity, antitumor activity, antibacterial activity, nematicidal activity, etc. Although there have been reports on the review of the chemical composition of the medicinal material, the structure and classification of the chemical composition in these reviews are not clear enough. This review provides a basis for the later study of the chemical composition of this medicinal material, especially the identification of the chemical structures. And most of the current reviews on the biological activity of this medicinal material are mainly for the crude extract. This paper mainly summarized the biological activity of related monomer compounds and expected to lay a foundation for the development of novel high-efficiency and low-toxicity active leading compounds from Arisaematis Rhizoma.


Assuntos
Arisaema , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Flavonoides , Glicosídeos , Rizoma
2.
Acta Virol ; 65(1): 97-100, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827227

RESUMO

Arisaema heterophyllum Blume is a valuable medicinal plant in the Araceae family. The dried tuber of A. heterophyllum is used in the traditional Chinese medicine, Rhizoma Arisaematis, which is used to treat convulsions, inflammation and cancer. In 2017, typical mosaic virus-like symptoms were observed in A. heterophyllum in Jilin province, China. To further identify the pathogens, we conducted RT-PCR using virus- and genus-specific primers to amplify partial genome sequences of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tobamovirus and Potyvirus, respectively. The CMV primers showed specific amplification, but the Tobamovirus and Potyvirus primers did not. We further cloned and sequenced the 2b, MP and CP genes of the CMV-Ah isolate. Phylogenetic analysis showed the CMV-Ah isolate belonged to subgroup IB. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CMV infecting A. heterophyllum in China. Keywords: Cucumber mosaic virus; Arisaema heterophyllum Blume; subgroup IB; phylogenetic analysis.


Assuntos
Arisaema , Cucumovirus , Potyvirus , China , Cucumovirus/genética , Filogenia , Potyvirus/genética
4.
Ann Bot ; 127(5): 633-644, 2021 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33263745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Interspecific difference in pollinators (pollinator isolation) is important for reproductive isolation in flowering plants. Species-specific pollination by fungus gnats has been discovered in several plant taxa, suggesting that they can contribute to reproductive isolation. Nevertheless, their contribution has not been studied in detail, partly because they are too small for field observations during flower visitation. To quantify their flower visitation, we used the genus Arisaema (Araceae) because the pitcher-like spathe of Arisaema can trap all floral visitors. METHODS: We evaluated floral visitor assemblage in an altitudinal gradient including five Arisaema species. We also examined interspecific differences in altitudinal distribution (geographic isolation) and flowering phenology (phenological isolation). To exclude the effect of interspecific differences in altitudinal distribution on floral visitor assemblage, we established ten experimental plots including the five Arisaema species in high- and low-altitude areas and collected floral visitors. We also collected floral visitors in three additional sites. Finally, we estimated the strength and contribution of these three reproductive barriers using a unified formula for reproductive isolation. KEY RESULTS: Each Arisaema species selectively attracted different fungus gnats in the altitudinal gradient, experimental plots and additional sites. Altitudinal distribution and flowering phenology differed among the five Arisaema species, whereas the strength of geographic and phenological isolations were distinctly weaker than those in pollinator isolation. Nevertheless, the absolute contribution of pollinator isolation to total reproductive isolation was weaker than geographic and phenological isolations, because pollinator isolation functions after the two early-acting barriers in plant life history. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that selective pollination by fungus gnats potentially contributes to reproductive isolation. Since geographic and phenological isolations can be disrupted by habitat disturbance and interannual climate change, the strong and stable pollinator isolation might compensate for the weakened early-acting barriers as an alternative reproductive isolation among the five Arisaema species.


Assuntos
Arisaema , Polinização , Flores , Fungos , Isolamento Reprodutivo
6.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 39(4): 1404-1416, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072856

