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1.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 46(9): 1652-1661, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705702

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the role of armadillo repeat-containing X-linked protein 3 (ARMCX3) in the thermogenic plasticity of adipose tissue. METHODS: Adipose tissues were characterized in Armcx3-KO male mice. Armcx3 gene expression was analyzed in adipose tissue from mice exposed to thermogenic inducers (cold, ß3-adenergic stimulus) and in differentiating brown and beige cells in culture. Analyses encompassed circulating metabolite and hormonal profiling, tissue characterization, histology, gene expression patterns, and immunoblot assays. Armcx3 gene expression was assessed in subcutaneous adipose tissue from lean individuals and individuals with obesity and was correlated with expression of marker genes of adipose browning. The effects of adenoviral-mediated overexpression of ARMCX3 on differentiating brown adipocyte gene expression and respiratory activity were determined. RESULTS: Male mice lacking ARMCX3 showed significant induction of white adipose tissue browning. In humans, ARMCX3 expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue was inversely correlated with the expression of marker genes of thermogenic activity, including CIDEA, mitochondrial transcripts, and creatine kinase-B. Armcx3 expression in adipose tissues was repressed by thermogenic activation (cold or ß3-adrenergic stimulation) and was upregulated by obesity in mice and humans. Experimentally-induced increases in Armcx3 caused down-regulation of thermogenesis-related genes and reduced mitochondrial oxidative activity of adipocytes in culture, whereas siRNA-mediated Armcx3 knocking-down enhanced expression of thermogenesis-related genes. CONCLUSION: ARMCX3 is a novel player in the control of thermogenic adipose tissue plasticity that acts to repress acquisition of the browning phenotype and shows a direct association with indicators of obesity in mice and humans.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom , Tatus , Adipócitos Marrons/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/metabolismo , Termogênese
2.
Mol Pain ; 18: 17448069221111155, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35712882

RESUMO

Abnormal pain has recently been estimated to affect ∼50 million adults each year within the United States. With many treatment options for abnormal pain, such as opioid analgesics, carrying numerous deleterious side effects, research into safer and more effective treatment options is crucial. To help elucidate the mechanisms controlling nociceptive sensitivity, the Drosophila melanogaster larval nociception model has been used to characterize well-conserved pathways through the use of genetic modification and/or injury to alter the sensitivity of experimental animals. Mammalian models have provided evidence of ß-catenin signaling involvement in neuropathic pain development. By capitalizing on the conserved nature of ß-catenin functions in the fruit fly, here we describe a role for Armadillo, the fly homolog to mammalian ß-catenin, in regulating baseline sensitivity in the primary nociceptor of the fly, in the absence of injury, using under- and over-expression of Armadillo in a cell-specific manner. Underexpression of Armadillo resulted in hyposensitivity, while overexpression of wild-type Armadillo or expression of a degradation-resistant Armadillo resulted in hypersensitivity. Neither underexpression nor overexpression of Armadillo resulted in observed dendritic morphological changes that could contribute to behavioral phenotypes observed. These results showed that focused manipulation of Armadillo expression within the nociceptors is sufficient to modulate baseline response in the nociceptors to a noxious stimulus and that these changes are not shown to be associated with a morphogenetic effect.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , beta Catenina , Analgésicos Opioides , Animais , Tatus/metabolismo , Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Nociceptividade , Dor , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo
3.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 51(4): 477-483, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35603530

RESUMO

Euphractus sexcinctus is a wild mammal native to the Americas; they have great diversity and are not in danger of extinction like other armadillo species. Despite the diversity, the morphology of several biological systems of this species has not been fully described. This study details the gross and microscopic anatomy of the urinary system in Euphractus sexcinctus, a six-banded armadillo, compared with other mammalian study models. Six animals were dissected in the study. In the anatomical analysis, the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra were dissected and photographed; then, fragments were submitted to histological routine for staining with haematoxylin-eosin, toluidine blue and Masson's trichrome for visualization under light microscopy. The six-banded armadillo ureter is histologically composed of four concentric layers. The urinary bladder is presented with three tissue layers. The pattern of constitution and distribution of urinary system structures was compatible with that of most domestic like Canis familiaris and wild animals like Bradypus torquatus, with adaptations for the arid and semi-arid habitat. The description of the morphology of Euphractus sexcinctus presents great relevance both for its conservation and for its use as a model for clinical research.


