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1.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 4461546, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909853

RESUMO

We offer a neural network-based control method to control the vibration of the engineering mechanical arm and the trajectory in order to solve the problem of large errors in tracking the path when the engineering mechanical arm is unstable and under the influence of the outside world. A mechanical arm network is used to perform tasks related to learning the unknown dynamic properties of a engineering mechanical arms keyboard without the need for prior learning. Given the dynamic equations of the engineering mechanical arm, the dynamic properties of the mechanical arm were studied using a positive feedback network. The adaptive neural network management system was developed, and the stability and integrity of the closed-loop system were proved by Lyapunov's function. Engineering mechanical arm motion trajectory control errors were modeled and validated in the Matlab/Simulink environment. The simulation results show that the management of the adaptive neural network is able to better control the desired path of the engineering mechanical arm in the presence of external interference, and the fluctuation range of input torque is small. The PID control has a large error in the expected trajectory tracking of the engineering mechanical arm, the fluctuation range of the input torque is as high as 20, and the jitter phenomenon is more serious. The use of detailed comparisons and adaptive neural network monitoring can perform well in manipulating the trajectory of the engineering mechanical arm. The engineering mechanical arm uses an adaptive neural network control method, in which the control precision of engineering mechanical arm motion trajectory can be improved and the out-of-control phenomenon of mechanical arm motion can be reduced.


Assuntos
Braço , Vibração , Algoritmos , Retroalimentação , Redes Neurais de Computação
2.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 111(10): 568-575, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920012

RESUMO

Arm Swelling with a Camouflaged Cause Abstract. We report on a 72-year-old patient who presented to the emergency department due to a proximal multiple-fragment humeral fracture on the left. Despite correct therapeutic approaches, there was no improvement in the left arm swelling. Further investigations showed a provoked arm vein thrombosis on the left with a post-humeral fracture on the left. After therapeutic anticoagulation, the swelling regressed immediately, but with persistent lymphedema of the left hand.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Úmero , Trombose , Trombose Venosa , Idoso , Braço , Edema/etiologia , Mãos , Humanos , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(13)2022 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35808335

RESUMO

This study investigated the muscle activities, motor variability, and functional connectivity of the upper limb as a function of weight distributions in a handle of a cordless stick-type vacuum cleaner. Eighteen female college students with experience of vacuum cleaner-use participated in testing. Five handles with different centers of mass (CM) were prepared (centroid, top-rear, top-front, bottom-front, and bottom-rear), and electromyography for the muscles of the upper limb were measured during vacuuming. The results showed that the %MVC values of the Extensor Carpi Ulnaris (p = 0.0038) and Deltoid Middle (p = 0.0094) increased but that of the Biceps Brachii (p = 0.0001) decreased, as the CM moved from the top to bottom area of the handle. The motor variability of the Extensor Carpi Ulnaris (p = 0.0335) and Brachioradialis (p = 0.0394) significantly varied depending on the CM locations but failed to show significance in the post-hoc analyses. Lastly, the functional connectivity values of the muscle pairs such as the Extensor Carpi Ulnaris-Deltoid Middle (p = 0.0016), Extensor Carpi Ulnaris-Upper Trapezius (p = 0.0174), Brachioradialis-Biceps Brachii (p = 0.0356), and Biceps Brachii-Upper Trapezius (p = 0.0102) were significantly altered as a function of the CM locations. The lowest functional connectivity was found with the handle of which CM was at centroid.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético , Extremidade Superior , Braço/fisiologia , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia , Vácuo
4.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 44(7): 963-970, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35788885