RESUMO

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection affects millions of population worldwide whose incidence is increasing year by year and currently, no specific drugs are available for its treatment. However, vaccines are available for its prevention but not effective against all the clinical isolates. Thus, there is an urgent need for new chemical entities or exploration of existing molecules for its treatment. In the current study, we have undertaken virtual ligand screening (VLS) method to screen out selected phytoconstituents of Genus Arisaema against various targets (NS5, NS3 helicase, and NS2B-NS3 protease) of JEVs which exhibits vital role in replication, infection cycle and host interaction by using molecular docking followed by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Screened natural chemical entities displayed good binding affinity as well as optimum stability toward NS5 and NS3 helicase. Further, the drug likeliness evaluated by Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion and Toxicity (ADMET) analysis was found to be in the acceptable range. In conclusion, these natural chemical entities could be considered as promising candidates for the development of anti-JEV drugs. However, further investigation is required to confirm their exact role in JEV infection through in vitro and in vivo experiments.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Assuntos
Arisaema , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Antivirais/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais
7.
Comb Chem High Throughput Screen ; 23(7): 624-648, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Arisaema (Araceae) is a genus of approximately 180 perennial herbs widely distributed in the evergreen and deciduous forests. This genus (Arisaema) has been used as a medicinal agent since ancient times. Experimental investigations have shown a promising positive correlation with its folklore claim and this encourages us to report updated medicinal review (genus Arisaema) for future research. OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to summarize the ethnobotany, folklore uses, chemistry and biological activities. CONCLUSION: The comprehensive literature on genus Arisaema indicates the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids, and glycosphingolipids as the principal chemical constituents. Additionally, phytosterols, alkaloids, carboline derivatives and miscellaneous compounds were documented in plants of genus Arisaema. Biological investigations led to the credentials of antioxidant, anticancer, insecticidal, antimicrobial, anthelmintic and hepatoprotective activities. Following, several plant species are promising candidates for the treatment of cancer, parasitic diseases and microbial infection complications. Though, a lot of facets of this genus like phytoconstituents identification, mechanistic profile, adverse effects and clinical studies are still quite limited. Thus, this systematic review may act as a powerful tool in future studies for promoting health benefits against various health hazards.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Arisaema/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antiparasitários/química , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais
8.
Planta Med ; 86(4): 267-275, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968380

RESUMO

Infections caused by HSV-2 are a public health concern worldwide, and there is still a great demand for the discovery of novel anti-herpes virus agents effective against strains resistant to current antiviral agents. In this context, medicinal plants represent an alternative source of active compounds for developing efficient antiviral therapies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiviral activity of Arisaema tortuosum, a plant used in the traditional medicine of India. A chloroform soluble fraction of the leaves exhibited anti-HSV-2 activity with a selectivity index of 758. The extract was also active against acyclovir-resistant HSV-2 and HSV-1. The mechanism of action of the extract was investigated evidencing inhibition of both early and late events of the HSV-2 replicative cycle. A HPLC-PDA-MS/MS analysis showed the presence of flavonoids including apigenin and luteolin in the chloroform extract (CE). Apigenin and luteolin showed a high inhibitory activity with EC50 values of 0.05 and 0.41 µg/mL, respectively. Both compounds exhibited antiviral activity when added up to 6 h post infection and were able to reduce the viral progeny production. In addition, apigenin interfered with cell-to-cell virus spread.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Arisaema , Herpes Simples , Herpesvirus Humano 2 , Índia , Extratos Vegetais , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Células Vero
9.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(2): 534-542, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is caused by the spread of dengue virus by Aedes mosquito vectors. Currently, the most effective way to control dengue is by preventing mosquitoes from spreading the disease. Arisaema fargesii is a Chinese herbal medicine commonly used to repel mosquitoes. In our laboratory, anti-mosquito chemical components were extracted from A. fargesii, and the effects of these substances on mosquito larvae were examined. RESULTS: In total, 48 compounds corresponding to 98.79% of the total oil were identified and the major compounds identified were linalool (12.38%), carvacrol (8.27%), eugenol (5.21%), and ß-selinene (5.36%). Essential oil had larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus with LC50 values of 40.49 mg/L, 47.01 mg/L, respectively. The LC50 values of carvacrol, eugenol, linalool and ß-selinene were 32.78, 56.34, 70.56, 136.03 mg/L against Ae. aegypti larvae, and 39.08, 52.07, 82.34, 151.74 mg/L, respectively, against Ae. albopictus larvae. Biochemical assays of Aedes larvae showed that the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), monooxygenases (MO), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), p-Nitrophenyl acetate (p-NPA) esterase, α-esterase and ß-esterase were significantly affected by carvacrol. Essential oil induced the detoxification mechanism for the action of GST and MO. CONCLUSION: The result indicates that essential oil of A. fargesii and its isolated constituent have good inhibitory effects on the defense enzymes of Aedes mosquito larvae. A. fargesii essential oil can be used to control Aedes mosquito larvae to prevent the spread of dengue fever. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Aedes , Arisaema , Animais , Inseticidas , Larva , Mosquitos Vetores , Óleos Voláteis
10.
Am Nat ; 195(1): 56-69, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868539