Assuntos
Tatus , Sistema Urinário , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Tatus/anatomia & histologia , Cães , Bichos-Preguiça , Sistema Urinário/anatomia & histologia
4.
Exp Neurol ; 352: 114053, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35341747

RESUMO

Nine-banded armadillos develop peripheral neuropathy after experimental Mycobacterium leprae infection that recapitulates human disease. We used an intracutaneous excision axotomy model to assess the effect of infection duration by M. leprae on axonal sprouting and Schwan cell density. 34 armadillos (17 naïve and 17 M. leprae-infected) underwent 3 mm skin biopsies to create an intracutaneous excision axotomy followed by a concentric 4-mm overlapping biopsy 3 and 12-months post M. leprae inoculation. A traditional distal leg biopsy was obtained at 15mo for intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) density. Serial skin sections were immunostained against a axons (PGP9.5, GAP43), and Schwann cells (p75, s100) to visualize regenerating nerves. Regenerative axons and proliferation of Schwann cells was measured and the rate of growth at each time point was assessed. Increasing anti-PGL antibody titers and intraneural M. leprae confirmed infection. 15mo following infection, there was evidence of axon loss with reduced distal leg IENF versus naïve armadillos, p < 0.05. This was associated with an increase in Schwann cell density (11,062 ± 2905 vs. 7561 ± 2715 cells/mm3, p < 0.01). Following excisional biopsy epidermal reinnervation increased monotonically at 30, 60 and 90 days; the regeneration rate was highest at 30 days, and decreased at 60 and 90 days. The reinnervation rate was highest among animals infected for 3mo vs those infected for 12mo or naïve animals (mean ± SD, 27.8 ± 7.2 vs.16.2 ± 5.8vs. 15.3 ± 6.5 mm/mm3, p < 0.05). The infected armadillos displayed a sustained Schwann cell proliferation across axotomy time points and duration of infection (3mo:182 ± 26, 12mo: 256 ± 126, naive: 139 ± 49 cells/day, p < 0.05). M. leprae infection is associated with sustained Schwann cell proliferation and distal limb nerve fiber loss. Rates of epidermal reinnervation were highest 3mo after infection and normalized by 12 mo of infection. We postulate that excess Schwann cell proliferation is the main pathogenic process and is deleterious to sensory axons. There is a compensatory initial increase in regeneration rates that may be an attempt to compensate for the injury, but it is not sustained and eventually followed by axon loss. Aberrant Schwann cell proliferation may be a novel therapeutic target to interrupt the pathogenic cascade of M. leprae.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Mycobacterium leprae , Animais , Tatus/microbiologia , Axotomia , Proliferação de Células , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Hanseníase/patologia , Células de Schwann/patologia
5.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): e1877-e1891, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35298081

RESUMO

Although mammals of the superorder Xenarthra are considered hosts of a wide range of zoonotic agents, works aiming at investigating the role of these animals as hosts for bacteria with zoonotic potential are rare. The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence and molecularly characterize Coxiella burnetii and haemoplasma (haemotropic mycoplasmas) DNA in blood and spleen samples from 397 free-living Xenarthra mammals (233 sloths, 107 anteaters and 57 armadillos) in five Brazilian states (Mato Grosso do Sul, São Paulo, Pará, Rondônia and Rio Grande do Sul). All biological samples from Xenarthra were negative in the qPCR for Coxiella burnetii based on the IS1111 gene. The absence of C. burnetii DNA in blood and spleen samples from Xenarthra suggests that these mammals may not act as possible hosts for this agent in the locations studied. When performed conventional PCR assays for the endogenous (gapdh) mammalian gene, 386 samples were positive. When screened by molecular assays based on the 16S rRNA gene of haemoplasmas, 81 samples were positive, of which 15.54% (60/386) were positive by conventional PCR and 5.44% (21/386) were positive by real-time PCR; three samples were positive in both assays. Of these, 39.74% (31/78) were also positive for the 23S rRNA gene and 7.69% (6/78) for the haemoplasma RNAse P gene. Among the samples positive for haemoplasmas, 25.64% (20/78) were obtained from anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla and Myrmecophaga tridactyla), 39.74% (31/78) from sloths (Bradypus tridactylus, Bradypus sp. and Choloepus sp.) 34.61% (27/78) from armadillos (Priodontes maximus, Euphractus sexcinctus and Dasypus novemcinctus). A haemoplasma 16S rRNA sequence closely related and showing high identity (99.7%) to Mycoplasma wenyonii was detected, for the first time, in B. tridactylus. Based on the low identity and phylogenetic positioning of 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA sequences of haemoplasmas detected in anteaters and armadillos, the present study showed, for the first time, the occurrence of putative new Candidatus haemotropic Mycoplasma spp. ("Candidatus Mycoplasma haematotetradactyla" and "Candidatus Mycoplasma haematomaximus") in Xenarthra mammals from Brazil.


