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1.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol ; 42(4): 318-323, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793408

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: When investigating deaths due to stab wounds, a common question asked to the forensic pathologist concerns the force required to inflict a given wound.In this study, tests were performed on 6 human cadavers. A material testing machine was used to produce the stab wounds and to record the force required to penetrate skin, muscle, cartilage, and rib bone of the chest. Three different blades were used: a steak knife, a butcher knife, and a lock-blade knife. On each cadaver, chest injuries were produced at the following locations: (a) skin, intercostal soft tissues; (b) skin, muscle, and cartilage; and (c) skin, muscle, and bone. After the experiment, a chest dissection was performed to confirm the correct locations of the produced stab wounds.The force required to insert a knife into cartilage or bone was significantly greater than the force to insert it into a region only covered by skin. There was wide variation in the force required to insert a knife into different bodies, but no force for any knife at any location for all bodies was greater than 261 N.This study allowed us to obtain quantitative measures of the force required to penetrate human chest tissues, removing subjective factors.


Assuntos
Armas , Ferimentos Perfurantes , Osso e Ossos , Cadáver , Humanos , Pele/lesões
2.
Evol Anthropol ; 30(5): 307-315, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343369

RESUMO

Archeologists commonly suppose that among complex projectile weapons humans use as subsistence aids, the spearthrower-and-dart preceded bow-and-arrow use. And yet, neither ethnographic nor archeological records furnish any robust evidence for spearthrower-and-dart use in Africa. Instead, evidence grows apace for ever-more ancient bow-and-arrow use. Here we explore these findings and their implications for models of early Homo sapiens behavior.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Armas , África , Animais , Antropologia Cultural , Arqueologia , Humanos
4.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 36(5): 639-644, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369337

RESUMO

In the last decade, conducted electrical weapons (CEWs) have become a new tool for law enforcement agencies as an alternative to firearms. They provide security in the intervention for both the police and the citizen and try to cause the least possible harm to the subject to immobilize.The health care providers who perform in joint actions with the police in which CEWs are used should be aware of how they work, risk groups, as well as the most frequent clinical effects associated with the application of electrical discharge, and the complications that can be produced according to the area of impact of the electrodes.For this purpose, the current medical literature was reviewed by consulting the main health care sciences database (PubMed) to determine the medical measures to be taken before, during, and after the use of these weapons. Also presented and shared is the Zaragoza (Spain) Fire Department protocol.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Polícia , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Espanha , Armas
5.
Int J Legal Med ; 135(6): 2547-2554, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318353

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Risks of handheld electrical weapons include head impact trauma associated with uncontrolled falls, ocular probe penetration injuries, thermal injuries from the ignition of volatile fumes, and weapon confusion police-involved shooting. There is also an uncommon but critical risk of a shooting after a subject gained control of an officer's electrical weapons. METHODS: The authors searched for police shooting incidents involving loss of control of TASER® weapons via open-source media reports, crowd-sourced internet sites, litigation filings, and a survey of Axon law-enforcement master instructors. RESULTS: The authors report 131 incidents of subjects attempting to or gaining control of an officer's electrical weapon from 2004 to 2020, 53 of which resulting in a shooting. These incidents demonstrated a risk of 11.8 shootings per million electrical weapon discharges (95% confidence limits of 9.0 to 15.1 per million by Wilson score interval). CONCLUSIONS: The use of electrical weapons presents a rare but real risk of injury and death from a shooting following a subject's attempts to gain control of the weapon.