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The anterior compartment of the arm consists of three muscles: the biceps brachii, brachialis and coracobrachialis. The aim of the present study was to characterize possible variations in the morphology of the proximal attachments of the long head of the biceps brachii and to propose an accurate classification of the area which can be useful for planning surgical procedures and planning rehabilitation in the region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty (40 left and 40 right, 40 female, 40 male) upper limbs fixed in 10% formalin solution were examined. RESULTS: The main tendon of the long head of the biceps brachii demonstrated three types of attachment. The most common type, Type I (53.75%), was characterized by a single attachment only for the supraglenoid tubercle. Type III (33.75%) was characterized by a single attachment to the glenoid labrum. Type II (12.5%) was characterized by a double attachment to the glenoid labrum and the supraglenoid tubercle. Additionally, two types of the accessory tendon of the long head of the biceps brachii were identified (Type A-B). Type A (14 cases) was attached to the capsule of the humeral joint, and Type B (six cases) was attached to the greater tubercle of the humerus. CONCLUSION: The long head of the biceps brachii is characterized by high morphological variability. The new classification proposes three types of proximal attachment (I-III), with two types of accessory long head of the biceps brachii (A-B) tendon. A thorough understanding of the morphological variability of the long head of the biceps brachii is necessary when planning arthroscopic procedures or even planning rehabilitation procedures.


Assuntos
Braço , Articulação do Ombro , Artroscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Articulação do Ombro/anatomia & histologia , Tendões/anatomia & histologia
5.
J Neural Eng ; 19(4)2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35853438

RESUMO

Objective.High-density surface electromyography (HD-sEMG) allows the reliable identification of individual motor unit (MU) action potentials. Despite the accuracy in decomposition, there is a large variability in the number of identified MUs across individuals and exerted forces. Here we present a systematic investigation of the anatomical and neural factors that determine this variability.Approach. We investigated factors of influence on HD-sEMG decomposition, such as synchronization of MU discharges, distribution of MU territories, muscle-electrode distance (MED-subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness), maximum anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSAmax), and fiber cross-sectional area. For this purpose, we recorded HD-sEMG signals, ultrasound and magnetic resonance images, and took a muscle biopsy from the biceps brachii muscle from 30 male participants drawn from two groups to ensure variability within the factors-untrained-controls (UT = 14) and strength-trained individuals (ST = 16). Participants performed isometric ramp contractions with elbow flexors (at 15%, 35%, 50% and 70% maximum voluntary torque-MVT). We assessed the correlation between the number of accurately detected MUs by HD-sEMG decomposition and each measured parameter, for each target force level. Multiple regression analysis was then applied.Main results.ST subjects showed lower MED (UT = 5.1 ± 1.4 mm; ST = 3.8 ± 0.8 mm) and a greater number of identified MUs (UT: 21.3 ± 10.2 vs ST: 29.2 ± 11.8 MUs/subject across all force levels). The entire cohort showed a negative correlation between MED and the number of identified MUs at low forces (r= -0.6,p= 0.002 at 15% MVT). Moreover, the number of identified MUs was positively correlated to the distribution of MU territories (r= 0.56,p= 0.01) and ACSAmax(r= 0.48,p= 0.03) at 15% MVT. By accounting for all anatomical parameters, we were able to partly predict the number of decomposed MUs at low but not at high forces.Significance.Our results confirmed the influence of subcutaneous tissue on the quality of HD-sEMG signals and demonstrated that MU spatial distribution and ACSAmaxare also relevant parameters of influence for current decomposition algorithms.


Assuntos
Contração Isométrica , Músculo Esquelético , Braço/fisiologia , Eletromiografia/métodos , Humanos , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Torque
6.
Behav Res Ther ; 156: 104160, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35870327

RESUMO

Research has uncovered a wide range of predictors of youth anxiety treatment outcome (i.e., symptom severity and diagnostic remission). Youth's social functioning is one predictor that has been rarely studied, however, which is a significant gap given its importance to development and clinical functioning. We address this gap by examining two aspects of youth's social functioning as predictors of anxiety treatment outcome: (1) positive social interactions and (2) social skills. We further examined the moderating roles of treatment arm (child- or parent-based treatment), diagnosis (presence or absence of social anxiety disorder), and youth gender, between each of the two predictors and treatment response and remission. Participants were 96 youths with anxiety disorders (6-16 years; 54% girls) and their mothers, who completed diagnostic interviews and questionnaires at baseline and posttreatment. Multiple regression models revealed that higher baseline parent-reports of their child's social skills predicted lower posttreatment anxiety symptom severity for youth with social anxiety disorder. Modified linear probability models revealed that baseline youth-reports of their social skills predicted remission from anxiety diagnoses for youths assigned to the parent-based treatment. Baseline youth-reports of their positive social interactions and parent-reports of youth social skills predicted remission from anxiety diagnoses for girls. Results contribute to the predictor literature by highlighting the importance of youth social functioning to anxiety treatment outcome.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Interação Social , Adolescente , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/terapia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Braço , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(13)2022 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35808471