Assuntos
Coxiella burnetii , Infecções por Mycoplasma , Mycoplasma , Bichos-Preguiça , Xenarthra , Animais , Tatus/genética , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coxiella burnetii/genética , DNA , Mycoplasma/genética , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 23S , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Ribonuclease P/genética
6.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262986, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35143513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ARMADILLO Study determined whether adolescents able to access SRH information on-demand via SMS were better able to reject contraception-related myths and misconceptions as compared with adolescents receiving pushed SMS or no intervention. TRIAL DESIGN: This trial was an unblinded, three-arm, parallel-group, individual RCT with a 1:1:1 allocation. Trial registration: ISRCTN85156148. METHODS: This study was conducted in Lima, Peru among participants ages 13-17 years. Eligible participants were randomized into one of three arms: Arm 1: access to ARMADILLO's SMS information on-demand; Arm 2 access to ARMADILLO SMS information pushed to their phone; Arm 3 control (no SMS). The intervention period lasted seven weeks. At baseline, endline, and follow-up (eight weeks following endline), participants were assessed on a variety of contraception-related myths and misconceptions. An index of myths-believed was generated. The primary outcome assessed the subject-specific change in the mean score between baseline and endline. Knowledge retention from endline to follow-up was also assessed, as was a 'content exposure' outcome, which assessed change in participants' knowledge based on relevant SMS received. RESULTS: In total, 712 participants were randomized to the three arms: 659 completed an endline assessment and were included in the primary analysis. Arm 2 participants believed fewer myths at endline compared with control arm participants (estimated subject-specific mean difference of -3.69% [-6.17%, -1.21%], p = 0.004). There was no significant difference between participants in Arm 1 vs. the control Arm, or between participants in Arm 1 vs. Arm 2. A further decrease in myths believed between endline and follow-up (knowledge retention) was observed in all arms; however, there was no difference between arms. The content exposure analysis saw significant reductions in myths believed for Arm 1 (estimated subject-specific mean difference of -9.47% [-14.83%, -4.11%], p = .001) and Arm 2 (-5.93% [-8.57%, -3.29%], p < .001) as compared with the control arm; however Arm 1's reduced sample size (n = 28) is a severe limitation. DISCUSSION: The ARMADILLO SMS content has a significant (but small) effect on participants' contraception-related knowledge. Standalone, adolescent SRH digital health interventions may affect only modest change. Instead, digital is probably best used a complementary channel to expand the reach of existing validated SRH information and service programs.


Assuntos
Tatus , Animais
7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(3): 747-749, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35202538

RESUMO

Nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) are naturally infected with Mycobacterium leprae and are implicated in the zoonotic transmission of leprosy in the United States. In Mexico, the existence of such a reservoir remains to be characterized. We describe a wild armadillo infected by M. leprae in the state of Nuevo León, Mexico.