Assuntos
Lesões por Armas de Eletrochoque/epidemiologia , Aplicação da Lei , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Armas
6.
Pediatr Emerg Med Pract ; 18(8): 1-24, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310093

RESUMO

Less-lethal weapons and tactics are being increasingly used by law enforcement to minimize the reliance on more-lethal force. While these methods are designated as "less-lethal," they can cause morbidity and mortality when deployed. Knowledge of these weapons and tactics can help direct the workup and management of patients with injuries from these methods and can protect clinicians from secondary exposure and injuries. This issue reviews the most common less-lethal weapons and tactics used by law enforcement, describes their mechanism of action, and discusses associated common injury patterns. Recommendations are provided for the evaluation and management of these patients in the emergency department.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Aplicação da Lei/métodos , Armas , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Mordeduras e Picadas/diagnóstico , Mordeduras e Picadas/terapia , Criança , Lesões por Armas de Eletrochoque/diagnóstico , Lesões por Armas de Eletrochoque/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina de Emergência Pediátrica/métodos , Polícia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Gases Lacrimogênios/efeitos adversos , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Aggress Behav ; 47(6): 621-634, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148248

RESUMO

In this study, we examine whether youth who are exposed to more weapons violence are subsequently more likely to behave violently with weapons. We use data collected with a 3-cohort, 4-wave, 10-year longitudinal study of 426 high-risk youth from Flint, Michigan, who were second, fourth, or ninth-graders in 2006-2007. The data were obtained from individual interviews with the youth, their parents, and their teachers, from archival school and criminal justice records, and from geo-coded criminal offense data. These data show that early exposure to weapons violence significantly correlates at modest levels with weapon carrying, weapon use or threats-to-use, arrests for weapons use, and criminally violent acts 10 years later. Multiple regression analyses, controlling for children's initial aggressiveness, intellectual achievement, and parents' income, education, and aggression, reveal statistically significant independent 10-year effects: (1) more early exposure to weapon use within the family predicts more using or threatening to use a gun; (2) more cumulative early violent video game playing predicts more gun using or threatening to use weapons, and normative beliefs that gun use is acceptable; (3) more cumulative early exposure to neighborhood gun violence predicts more arrests for a weapons crime; and (4) more cumulative early exposure to movie violence predicts more weapon carrying. We argue that youth who observe violence with weapons, whether in the family, among peers, or through the media or video games, are likely to be infected from exposure with a social-cognitive-emotional disease that increases their own risk of behaving violently with weapons later in life.


Assuntos
Exposição à Violência , Adolescente , Criança , Comportamento Criminoso , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Violência , Armas , Adulto Jovem
8.
Clin Imaging ; 79: 165-172, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965756

RESUMO

Law enforcement officers have adopted the use of non-lethal weapons to mitigate civilian casualties incurred by firearm use over recent years and decades. These weapons include, but are not limited to, TASER, beanbag rifles, pepper spray, tear gas, and Flash-ball guns. Nonetheless, severe injuries and even deaths do occur with use of these weapons, in rare instances. This review aims to comprehensively discuss these cases and associated injuries, as well as their according findings on imaging studies. It will also examine how often injuries occur in situations with non-lethal weapons.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Armas
9.
Adv Pharmacol ; 90: 1-18, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706929

RESUMO

Paul Greengard's name is and will remain profoundly associated with Neuroscience, with brain signaling and chemical transmission, with Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, with fundamental discoveries and solving paradoxes, but much less perhaps with drug discovery. This should not be mistaken as disdain. Paul in fact did contemplate developing therapeutic avenues to actually treat brain diseases much more than it is known, perhaps during his entire career, and certainly over the last two decades. As a matter of fact, he did more than contemplate it, he directly and indirectly contributed in the development of treatments for neurological diseases and disorders. Paul's impact on fundamental aspects of the brain has been so gargantuan that any other aspect of Paul's life will have difficulty to shine. It is precisely this less known aspect of Paul's career that will be covered in this review. We will discover how Paul very early on moved away from biophysics to avoid working on nuclear weapons and instead started his career in the pharmacological spheres of a large pharmaceutical company.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Animais , Encefalopatias/patologia , Aprovação de Drogas , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Armas
10.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 221: 108596, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research shows that adolescent prescription opioid misuse is strongly associated with weapon carrying. METHOD: For this research, data from the nationally representative 2017 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were analyzed. Average marginal predictions were estimated for gun and weapon carrying as a function of prescription opioid misuse and sex. As per STROBE guidelines, additive interactions with risk differences-in addition to multiplicative interactions with odds ratios and risk ratios-were estimated to investigate sex disparities in the effects of prescription opioid misuse on gun and other weapon-carrying. RESULTS: Male US high school students who misused prescription opioids had an especially high prevalence of gun and other weapon carrying. Additive interactions show significantly greater risk differences associated with prescription opioid misuse among male students compared to female students for gun carrying, weapon carrying, and weapon carrying at school. In contrast, multiplicative interactions show lower odds ratios and risk ratios among male students for these same weapon-carrying variables. DISCUSSION: Prescription opioid misuse is a significantly greater risk factor for gun and other weapon carrying among male US high school students, which disproportionately increases the risk for violence perpetration, including suicide among these students. Researchers should follow STROBE guidelines and report additive interactions and risk differences separately by sex when investigating risk factors associated with gun and other weapon carrying.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Armas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Armas de Fogo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 79: 102147, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721732