RESUMO

Environmental conditions impose restrictions and costs on reproduction. Multiple reproductive options exist when increased reproductive costs drive plant populations toward alternative reproductive strategies. Using 4 years of demographic data across a deer impact gradient, where deer alter the abiotic environment, we parameterize a size-dependent integral projection model for a sexually labile and unpalatable forest perennial to investigate the demographic processes driving differentiation in the operational sex ratio (OSR) of local populations. In addition to a relative increase in asexual reproduction, our results illustrate that nontrophic indirect effects by overabundant deer on this perennial result in delayed female sex expression to unsustainably large plant sizes and lead to more pronounced plant shrinkage following female sex expression, effectively increasing the cost of reproduction. Among plants of reproductive age, increased deer impact decreases the size-dependent probability of flowering and reduces reproductive consistency over time. This pattern in sex expression skews populations toward female-biased OSRs at low deer impact sites and male-biased OSRs at intermediate and high deer impact sites. While this shift toward a male-biased OSR may ameliorate pollen limitation, it also decreases the effective population size when coupled with increased asexual reproduction. The divergence of reproductive strategies and reduced lifetime fitness in response to indirect deer impacts illustrate the persistent long-term effects of overabundant herbivores on unpalatable understory perennials.


Assuntos
Arisaema/fisiologia , Cervos/fisiologia , Cadeia Alimentar , Herbivoria , Animais , Pennsylvania , Dinâmica Populacional , Reprodução , Razão de Masculinidade
11.
Am J Bot ; 106(12): 1612-1621, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729010

RESUMO

PREMISE: The genus Arisaema (Araceae) has rapidly diversified in Japan, and multiple species often coexist in the field. Although Japanese Arisaema species hybridize from artificial crossing, hybrid individuals are rare in mixed populations; suggesting the presence of effective pre-pollination barriers. We examined the following reproductive barriers between A. sikokianum and A. tosaense: habitat, phenology, and pollinator isolations. METHODS: Habitat isolation was examined by interspecific comparisons of microhabitat conditions at a mixed site and of altitude at the sampling site of herbarium specimens. Phenological isolation was evaluated by comparing seasonal transition in apparent spathe condition and frequency of insect visitation. Pollinator isolation was examined by comparing floral visitor assemblages between the two Arisaema species. To avoid overestimation of pollinator isolation due to seasonal changes in insect assemblages, we also compared visitor assemblages between natural and late-flowering A. sikokianum, where the latter was experimentally introduced and blooming with a natural A. tosaense population. RESULTS: Microhabitat conditions and sampling elevations of herbarium specimens overlapped between the two Arisaema species. At the population level, A. sikokianum and A. tosaense flowered for 39 and 52 days, respectively, with 13 days overlap. Insect visitation in A. sikokianum decreased before the seasonal overlap. Floral visitor assemblages differed between the two Arisaema species, while the difference between natural and late-flowering A. sikokianum was less distinct. CONCLUSIONS: Phenological and pollinator isolation contribute to reproductive isolation between the two Arisaema species and should enable the two species to coexist in this area.


Assuntos
Arisaema , Polinização , Animais , Flores , Japão , Simpatria
12.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 256, 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arisaema jacquemontii is traditionally used in treatment of different diseases. In this study, phytochemical, in vitro biological and chemo-preventive screening of A. jacquemontii was carried out to explore its pharmacological potential. METHODS: The dried tuber of A. jacquemontii was extracted in 11 organic solvent mixture of different polarity. The extracts were screened for phytochemical assays (phenolics and flavonoids), antioxidants potential (free radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity, reducing power), biological activities (antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, antileishmanial, protein kinase inhibition), and chemopreventive activities using different cell lines through standard protocols. RESULTS: Significant amount phenolic contents were determined in EtOH and MeOH extracts (210.3 ± 3.05 and 193.2 ± 3.15 µg GAE/mg, respectively). Maximum flavonoid content was determined in MeOH extract (22.4 ± 4.04 µg QE/mg). Noteworthy, DPPH scavenging activity was also recorded for MeOH extract (87.66%) followed by MeOH+EtOAc extract (85.11%). Considerable antioxidant capacity (7.8 ± 0.12 µg AAE/mg) and reducing power (3.1 ± 0.15 µg AAE/mg) was observed in extract of MeOH. The LC50 against brine shrimp and leishmanial parasite was found 9.01 and 12.87 µg/mL for n-Hex and CHCl3 extracts, respectively. The highest zone of inhibition against Streptomyces hyphae formation (12.5 ± 1.77 mm) by n-Hex extract. Growth zone of inhibition 13.8 ± 1.08 mm was recorded for EtOAc and MeOH extracts, respectively against Micrococcus luteus while 10.0 ± 0.11 mm for MeOH extract against Aspergillus flavus. In-vitro cytotoxic assay showed that n-Hex extract had higher cytotoxicity against DU-145 prostate cancer and HL-60 cancer cell lines. NF-kB and MTP potential showed 34.01 and 44.87 µg/mL for n-Hex and CHCl3 extracts, respectively in chemo-preventive potential. CONCLUSION: The study concludes that Arisaema jacquemontii bears significant phytochemical activity and pharmacological activities, this plant can be further explored for isolation of active component against a number of aliments.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Arisaema/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Artemia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tubérculos/química
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(9): 1799-1807, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342705