Assuntos
Tatus , Hanseníase , Animais , Tatus/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/veterinária , México/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium leprae/genética
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 37, 2022 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35073983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The distribution of parasite load across hosts may modify the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases. Chagas disease is caused by a multi-host protozoan, Trypanosoma cruzi, but the association between host parasitemia and infectiousness to the vector has not been studied in sylvatic mammalian hosts. We quantified T. cruzi parasite load in sylvatic mammals, modeled the association of the parasite load with infectiousness to the vector and compared these results with previous ones for local domestic hosts. METHODS: The bloodstream parasite load in each of 28 naturally infected sylvatic mammals from six species captured in northern Argentina was assessed by quantitative PCR, and its association with infectiousness to the triatomine Triatoma infestans was evaluated, as determined by natural or artificial xenodiagnosis. These results were compared with our previous results for 88 humans, 70 dogs and 13 cats, and the degree of parasite over-dispersion was quantified and non-linear models fitted to data on host infectiousness and bloodstream parasite load. RESULTS: The parasite loads of Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum) and Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded armadillo) were directly and significantly associated with infectiousness of the host and were up to 190-fold higher than those in domestic hosts. Parasite load was aggregated across host species, as measured by the negative binomial parameter, k, and found to be substantially higher in white-eared opossums, cats, dogs and nine-banded armadillos (range: k = 0.3-0.5) than in humans (k = 5.1). The distribution of bloodstream parasite load closely followed the "80-20 rule" in every host species examined. However, the 20% of human hosts, domestic mammals or sylvatic mammals exhibiting the highest parasite load accounted for 49, 25 and 33% of the infected triatomines, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the use of bloodstream parasite load as a proxy of reservoir host competence and individual transmissibility. The over-dispersed distribution of T. cruzi bloodstream load implies the existence of a fraction of highly infectious hosts that could be targeted to improve vector-borne transmission control efforts toward interruption transmission. Combined strategies that decrease the parasitemia and/or host-vector contact with these hosts would disproportionally contribute to T. cruzi transmission control.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Mamíferos/parasitologia , Triatoma/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Argentina/epidemiologia , Tatus/parasitologia , Gatos , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Doença de Chagas/prevenção & controle , Didelphis/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Vetores de Doenças , Cães , Florestas , Genes de Protozoários , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Carga Parasitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Parasitemia/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/transmissão , Xenodiagnóstico
9.
J Parasitol ; 108(1): 57-63, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35100371

RESUMO

Originally endemic to South America, the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) has recently expanded its range northward to Illinois. With this range expansion comes concern regarding potential incoming pathogens; our research, conducted during 2012-2020, consisted of screening armadillos for the presence of helminths, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Mycobacterium leprae. We screened for the presence of T. cruzi and M. leprae, 2 pathogens known to infect humans, using polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. All 80 samples screened for T. cruzi and all 25 samples screened for M. leprae were negative. No parasite specific to the nine-banded armadillo, such as Aspidodera sogandaresi, was detected. This lack of infection is consistent with the idea that animals may be isolated from their common parasites during periods of range expansion. Lack of infection by T. cruzi in an endemic area suggests that these mammals may not be exposed to the infective stages at this early phase of their colonization. Presently, the armadillo has become established in Illinois, yet they have not introduced their parasites into the area. Our study represents the first effort to document the parasitological record of the expanding armadillo within 30 yr of their initial record in Illinois and the American Midwest. This helminthological record of armadillos in Illinois sets the timeline to observe the establishment of A. sogandaresi in the Midwest.


Assuntos
Tatus/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Gastropatias/veterinária , Animais , Illinois/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Gastropatias/epidemiologia , Gastropatias/parasitologia
10.
Int J Dermatol ; 61(6): 733-738, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826151

RESUMO

Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease, is an age-old chronic granulomatous infection characterized by prominent cutaneous and neurologic findings. Long known to be caused by Mycobacterium leprae, a new etiologic species was identified and linked in 2008, Mycobacterium lepromatosis. The BCG vaccine with highly variable efficacy may soon be replaced by the first leprosy-specific subunit vaccine LepVax, which has recently moved forward in human trials. Recent evidence supporting theories of zoonotic transmission from armadillos and the less-discussed Eurasian red squirrels has emerged. Knowledge on genetic polymorphisms that may increase leprosy susceptibility, such as the newly uncovered mitochondrial ribosomal protein S5 (MRPS5) polymorphism in the Chinese population, has provided a fresh perspective and direction. Further, we will delineate the latest information on leprosy, including the possible effects of leprosy coinfection with COVID-19, HIV, and HTLV-1, and the shift to newer leprosy therapies and treatment regimens.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hanseníase , Animais , Tatus/microbiologia , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Mycobacterium leprae/genética
11.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(4): 2045-2051, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132049