RESUMO

In modern times crossbow - a ranged weapon diffused during Middle Ages - is increasing its popularity in recreational hunting and sports; crossbow bolts have a great penetration capacity, despite their low initial velocity. Great concerns emerge when considering that notwithstanding crossbow is a potentially lethal distance weapon, it is easy to obtain without having to undertake any tests on the buyer's mental or physical health. Although rare, crossbow injuries can be challenging for the forensic pathologist due to great similarities with other wounds pattern (gunshots wounds or injury due to sharp force). Especially when the arrow is removed from its original position or the body is decomposed, identification of the weapon can be difficult. According to forensic literature, suicides, homicides and non-lethal injuries by crossbow have been reported up to the present day. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) indications in the identification and selection of studies and reviewed a series of cases of both fatal and non-fatal crossbow injuries, according to the manner of death (homicide, suicide, accidental). The casuistic part of this paper deals with an attempted murder of a 21-year old man: a case of non-lethal crossbow injury of the thorax in which an interdisciplinary approach, involving forensic inspection, ballistic and radiology tests, led to solve the case.


Assuntos
Balística Forense , Imageamento Tridimensional , Armas , Ferimentos Perfurantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Ferimentos Perfurantes/etiologia , Crime , Humanos , Masculino , Costelas/diagnóstico por imagem , Costelas/lesões , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2037209, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576818

RESUMO

Importance: Conducted electrical weapons (CEWs) are used broadly as a less-lethal force option for police officers. However, there is no clear picture of the possible health risks in humans on the basis of rigorously assessed scientific evidence from the international peer-reviewed literature. Objective: To synthesize and systematically evaluate the strength of published evidence for an association between exposure to different models of CEWs and adverse acute as well as chronic conditions. Evidence Review: Following a preregistered review protocol, the literature search strategy was based on a search of reviews published between January 1, 2000, and April 24, 2020, of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library, as well as relevant online databases and bibliographic sources, such as reference sections of recent publications. The identified studies were independently assessed in terms of scope, relevance, methodologic bias, and quality. Peer-reviewed publications of human studies were included, using original data and with a focus on the use of taser CEWs in the context of law enforcement. Eligible studies examined clearly defined health outcomes as dependent variables following exposure to a CEW. The review followed the relevant sections of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses reporting guideline. A meta-analysis could not be conducted. Findings: Of the 1081 unique records screened, 33 relevant studies were identified, all of them of experimental design and conducted in the US. Eleven studies had a low risk of bias and 22 had a higher bias risk. Studies focused on outcomes such as physiologic stress responses, heart rate, blood pressure, arrhythmias, or cognitive performance. Independently of bias risk, the studies reported few or no acute health problems, apart from the wounds caused by the darts. Furthermore, no long-term outcomes were studied. Most of the studies were performed on healthy, physically fit individuals (eg, police officers) in a controlled setting, with short exposure duration (5 seconds). Half of the studies, mainly those with a higher risk of bias, were at least partly funded by the manufacturer. Conclusions and Relevance: Based on the findings of the reviewed studies, the risk for adverse health outcomes due to CEW exposure can be currently estimated as low. However, most of the reviewed studies had methodologic limitations. Considering that recruited participants were not representative of the population that usually encounters a CEW deployment, it is not possible to draw conclusions regarding exposure outcomes in potentially vulnerable populations or high-risk groups, such as those under the influence of substances.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Lesões por Armas de Eletrochoque/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Armas , Acidose Láctica/epidemiologia , Acidose Láctica/etiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Doença Crônica , Lesões por Armas de Eletrochoque/complicações , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Polícia , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Forensic Sci Int ; 320: 110710, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561790