RESUMO

Wheelchair users must use proper technique when performing sitting-pivot-transfers (SPTs) to prevent upper extremity pain and discomfort. Current methods to analyze the quality of SPTs include the TransKinect, a combination of machine learning (ML) models, and the Transfer Assessment Instrument (TAI), to automatically score the quality of a transfer using Microsoft Kinect V2. With the discontinuation of the V2, there is a necessity to determine the compatibility of other commercial sensors. The Intel RealSense D435 and the Microsoft Kinect Azure were compared against the V2 for inter- and intra-sensor reliability. A secondary analysis with the Azure was also performed to analyze its performance with the existing ML models used to predict transfer quality. The intra- and inter-sensor reliability was higher for the Azure and V2 (n = 7; ICC = 0.63 to 0.92) than the RealSense and V2 (n = 30; ICC = 0.13 to 0.7) for four key features. Additionally, the V2 and the Azure both showed high agreement with each other on the ML outcomes but not against a ground truth. Therefore, the ML models may need to be retrained ideally with the Azure, as it was found to be a more reliable and robust sensor for tracking wheelchair transfers in comparison to the V2.


Assuntos
Cadeiras de Rodas , Braço , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Movimento (Física) , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Curr Biol ; 32(14): 3195-3202.e5, 2022 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35803271

RESUMO

Giant carnivorous dinosaurs such as Tyrannosaurus rex and abelisaurids are characterized by highly reduced forelimbs that stand in contrast to their huge dimensions, massive skulls, and obligate bipedalism.1,2 Another group that follows this pattern, yet is still poorly known, is the Carcharodontosauridae: dominant predators that inhabited most continents during the Early Cretaceous3-5 and reached their largest sizes in Aptian-Cenomanian times.6-10 Despite many discoveries over the last three decades, aspects of their anatomy, especially with regard to the skull, forearm, and feet, remain poorly known. Here we report a new carcharodontosaurid, Meraxes gigas, gen. et sp. nov., based on a specimen recovered from the Upper Cretaceous Huincul Formation of northern Patagonia, Argentina. Phylogenetic analysis places Meraxes among derived Carcharodontosauridae, in a clade with other massive South American species. Meraxes preserves novel anatomical information for derived carcharodontosaurids, including an almost complete forelimb that provides evidence for convergent allometric trends in forelimb reduction among three lineages of large-bodied, megapredatory non-avian theropods, including a remarkable degree of parallelism between the latest-diverging tyrannosaurids and carcharodontosaurids. This trend, coupled with a likely lower bound on forelimb reduction, hypothesized to be about 0.4 forelimb/femur length, combined to produce this short-armed pattern in theropods. The almost complete cranium of Meraxes permits new estimates of skull length in Giganotosaurus, which is among the longest for theropods. Meraxes also provides further evidence that carchardontosaurids reached peak diversity shortly before their extinction with high rates of trait evolution in facial ornamentation possibly linked to a social signaling role.