RESUMO

The number of viral-associated neoplasms reported in wildlife has increased over the last decades, likely because of growing research efforts and a potentially greater burden of carcinogenic pathogens. Herein, we describe a primary gastric T-cell lymphoma in one free-ranging giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus) from Brazilian Pantanal infected by a novel gammaherpesvirus, proposed as Cingulatid gammaherpesvirus 1 (CiHV-1). By chromogenic in situ hybridisation against Epstein-Barr virus some neoplastic cells were labeled. Subsequently, a molecular screening was carried out to detect the occurrence of this pathogen in other giant armadillos in the same region. Overall, this novel virus was detected in 14.3% (3/21) of the tested giant armadillos. We suggest this herpesvirus, the first in Xenarthra, as a plausible aetiology of the neoplasm. The implications of CiHV-1 for this species are uncertain; while no outbreaks of disease have been recorded, the present study raises concerns. Further research is warranted to assess the real significance of CiHV-1 and its potential oncogenic role in this species.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Gammaherpesvirinae , Linfoma de Células T , Animais , Tatus , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/veterinária , Gammaherpesvirinae/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Linfoma de Células T/epidemiologia , Linfoma de Células T/veterinária
12.
Zootaxa ; 5040(1): 66-76, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811054

RESUMO

As both the type of the genus and the largest known xystodesmid, Rhysodesmus dasypus (Gervais, 1847) is an important and charismatic Mexican species. Despite there are numerous taxonomic contributions, R. dasypus remains enigmatic and poorly diagnosed, necessitating the need for an updated taxonomic synthesis. Here, we present a redescription of R. dasypus based on eight specimens collected from three localities in close proximity to the suggested type locality of the species and include photographs of the diagnostic morphological characters. Additionally, we include a distribution map of previously reported localities from the literature and two new localities.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Animais , Tatus
13.
Evol Dev ; 23(6): 496-512, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813149

RESUMO

Xenarthrans (armadillos, anteaters, sloths, and their extinct relatives) are unique among mammals in displaying a distinctive specialization of the posterior trunk vertebrae-supernumerary vertebral xenarthrous articulations. This study seeks to understand how xenarthry develops through ontogeny and if it may be constrained to appear within pre-existing vertebral regions. Using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics on the neural arches of vertebrae, we explore phenotypic, allometric, and disparity patterns of the different axial morphotypes during the ontogeny of nine-banded armadillos. Shape-based regionalization analyses showed that the adult thoracolumbar column is divided into three regions according to the presence or absence of ribs and the presence or absence of xenarthrous articulations. A three-region division was retrieved in almost all specimens through development, although younger stages (e.g., fetuses, neonates) have more region boundary variability. In size-based regionalization analyses, thoracolumbar vertebrae are separated into two regions: a prediaphragmatic, prexenarthrous region, and a postdiaphragmatic xenarthrous region. We show that posterior thoracic vertebrae grow at a slower rate, while anterior thoracics and lumbars grow at a faster rate relatively, with rates decreasing anteroposteriorly in the former and increasing anteroposteriorly in the latter. We propose that different proportions between vertebrae and vertebral regions might result from differences in growth pattern and timing of ossification.


Assuntos
Tatus , Animais , Mamíferos , Coluna Vertebral
14.
Neurotherapeutics ; 18(4): 2337-2350, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799845

RESUMO

Neuropathy and related disabilities are the major medical consequences of leprosy, which remains a global medical concern. Despite major advances in understanding the mechanisms of M. leprae entry into peripheral nerves, most aspects of the pathogenesis of leprosy neuropathy remain poorly understood. Sensory loss is characteristic of leprosy, but neuropathic pain is sometimes observed. Effective anti-microbial therapy is available, but neuropathy remains a problem especially if diagnosis and treatment are delayed. Currently there is intense interest in post-exposure prophylaxis with single-dose rifampin in endemic areas, as well as with enhanced prophylactic regimens in some situations. Some degree of nerve involvement is seen in all cases and neuritis may occur in the absence of leprosy reactions, but acute neuritis commonly accompanies both Type 1 and Type 2 leprosy reactions and may be difficult to manage. A variety of established as well as new methods for the early diagnosis and assessment of leprosy neuropathy are reviewed. Corticosteroids offer the primary treatment for neuritis and for subclinical neuropathy in leprosy, but success is limited if nerve function impairment is present at the time of diagnosis. A candidate vaccine has shown apparent benefit in preventing nerve injury in the armadillo model. The development of new therapeutics for leprosy neuropathy is greatly needed.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Neurite (Inflamação) , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico , Animais , Tatus , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/terapia , Mycobacterium leprae , Neurite (Inflamação)/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/terapia
15.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 4): e20210624, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706011