RESUMO

Chalcone synthase( CHS) and chalcone isomerase( CHI) are key enzymes in the biosynthesis pathway of flavonoids. In this study,unigenes for CHS and CHI were screened from the transcriptome database of Arisaema heterophyllum. The open reading frame( ORFs) of chalcone synthase( Ah CHS) and chalcone isomerase( Ah CHI) were cloned from the plant by RT-PCR. The physicochemical properties,expression and structure characteristics of the encoded proteins Ah CHS and Ah CHI were analyzed. The ORFs of Ah CHS and Ah CHI were 1 176,630 bp in length and encoded 392,209 amino acids,respectively. Ah CHS functioned as a symmetric homodimer. The N-terminal helix of one monomer entwined with the corresponding helix of another monomer. Each CHS monomer consisted of two structural domains. In particular,four conserved residues define the active site. The tertiary structure of Ah CHI revealed a novel open-faced ß-sandwich fold. A large ß-sheet( ß4-ß11) and a layer of α-helices( α1-α7) comprised the core structure. The residues spanning ß4,ß5,α4,and α6 in the three-dimensional structure were conserved among CHIs from different species. Notably,these structural elements formed the active site on the protein surface,and the topology of the active-site cleft defined the stereochemistry of the cyclization reaction. The homology comparison showed that Ah CHS had the highest similarity to the CHS of Anthurium andraeanum,while Ah CHI had the highest similarity to the CHI of Paeonia delavayi. This study provided the basis for the functional study of Ah CHS and Ah CHI and the further study on plant flavonoid biosynthesis pathway.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/genética , Arisaema/enzimologia , Liases Intramoleculares/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Aciltransferases/química , Arisaema/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Liases Intramoleculares/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química
14.
BMC Mol Biol ; 20(1): 15, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lectins have come a long way from being identified as proteins that agglutinate cells to promising therapeutic agents in modern medicine. Through their specific binding property, they have proven to be anti-cancer, anti-insect, anti-viral agents without affecting the non-target cells. The Arisaema tortuosum lectin (ATL) is a known anti-insect and anti-cancer candidate, also has interesting physical properties. In the present work, its carbohydrate binding behavior is investigated in detail, along with its anti-proliferative property. RESULTS: The microcalorimetry of ATL with a complex glycoprotein asialofetuin demonstrated trivalency contributed by multiple binding sites and enthalpically driven spontaneous association. The complex sugar specificity of ATL towards multiple sugars was also demonstrated in glycan array analysis in which the trimannosyl pentasaccharide core N-glycan [Manα1-6(Manα1-3)Manß1-4GlcNAcß1-4GlcNAcß] was the highest binding motif. The high binding glycans for ATL were high mannans, complex N-glycans, core fucosylated N-glycans and glycans with terminal lactosamine units attached to pentasaccharide core. ATL induced cell death in IMR-32 cells was observed as time dependent loss in cell number, formation of apoptotic bodies and DNA damage. As a first report of molecular cloning of ATL, the in silico analysis of its cDNA revealed ATL to be a ß-sheet rich heterotetramer. A homology model of ATL showed beta prism architecture in each monomer with 85% residues in favoured region of Ramachandran plot. CONCLUSIONS: Detailed exploration of carbohydrate binding behavior indicated ATL specificity towards complex glycans, while no binding to simple sugars, including mannose. Sequence analysis of ATL cDNA revealed that during the tandem evolutionary events, domain duplication and mutations lead to the loss of mannose specificity, acquiring of new sugar specificity towards complex sugars. It also resulted in the formation of a two-domain single chain polypeptide with both domains having different binding sites due to mutations within the consensus carbohydrate recognition sites [QXDXNXVXY]. This unique sugar specificity can account for its significant biological properties. Overall finding of present work signifies anti-cancer, anti-insect and anti-viral potential of ATL making it an interesting molecule for future research and/or theragnostic applications.