Assuntos
Dinossauros , Animais , Braço/anatomia & histologia , Evolução Biológica , Dinossauros/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis , Filogenia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia
9.
Trials ; 23(1): 566, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35841056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combining robotic therapy (RT) with task-oriented therapy is an emerging strategy to facilitate motor relearning in stroke rehabilitation. This study protocol will compare novel rehabilitation regimens that use bilateral RT as a priming technique to augment two task-oriented therapies: mirror therapy (MT) and bilateral arm training (BAT) with a control intervention: RT combined with impairment-oriented training (IOT). METHODS: This single-blind, randomized, comparative efficacy study will involve 96 participants with chronic stroke. Participants will be randomized into bilateral RT+MT, bilateral RT+BAT, and bilateral RT+IOT groups and receive 18 intervention sessions (90 min/day, 3 d/week for 6 weeks). The outcomes will include the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Stroke Impact Scale version 3.0, Medical Research Council scale, Revised Nottingham Sensory Assessment, ABILHAND Questionnaire, and accelerometer and will be assessed at baseline, after treatment, and at the 3-month follow-up. Analysis of covariance and the chi-square automatic interaction detector method will be used to examine the comparative efficacy and predictors of outcome, respectively, after bilateral RT+MT, bilateral RT+BAT, and bilateral RT+IOT. DISCUSSION: The findings are expected to contribute to the research and development of robotic devices, to update the evidence-based protocols in postacute stroke care programs, and to investigate the use of accelerometers for monitoring activity level in real-life situations, which may in turn promote home-based practice by the patients and their caregivers. Directions for further studies and empirical implications for clinical practice will be further discussed in upper-extremity rehabilitation after stroke. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered December 12, 2018, at www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov ( NCT03773653 ).


Assuntos
Terapia de Espelho de Movimento , Robótica , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Atividades Cotidianas , Braço , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Método Simples-Cego , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Extremidade Superior
10.
J Neuroeng Rehabil ; 19(1): 73, 2022 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35843943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) is a form of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) that can increase corticomotor excitability of hand muscles in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of iTBS on the corticomotor excitability of the biceps brachii in individuals with tetraplegia. METHODS: Ten individuals with low cervical SCI (C5-C8) and ten nonimpaired individuals completed three independent sessions. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) served as our measure of corticomotor excitability and were collected before and after iTBS. MEPs were normalized by the electromyography corresponding to maximum voluntary contraction and analyzed using linear mixed effects models to determine the effect of iTBS (active or sham) on normalized MEPs (nMEPs). iTBS effects were compared to a ratio of active and resting motor thresholds as a measurement of corticomotor conductance potential. RESULTS: Relative to sham, active iTBS increased nMEPs over time (p < 0.001) in individuals with SCI, but not nonimpaired individuals (p = 0.915). The amplitude of nMEPs were correlated with the biceps corticomotor conductance potential (p < 0.001), with nMEPs decreasing as the ratio increased at different rates after sham or active iTBS. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary results suggest that iTBS increases biceps corticomotor excitability in individuals with tetraplegia with effects that may be predicted by corticomotor conductance potential. Clinical trial registration NCT03277521 Registered on clinicaltrials.gov on August 24, 2017.


Assuntos
Córtex Motor , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Braço/fisiologia , Potencial Evocado Motor/fisiologia , Humanos , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Quadriplegia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos
11.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271579, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35901119

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the impact of low muscle mass (MM) assessed by calf circumference (CC), arm circumference (AC), arm muscle circumference (AMC), and corrected arm muscle circumference (CAMC)-on mortality risk later in life. We aimed to investigate the impact of low MM assessed by CC, AC, AMC and, CAMC on all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality risk. METHODS: Data came from 418 older adults who participated in a 10-year follow-up prospective cohort study. Low MM was defined as a CC < 33 cm for women and < 34 cm for men and by the lowest tertile of AC, AMC, and CAMC stratified by sex. The log rank test, Kaplan-Meier curves, and Cox regression were used. RESULTS: There were 147 deaths: 49 related to CVD and 22 to cancer. A small CC (HR = 1.57, 95% CI, 1.12-2.20), AMC (HR = 1.61, 95% CI, 1.13-2.30) and CAMC (HR = 1.45, 95% CI, 1.03-2.04) were associated with all-cause mortality. A small CAMC was a protective factor for CVD mortality (HR = 0.46, 95% CI, 0.22-0.98). In the Kaplan-Meier analysis, older adults with LMM presented low all-cause mortality survival, with AC (p < 0.05), AMC (p < 0.005), CAMC (p < 0.002), and CC (p < 0.001). Cancer mortality was associated with low CAMC (p < 0.020). CONCLUSIONS: Low MM assessed by anthropometric measures (AC, AMC, CAMC and CC) increased the all-cause mortality risk. A small CAMC decreased the CVD mortality.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias , Idoso , Braço/fisiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Músculos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Contrast Media Mol Imaging ; 2022: 9374774, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35845735