RESUMO

The similarity between parasites communities' decay with distance and its analysis may explain important ecological process such host dispersion. Patagonia is inhabited by two armadillo species, Chaetophractus villosus and Zaedyus pichiy. In this study we describe and analyze the variation on helminth fauna of these armadillos in Patagonia compared with northern localities described in previous studies. A total of 49 armadillos were collected in Patagonia. Quantitative descriptors of parasite ecology were calculated and community structure of helminths was analyzed following the central-satellite species hypothesis. The parasite richness in Patagonia decreases almost 50% in both armadillos. Zaedyus pichiy present the same central species in Patagonia as in northern localities. For C. villosus central-satellite species analysis could not be applied. The loss of some helminths in Z. pichiy could be the result of lower temperatures or the absence of intermediate arthropods hosts. But in C. villosus the absence of some helminths with Patagonian distribution could be explained by its recent dispersion in Patagonia. Trichohelix tuberculata still being the only helminth in C. villosus introduced population of Tierra del Fuego.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Parasitos , Animais , Tatus , Geografia
16.
J Mol Evol ; 89(8): 565-575, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342686

RESUMO

Vestigial organs are historical echoes of past phenotypes. Determining whether a specific organ constitutes a functional or vestigial structure can be a challenging task, given that distinct levels of atrophy may arise between and within lineages. The mammalian pineal gland, an endocrine organ involved in melatonin biorhythmicity, represents a classic example, often yielding contradicting anatomical observations. In Xenarthra (sloths, anteaters, and armadillos), a peculiar mammalian order, the presence of a distinct pineal organ was clearly observed in some species (i.e., Linnaeus's two-toed sloth), but undetected in other closely related species (i.e., brown-throated sloth). In the nine-banded armadillo, contradicting evidence supports either functional or vestigial scenarios. Thus, to untangle the physiological status of the pineal gland in Xenarthra, we used a genomic approach to investigate the evolution of the gene hub responsible for melatonin synthesis and signaling. We show that both synthesis and signaling compartments are eroded and were probably lost independently among Xenarthra orders. Additionally, by expanding our analysis to 157 mammal genomes, we offer a comprehensive view showing that species with very distinctive habitats and lifestyles have convergently evolved a similar phenotype: Cetacea, Pholidota, Dermoptera, Sirenia, and Xenarthra. Our findings suggest that the recurrent inactivation of melatonin genes correlates with pineal atrophy and endorses the use of genomic analyses to ascertain the physiological status of suspected vestigial structures.


Assuntos
Glândula Pineal , Animais , Tatus , Genoma , Genômica
17.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(12): 5522-5528, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Silo bag is a major harvest storage option in many countries worldwide. Wildlife interacts with this new element in the rural landscape. As a result, wildlife activity could generate breaks in silo bag lining, causing losses to the stored content. The aim of this study was to analyze the damage in silo bags by large hairy armadillos (Chaetophractus villosus) according to different spatial arrangements of silo bags, in order to propose a management strategy to reduce the damage. Our prediction was that silo bags arranged in a cluster would have less damage by large hairy armadillos than bags arranged in a row or than single (isolated) bags at a certain plot. In addition, we expected that in a cluster the exposed outside of the bags would show increased damage compared to the inside of the cluster. RESULTS: We measured 294 silo bags. Damage intensity (number of breaks/100 m silo bag perimeter) in silo bags arranged in a cluster was 72% lower than in bags arranged in a row (P = 0.03), and 77% lower than in single bags (P = 0.001). Moreover, we detected that damage intensity inside was 75% lower than outside of a cluster (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: We propose grouping in a cluster of parallel bags instead of installing them in a row or isolated bags at plot as a strategy that could be adopted and implemented by farmers in order to reduce the damage by large hairy armadillos, the most harmful wildlife species to silo bags in Argentina. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Tatus , Animais , Argentina
18.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2314: 1-58, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235647