Assuntos
Arisaema/metabolismo , Lectinas de Plantas/química , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Polissacarídeos/química , Especificidade por Substrato
15.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 193: 31-38, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30802773

RESUMO

Metal nanoparticles, synthesized using Phyto-constituents are the most economically and environmentally benign materials ever. Biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from three fractions of Arisaema flavum tuber extract were synthesized and characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD (X-rays diffraction), FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and EDX (Energy dispersive Microscopy). XRD pattern show the face centred cubic crystalline (Fcc) structure of AgNPs. FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of different Polyphenolic compounds capping the AgNps. UV-visible spectroscopy result confirmed the presence of Ag because of the particular surface plasmon Resonance (SPR) in the area of 400-430 nm. The electron microscope studies revealed the formation of spherical AgNPs with diameter ranging from 12 nm to 20 nm. Strong signals of AgNPs were confirmed with EDX analysis. The antibacterial properties of the AgNPs prepared with various extracts were tested against multi-drug resistant bacteria. Which showed significant antibacterial activity against all the multidrug resistant bacterial strains and especially multidrug resistant engineered E.ColiQH4. AgNPs synthesized by methanolic, Ethyl Acetate and aqueous Extracts of Areseama Flavum exhibited significant Photocatalytic activity to reduce methylene blue. Small size, spherical shape and high dispersion are the key properties due to which the AgNPs are having significant biological and photocatalytic activity. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report of biogenic AgNPs regarding antibacterial activity against multidrug resistant Engineered E.Coli QH4.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Arisaema/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Prata/química , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Arisaema/metabolismo , Catálise , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Verde , Luz , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Tubérculos/química , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície , Difração de Raios X
16.
Microb Pathog ; 126: 351-356, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30471433

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis biofilms harbour drug-tolerant bacteria. Identification of drugs that inhibit biofilm formation could enable the dramatic shortening of tuberculosis treatments using standard antibiotics. Arisaema sinii Krause is used to treat pulmonary and lymphatic tuberculosis by Dong People of China. Current study was aimed to purify the active components against M. tuberculosis biofilms from Arisaema sinii extract by using bioassay-guided isolation. (E)-2-(methyl (phenyl) amino) ethyl 2-(2-hydroxyundecanamido)-7, 11-dimethyl-3-oxotetradec-4-enoate, compound 1, was identified as the active component. It could inhibit mycobacterial biofilm formation, disperse the preformed biofilms, and disrupt the mature biofilms at concentration of 4, 8, and 32 µg/ml, respectively. At the dose of 32 µg/ml, it could potentiate the bactericidal activity of isoniazid against M. tuberculosis in mature biofilms. The results of this study indicate that compound 1 might be a novel lead compound against mycobacterial biofilm formation.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Arisaema/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Bioensaio/métodos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antituberculosos/química , Antituberculosos/isolamento & purificação , China , Chlorocebus aethiops , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Combinação de Medicamentos , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Isoniazida/farmacologia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Células Vero/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Comput Biol Chem ; 78: 217-226, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579134

RESUMO

An attempt toward screening of phytoconstituents (Arisaema genus) against herpes viruses (HSV-1 and HSV-2) was carried out using in silico approaches. Human HSV-1 and HSV-2 are accountable for cold sores genital herpes, respectively. Two drug targets, namely thymidine kinase (TK; PDB: 2ki5) serine protease (PDB: 1at3) were selected for HSV-1 and HSV-2. Initially, molecular docking tool was employed to screened apex hits phytoconstituents against herpes infections. ADME-T studies of top ranked were also further highlighted to achieve their effectiveness. Following, molecular dynamics studies were also examined to further optimize the stability of ligands. Glide scores and binding interactions of phytoconstituents were compared with Acyclovir, the main drug used in treatment of HSV, the screened top hits exhibited more glide scores and better binding for both HSV-1 and HSV-2 receptors. Additionally, ADME-T showed an ideal range for top hits while molecular dynamics results also illustrated stability of models. Ultimately, the whole efforts reveal to top three most promising hits for HSV-1 (39, 21, 19) and HSV-2 (20, 51, 19) receptors which can be explored further in wet lab experiments as promising agents against HSV infections.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Arisaema/química , Herpesvirus Humano 1/metabolismo , Herpesvirus Humano 2/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/metabolismo , Arisaema/genética , Domínio Catalítico/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 43(22): 4457-4461, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593238