RESUMO

In order to investigate the influence of patient position change on the position of catheter tip in arm infusion port, the clinical data of 324 patients undergoing arm infusion port implantation in a hospital were retrospectively analyzed. It could be obtained that TIVAP was successfully implanted in 324 patients with malignant tumors. In 171 cases, the TIVAP catheter tip shifted to the foot side when the position was changed from upright to decubitus, with an average displacement of (12.29 ± 7.48) mm; 149 cases had cephalic displacement with an average of (5.00 ± 3.79) mm; and 5 cases had no change. The position of the TIVAP catheter tip tended to shift to the foot side when the vertical position changed to the decubitus position, with an average displacement of (-9.32 ± 9.36) mm, and the difference had statistical significance (P < 0.0001), while there were no significant differences in gender, age, height, weight, body mass index, and catheter tip position (P > 0.05). It could be analyzed from the data that from decubitus to upright position, the tip of the arm infusion port tended to shift to the foot side, and the moving distance was related to the patient's gender, sebum thickness, and indwelling catheter length. Preoperative understanding of relevant information is helpful to determine the location and length of catheterization and reduce catheter-related complications.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Venoso Central , Neoplasias , Braço , Cateteres de Demora , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35776829

RESUMO

Arm movement recovery after stroke can improve with sufficient exercise. However, rehabilitation therapy sessions are typically not enough. To address the need for effective methods of increasing arm exercise outside therapy sessions we developed a novel armrest, called Boost. It easily attaches to a standard manual wheelchair just like a conventional armrest and enables users to exercise their arm in a linear forward-back motion. This paper provides a detailed design description of Boost, the biomechanical analysis method to evaluate the joint torques required to operate it, and the results of pilot testing with five stroke patients. Biomechanics results show the required shoulder flexion and elbow extension torques range from -25% to +36% of the torques required to propel a standard pushrim wheelchair, depending on the direction of applied force. In pilot testing, all five participants were able to exercise the arm with Boost in stationary mode (with lower physical demand). Three achieved overground ambulation (with higher physical demand) exceeding 2 m/s after 2-5 practice trials; two of these could not propel their wheelchair with the pushrim. This simple to use, dynamic armrest provides people with hemiparesis a way to access repetitive arm exercise outside of therapy sessions, independently right in their wheelchair. Significantly, Boost removes the requirements to reach, grip, and release the pushrim to propel a wheelchair, an action many individuals with stroke cannot complete.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Cadeiras de Rodas , Braço , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Ombro
14.
Physiol Rep ; 10(13): e15240, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35778836

RESUMO

Non-noxious electrical stimulation to distinct locations of the foot sole evokes location-specific cutaneous reflex responses in lower limb muscles. These reflexes occur at latencies that may enable them to be mediated via a transcortical pathway. Corticospinal excitability to the plantarflexors and dorsiflexors was measured in 16 participants using motor evoked potentials (MEPs). Spinal excitability was measured in eight of the original participants using cervicomedullary motor evoked potentials (CMEPs). Measurements were collected with and without preceding cutaneous stimulus to either the heel (HEEL) or metatarsal (MET) locations of the foot sole, and evoked potentials were elicited to coincide with the arrival of the cutaneous volley at either the motor cortex or spinal cord. Plantarflexor MEPs and CMEPs were facilitated with cutaneous stimulation to the HEEL for MEPs (soleus p = 0.04, medial gastrocnemius (MG) p = 0.017) and CMEPs (soleus p = 0.047 and MG p = 0.015), but they were unchanged following MET stimulation for MEPs or CMEPs. Dorsiflexor MEPs were unchanged with cutaneous stimulation at either location, but dorsiflexor CMEPs increased with cutaneous stimulation (p = 0.05). In general, the increase in CMEP amplitudes was larger than the increase in MEP amplitudes, indicating that an increase in spinal excitability likely explains most of the increase in corticospinal excitability. The larger change observed in the CMEP also indicates that excitability from supraspinal sources likely decreased, which could be due to a net change in the excitability of intracortical circuits. This study provides evidence that cutaneous reflexes from foot sole skin are likely influenced by a transcortical pathway.