RESUMO

Building upon the foundational research of Robert Koch, who demonstrated the ability to grow Mycobacterium tuberculosis for the first time in 1882 using media made of coagulated bovine serum, microbiologists have continued to develop new and more efficient ways to grow mycobacteria. Presently, all known mycobacterial species can be grown in the laboratory using either axenic culture techniques or in vivo passage in laboratory animals. This chapter provides conventional protocols to grow mycobacteria for diagnostic purposes directly from clinical specimens, as well as in research laboratories for scientific purposes. Detailed protocols used for production of M. tuberculosis in large scale (under normoxic and hypoxic conditions) in bioreactors and for production of obligate intracellular pathogens such as Mycobacterium leprae and "Mycobacterium lepromatosis" using athymic nude mice and armadillos are provided.


Assuntos
Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Infecções por Mycobacterium/microbiologia , Mycobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tatus , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/instrumentação , Reatores Biológicos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Camundongos Nus , Viabilidade Microbiana , Mycobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium leprae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Tempo
19.
J Anat ; 239(6): 1473-1502, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275130

RESUMO

The evolutionary history of the Cingulata, as for many groups, remains a highly debated topic to this day, particularly for one of their most emblematic representatives: the glyptodonts. There is no consensus among morphological and molecular phylogenies regarding their position within Cingulata. As demonstrated by recent works, the study of the internal anatomy constitutes a promising path for enriching morphological matrices for the phylogenetic study of armadillos. However, internal cranial anatomy remains understudied in the Cingulata. Here we explored and compared the anatomy of intracranial osseous canals and cavities in a diverse sample of extant and extinct cingulates, including the earliest well-preserved glyptodont crania. The virtual 3D reconstruction (using X-ray microtomography) of selected canals, that is, the nasolacrimal canal, the palatine canal, the sphenopalatine canal, the canal for the frontal diploic vein, the transverse canal, the orbitotemporal canal, the canal for the capsuloparietal emissary vein and the posttemporal canal, and alveolar cavities related to cranial vascularization, innervation or tooth insertion allowed us to compare the locations, trajectories, and shape of these structures and to discuss their potential interest for cingulate systematics. We tentatively reconstructed evolutionary scenarios for eight selected traits related to these structures in which glyptodonts often showed a close resemblance to pampatheres, to the genus Proeutatus, and/or to chlamyphorines. This latter pattern was partly congruent with recent molecular hypotheses, but more research is needed on these resemblances and on the potential effects of development and allometry on the observed variations. Overall, these comparisons have enabled us to highlight new anatomical variation that may be of great interest to further explore the evolutionary history of cingulates and the origins of glyptodonts on a morphological basis.


Assuntos
Anatomia Comparada , Animais , Tatus , Filogenia , Crânio
20.
J Morphol ; 282(9): 1330-1338, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34164851

RESUMO

Oogenesis in the armadillo Chaetophractus villosus, a representative species of a mammalian basal clade, was investigated by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemical localization of keratin. At the beginning of the growth phase, oocyte follicles showed one, and sometimes several, large bodies composed of lamellae (multilamellar bodies [MLBs]), which entrap other cytoplasmic organelles at more advanced stages. Lamellae diameter is described in cross-section (37 nm) and tangential sections (50 nm). The MLB of early oocytes is most frequently located close to the nucleus. In large oocytes, both, this body and the free organelles are relocated at the oocyte periphery. The MLB grows from the primary follicle up to its full development at the follicular phase characterized by tall granulosa cells. Mitochondria, smooth small vesicles, and lipofuscin granules are trapped between lamellae. MLBs engage in the formation of different sets of organelles, both trapped and free ones. When oocytes are well developed and the zona pellucida is formed, the MLB is reduced to small remnants detected only by transmission electron microscopy. The MLB disintegrates when an antrum develops. Immunohistochemical localization techniques showed the presence of cytokeratin in the MLBs. This cytokeratin pool may be involved in the filament and desmosome formation found in the periphery of late oocytes.


Assuntos
Tatus , Oócitos , Animais , Núcleo Celular , Feminino , Oogênese , Folículo Ovariano
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