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to analyze the compositions of main bile acids in fermented and mixed processing products of arisame cum bile from pig bile, and to establish a method for content determination of bile acids in fermented Arisaema Cum Bile. Fermented and mixed processing products were prepared from arisaematis rhizome and arisaematis rhizoma preparatum with pig bile respectively. Then the differences in bile acids compositions between such two kinds of products were compared by high performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light-scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD). With three kinds of free bile acid compositions as the indicators, HPLC-ELSD method was adopted to determine the content of bile acid compositions in fermented product,on Agilent Eclipse XDB C18(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 µm) chromatographic column, with acetonitrile and 0.1% glacial acetic acid solution (55:45) as mobile phase, at a flow rate of 1 mL·min⁻¹, column temperature of 30 °C, drift tube temperature of 90 °C, and a nitrogen flow rate of 2.2 mL·min⁻¹. The results showed that the bile acids in fermented bile Arisaema were mainly in a free form, while in mixed processing product, the compositions were mainly in a conjugated form. Three kinds of free bile acids, namely porcine cholic acid (HCA), porcine deoxycholic acid (HDCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) in fermented product, showed a good linear relationship in the range of quantification. The average recovery rate was 95.99%-104.3%, complying with the requirements. The results showed that the conjugated bile acids could be transformed into free bile acids during the fermentation of arisaema cum bile. This established method can effectively control the content of bile acids compositions in fermenting arisaema cum bile.


Assuntos
Arisaema , Animais , Bile , Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fermentação , Suínos
19.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17643, 2018 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518768

RESUMO

Arisaema heterophyllum Blume (AhBl) is one of the valued medicinal plants. However, its genetic information is limited, which impedes further studies of this valuable resource. To investigate the genes involved in the isoflavonoid biosynthesis, we deeply performed transcriptome sequencing for AhBl. An average of 10.98 Gb clean reads were obtained based on root, tuber and leaf tissues, and 109,937 unigenes were yielded after de novo assembly. In total, 72,287 of those unigenes were annotated in at least one public database. The numbers of expressed unigenes in each tissue were 35,686, 43,363 and 47,783, respectively. The overall expression levels of transcripts in leaf were higher than those in root and tuber. Differentially expressed genes analysis indicated that a total of 12,448 shared unigenes were detected in all three tissues, 10,215 of which were higher expressed in tuber than that in root and leaf. Besides, 87 candidate unigenes that encode for enzymes involved in biosynthesis of isoflavonoid were identified and analyzed, and some key enzyme genes were experimentally validated by quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR). This study provides a unique dataset for the systematic analysis of AhBl functional genes and expression characteristics, and facilitates the future study of the pharmacological mechanism of AhBl.


Assuntos
Arisaema/genética , Isoflavonas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transcriptoma , Arisaema/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Genes de Plantas , Isoflavonas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Tubérculos/genética , Tubérculos/metabolismo
20.
Vet Parasitol ; 261: 59-66, 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30253851

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the composition of essential oils from Arisaema anurans and to evaluate the acaricidal activity of the oil and its major components on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. The essential oil was characterized by high-level oxygenated terpenes and phenylpropanoids. Its major chemical compounds were found to be asarone (11.08%), cubenol (8.43%), guaiol (4.73%), eugenol (3.46%), linalool (3.41%), and α-bisabolol (3.29%). Adult immersion test revealed that the oil, asarone, and cubenol at 1.60% concentration presented oviposition reduction percentages of 36.3%, 44.2%, and 17.7%; hatching reductions percentages of 40.8%, 51.0%, and 35.1%; and final efficacy percentages of 65.0%, 73.2%, and 49.6%, respectively. Dose-dependent egg hatching inhibition activities were exhibited by the oil, asarone, and cubenol, with LC50 values (in w/v) of 0.174%, 0.180%, and 0.381%, respectively. Larval immersion test further revealed considerable larvicidal activities against R. microplus of the oil, asarone, and cubenol, with LC50 values of 0.147%, 0.115%, and 0.338%, respectively. Biochemical assay of the homogenate of R. microplus revealed multiple mechanisms of acaricidal activity of A. anurans essential oil.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Arisaema/química , Óleos Voláteis , Rhipicephalus , Animais , Feminino , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Rhipicephalus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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