Assuntos
Tratos Piramidais , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Braço/fisiologia , Estimulação Elétrica , Potencial Evocado Motor/fisiologia , Humanos , Tratos Piramidais/fisiologia
15.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 104(13): 1172-1178, 2022 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35773621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgery for humeral shaft fractures is associated with a high risk of iatrogenic radial nerve palsy (RNP). Plausible causes are difficult anatomical conditions and variants. METHODS: We performed a cadaveric study with 23 specimens (13 female and 10 male Caucasian donors) to assess the course and anatomy of the radial nerve (RN) with its branches alongside the humeral shaft. The accuracy of identification of the RN in the surgical field was analyzed by measuring the location, course, diameter, and form of each nerve and vessel of interest. RESULTS: The RN is not a single structure running alongside the humeral shaft; at least 4 parallel structures crossed the dorsal humerus in all subjects. The RN was accompanied by 2 vessels and at least 1 other nerve, which we named the musculocutaneous branch (MCB). With an oval profile and an average diameter of 3.1 mm (range, 2.6 to 3.8 mm), the MCB was thinner but, in some cases, close to the average diameter of 4.7 mm (range, 4.0 to 5.2 mm) of the RN, which had a round profile. Both accompanying vessels had similar diameters: 3.5 mm (range, 2.6 to 4.2 mm) for the radial collateral artery and 4.0 mm (range, 2.9 to 4.4 mm) for the medial collateral artery. In 20 (87%) of the cases, the RN ran proximal to and in 3 (13%) of the cases, distal to the MCB. Furthermore, a distal safe zone of at least 110 mm (range, 110 to 160 mm) was found, measured from the radial (lateral) epicondyle proximally. CONCLUSIONS: The RN does not cross the dorsal humerus alone, as often stated in anatomical textbooks, but runs parallel to vessels and at least 1 nerve branch with a similar appearance. Thus, for reliable preservation of the RN, we recommend identification and protection of all crossing structures in posterior humeral surgeries 110 mm proximal to the radial epicondyle.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Úmero , Nervo Radial , Braço , Cadáver , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Humanos , Fraturas do Úmero/cirurgia , Úmero/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Nervo Radial/anatomia & histologia
16.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0268990, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35749388

RESUMO

For patients affected by Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD), alternate methods for increasing physical activity engagement that may benefit shoulder function and wider health are needed. Arm cycling has been proposed as a potential method for achieving this although dosage parameters and evidence is limited. The aim of this study was to conduct a pilot study evaluating the effect of a single intermittent arm cycling exercise programme on people affected by FSHD. People with confirmed genetic diagnosis of FSHD between the ages 18-60 years were recruited to attend a single session for the exercise intervention (5 exercise efforts lasting 2 minutes each with 30 seconds of rest between each effort). Prior to exercise, measures of shoulder function (Oxford shoulder score), strength and range of movement were recorded. During the exercise participants were video recorded to quantify range of movement and extract movement profile features. Participants comments were recorded and followed up four days later to check for adverse events. Fifteen participants, (6F:9M) were recruited with median (IQR) Oxford Shoulder Scores of 25 (18 to 39). All participants successfully completed the exercise intervention with only transient symptoms consistent with exercise being reported and achieving a median (IQR) rate of perceived exertion scores of 13 (12 to 13). Movement profile data was available for 12 out of 15 participants and suggests that exercise intensity did not compromise movement. An association between strength and shoulder function (R2 = 0.5147), Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) of the final effort against shoulder function and strength (R2 = 0.2344 and 0.1743 respectively) was identified. Participant comments were positive regarding the exercise intervention. Our study demonstrates that an intermittent arm cycling programme is feasible for people affected by FSHD. Further work is needed to evaluate physiological responses to exercise across variations in programme variables and equipment set up in a larger sample of people affected by FSHD.