RESUMO

Bayesian networks have shown to be a useful tool for the evaluation of forensic findings given activity level propositions. In this paper, we demonstrate how case specific experiments can be used to assign probabilities to the states of the nodes of a Bayesian network for the evaluation of fingermarks given activity level propositions. The transfer, persistence and recovery of fingermarks on knives is studied in experiments where a knife is either used to stab a victim or to cut food, representing the activities that were disputed in the case of the murder of Meredith Kercher. Two Bayesian networks are constructed, exploring the effect of different uses of the experimental data by assigning the probabilities based on the results of the experiments. The evaluation of the findings using the Bayesian networks demonstrates the potential for fingermarks in addressing activity level propositions.


Assuntos
Teorema de Bayes , Dermatoglifia , Ciências Forenses/métodos , Armas , Feminino , Humanos , Ferimentos Perfurantes
17.
J Hum Evol ; 152: 102947, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529840

RESUMO

The Middle Pleistocene Schöningen 13II-4 'Spear Horizon' (Germany) is a key site for the study of human evolution, most notably for the discovery of Paleolithic wooden weaponry and evidence for developed hunting strategies. On the other hand, the 'Spear Horizon' offers an excellent opportunity to approach hominin spatial behavior, thanks to the richness of the archeological assemblage, its exceptional preservation, and the vast expanse of the excavated surface. Analyzing how space was used is essential for understanding hominin behavior at this unique open-air site and, from a wider perspective, for approaching how humans adapted to interglacial environments. In this article, we present an exhaustive spatial study of the complete Schöningen 13II-4 'Spear Horizon' faunal assemblage and its archeological context, combining zooarcheology and spatial analysis through the extensive application of geographic information systems. Our results indicate the existence of different activity areas related to changes in the position of the shoreline due to fluctuations of water table levels of the Schöningen paleolake. These activity areas were likely used on a seasonal basis, whereas the spatial patterning observed in the distribution of faunal remains suggests a diversity of behavioral strategies in terms of intensity and/or duration of occupations. This study refines previous interpretations of the site and reconstructs human behavioral adaptations and the occupational changing lakeland environment during the Middle Pleistocene in Europe.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Biodiversidade , Fósseis , Comportamento de Utilização de Ferramentas , Animais , Aves , Peixes , Alemanha , Hominidae , Mamíferos , Análise Espacial , Armas
20.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1943): 20202898, 2021 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499793

RESUMO

Many sexually selected traits function as weapons, and these weapons can be incredibly diverse. However, the factors underlying weapon diversity among species remain poorly understood, and a fundamental hypothesis to explain this diversity remains untested. Although weapons can serve multiple functions, an undeniably important function is their role in fights. Thus, a crucial hypothesis is that weapon diversification is driven by the evolution of weapon modifications that provide an advantage in combat (e.g. causing more damage). Here, we test this fighting-advantage hypothesis using data from 17 species of coreid bugs. We utilize the fact that male-male combat in coreids often results in detectable damage, allowing us to link different weapon morphologies to different levels of damage among species. We find that certain weapon morphologies inflict much more damage than others, strongly supporting the fighting-advantage hypothesis. Moreover, very different weapon morphologies can inflict similarly severe amounts of damage, leading to a weapon performance landscape with multiple performance peaks. This multi-peak pattern could potentially drive different lineages towards divergent weapon forms, further increasing weapon diversity among species. Overall, our results may help explain how sexually selected weapons have evolved into the diversity of forms seen today.


Assuntos
Armas , Masculino , Fenótipo
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