Assuntos
Distrofia Muscular Facioescapuloumeral , Adolescente , Adulto , Braço , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Ombro , Adulto Jovem
17.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 2586716, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35755753

RESUMO

In order to explore the kinematics and muscle force characteristics of competitive Taijiquan arm manipulation, and solve the problems of arm trajectory and control in the process of manipulation, this study puts forward the sports biomechanical analysis of arm manipulation in competitive Taijiquan. The technical characteristics and muscle force characteristics of 15 athletes from the competitive Taijiquan team of Xi'an Institute of physical education were studied. Use Excel 2007 and SPSS17.0 to statistically analyze and process the original data. According to the actual needs, the data indicators are summarized. The combined movements of competitive Taijiquan arm manipulation are captured through high-speed photography, and the kinematic data are statistically analyzed, mainly from the two aspects of action amplitude change and action braking. The results show the action track length, relative track length, and action track length of each plane of the two combined hands. The order of the two combined action tracks is: combination 1 > combination 2, in which the action track in the sagittal plane is the longest in combination 1, and it can also be considered that the motion amplitude in the sagittal plane is the largest in combination 1. The average acceleration of group A in the first beat is 0.51 m/s2 smaller than that of group B, and the value is 0.22 m/s2 smaller. Therefore, the deceleration of group A is larger than that of group B, and the braking capacity of group A is slightly stronger than that of group B. In the second beat, the average acceleration of group B is 1.5722 m/s2 larger than that of group A, and the value is 0.210 m/s2 larger. The average acceleration of group A in the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth beats is 0.9, 3.728, 0.57, and 0.837 m/s2 smaller than that of group B, and the values are 0.466, 0.174, 0.250, and 0.003 m/s2 smaller, indicating that the braking capacity of group A in the third, fourth, fifth, sixth, and eighth beats is slightly stronger than that of group B. In the braking of each beat in combination 1 and combination 2 of group AB, the braking ability of arm manipulation of group A is stronger than that of group B. In competitive Taijiquan, the movement techniques of manipulation include: bouncing technology, braking technology, and control technology. For arm manipulation, athletes should have the ability of "braking" technology. In the correlation analysis of movement track length, RMS and I EMG, the score of athletes in group A is high, and there is no correlation between movement track length and RMS. There is a significant correlation between RMS and movement track length in group B, and the correlation degree is moderate. This shows that when the movement of group B athletes is completed, the muscles are in a state of tension, the movement skills are not mastered well, and the energy saving is not achieved. During training, we should pay more attention to the proprioception of muscles and form a correct way of muscle exertion.


Assuntos
Braço , Tai Chi Chuan , Aceleração , Braço/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Movimento/fisiologia
18.
Physiol Rep ; 10(12): e15359, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35757848

RESUMO

Previous research has suggested that short-term immobilization of the arm may be a low-cost, non-invasive strategy to enhance the capacity for long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity in primary motor cortex (M1). Short-term immobilization reduces corticospinal excitability (CSE) in the contralateral M1, and interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) from ipsi- onto contralateral M1 is increased. However, it is unclear whether reduced CSE and increased IHI are associated with changes in intracortical inhibition, which has been shown to be important for regulating neuroplasticity in M1. The current study used transcranial magnetic stimulation to evaluate the effects of short-term (6 h) arm immobilization on CSE, IHI, and intracortical inhibition measured bilaterally in 43 neurotypical young adults (23 immobilized). We replicated previous findings demonstrating that immobilization decreased CSE in, and increased IHI onto, the immobilized hemisphere, but a significant change in intracortical inhibition was not observed at the group level. Across individuals, decreased CSE was associated with a decreased short-interval intracortical inhibition, an index of GABAA -ergic inhibition, within the immobilized hemisphere only in the immobilization group. Previous research has demonstrated that decreases in GABAA -ergic inhibition are necessary for the induction of LTP-like plasticity in M1; therefore, decreased intracortical inhibition after short-term arm immobilization may provide a novel mechanism to enhance the capacity for LTP-like plasticity within M1 and may be a potential target for strategies to augment plasticity capacity to enhance motor learning in health and disease.


Assuntos
Córtex Motor , Braço , Potencial Evocado Motor/fisiologia , Humanos , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Inibição Neural/fisiologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Adulto Jovem , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico
20.
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