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1.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 45(4): 276-283, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982596

RESUMO

Background: Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) is among the most common causes of severe allergic reactions worldwide. Objective: To investigate clinical features and factors that affect the severity of HVA and to determine the alterations in immunologic biomarkers after venom immunotherapy (VIT). Methods: Seventy-six adults and 36 children were prospectively investigated. We analyzed specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) and sIgG4 levels of venom extracts and components (rApi m1, rApi m10, rVes v1, rVes v5, rPol d5) before and after the first year of VIT. Results: Although cardiovascular symptoms were more common in adults (p < 0.001), the skin was the most affected organ in children (p = 0.009). Serum basal tryptase (sBT) levels were higher in the adults than the children (p < 0.001). The absence of urticaria (odds ratio [OR] 4.208 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.395-12.688]; p = 0.011) and sBT ≥ 5.2 ng/mL (OR 11.941 [95% CI, 5.220-39.733]; p < 0.001) were found as the risk factors for grade IV reactions. During VIT, changes in sIgE levels were variable. In the Apis VIT group, we observed remarkable increases in sIgG4 levels in Apis extract and rApi m1 but not in Api m10. Vespula extract, rVes v1, and rVes v5 sIgG4 levels were significantly increased in Vespula VIT group, we also detected significant increases in the Polistes extract and rPol d5 sIgG4 levels, which were not observed in the Apis VIT group. In the patients who received both Apis and Vespula VIT, increases in sIgG4 levels were observed for both venoms. Conclusion: Adults and children can have different clinical patterns. After 1 year, VIT induced a strong IgG4 response. Although Apis immunotherapy (IT) induced Apis sIgG4, excluding Api m10, Vespula IT induced both Vespula and Polistes sIgG4.


Assuntos
Venenos de Artrópodes , Dessensibilização Imunológica , Imunoglobulina E , Humanos , Criança , Adulto , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Masculino , Feminino , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Venenos de Artrópodes/imunologia , Adolescente , Animais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/terapia , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/diagnóstico , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/imunologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Alérgenos/imunologia , Himenópteros/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Triptases/sangue , Biomarcadores
2.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 45(4): 268-275, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982604

RESUMO

Background: Being stung by Hymenoptera species can cause life-threatening anaphylaxis. Although venom immunotherapy (VIT) seems to be the most effective treatment, its long-term efficacy, and risk factors for adverse events remain unclear. Objective: The objective was to investigate the long-term efficacy of VIT and evaluate adverse events and risk factors related to this. Method: Patients who received VIT in a tertiary-care adult allergy clinic between January 2005 and July 2022 were included. Patients' data were compared with those of individuals who had been diagnosed with bee and/or wasp venom allergy during the same period but had not received VIT and experienced field re-stings. Results: The study included 105 patients with venom allergy, of whom 68 received VIT and 37 did not receive VIT. Twenty-three patients (34%) completed 5 years of VIT, and the overall mean ± standard deviation VIT duration was 46.9 ± 20.9 months. Re-stings occurred in 5 of 23 patients who completed 5 years of VIT, and none of them developed a systemic reaction. Eighteen patients (40%) experienced re-stings after prematurely discontinuing VIT, of whom eight (44%) developed a systemic reaction. In the control group of patients who did not receive VIT, 26 patients (70.3%) experienced re-stings, and all had systemic reactions (100%), with no change in their median Mueller scores. There was a significant difference in the median Mueller score change between the patients who received VIT and the controls who did not (p = 0.016). A total of 13 patients (19%) experienced adverse events while receiving VIT, which were systemic reactions in nine honeybee VIT. The use of ß-blockers was determined as the most important risk factor (odds ratio 15.9 [95% confidence interval, 1.2-208.8]; p = 0.035). Conclusion: It was confirmed that VIT was effective in both reducing the incidence and the severity of re-sting reactions. These effects were more pronounced in the patients who completed 5 years of VIT.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia , Venenos de Abelha , Dessensibilização Imunológica , Himenópteros , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Dessensibilização Imunológica/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/imunologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Anafilaxia/prevenção & controle , Anafilaxia/etiologia , Venenos de Abelha/imunologia , Venenos de Abelha/uso terapêutico , Venenos de Abelha/efeitos adversos , Himenópteros/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , Venenos de Vespas/imunologia , Venenos de Vespas/efeitos adversos , Venenos de Vespas/uso terapêutico , Alérgenos/imunologia , Alérgenos/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Venenos de Artrópodes/imunologia , Venenos de Artrópodes/efeitos adversos , Venenos de Artrópodes/uso terapêutico , Hipersensibilidade/terapia
3.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 81(1): 281, 2024 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38940922

RESUMO

As human skin comes into contact with the tiny hairs or setae of the oak processionary caterpillar, Thaumetopoea processionea, a silent yet intense chemical confrontation occurs. The result is a mix of issues: skin rashes and an intense itching that typically lasts days and weeks after the contact. This discomfort poses a significant health threat not only to humans but also to animals. In Western Europe, the alarming increase in outbreaks extends beyond areas near infested trees due to the dispersion of the setae. Predictions indicate a sustained rise in outbreaks, fueled by global changes favoring the caterpillar's survival and distribution. Currently, the absence of an efficient treatment persists due to significant gaps in our comprehension of the pathophysiology associated with this envenomation. Here, we explored the interaction between the venom extract derived from the setae of T. processionea and voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels and receptors. By conducting electrophysiological analyses, we discovered ex vivo evidence highlighting the significant role of TPTX1-Tp1, a peptide toxin from T. processionea, in modulating TRPV1. TPTX1-Tp1 is a secapin-like peptide and demonstrates a unique ability to modulate TRPV1 channels in the presence of capsaicin, leading to cell depolarization, itch and inflammatory responses. This discovery opens new avenues for developing a topical medication, suggesting the incorporation of a TRPV1 blocker as a potential solution for the local effects caused by T. processionea.


Assuntos
Canais de Cátion TRPV , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Venenos de Artrópodes , Mariposas , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Larva/metabolismo
4.
BMC Biol ; 22(1): 135, 2024 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38867210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evolution of novelty is a central theme in evolutionary biology, yet studying the origins of traits with an apparently discontinuous origin remains a major challenge. Venom systems are a well-suited model for the study of this phenomenon because they capture several aspects of novelty across multiple levels of biological complexity. However, while there is some knowledge on the evolution of individual toxins, not much is known about the evolution of venom systems as a whole. One way of shedding light on the evolution of new traits is to investigate less specialised serial homologues, i.e. repeated traits in an organism that share a developmental origin. This approach can be particularly informative in animals with repetitive body segments, such as centipedes. RESULTS: Here, we investigate morphological and biochemical aspects of the defensive telopodal glandular organs borne on the posterior legs of venomous stone centipedes (Lithobiomorpha), using a multimethod approach, including behavioural observations, comparative morphology, proteomics, comparative transcriptomics and molecular phylogenetics. We show that the anterior venom system and posterior telopodal defence system are functionally convergent serial homologues, where one (telopodal defence) represents a model for the putative early evolutionary state of the other (venom). Venom glands and telopodal glandular organs appear to have evolved from the same type of epidermal gland (four-cell recto-canal type) and while the telopodal defensive secretion shares a great degree of compositional overlap with centipede venoms in general, these similarities arose predominantly through convergent recruitment of distantly related toxin-like components. Both systems are composed of elements predisposed to functional innovation across levels of biological complexity that range from proteins to glands, demonstrating clear parallels between molecular and morphological traits in the properties that facilitate the evolution of novelty. CONCLUSIONS: The evolution of the lithobiomorph telopodal defence system provides indirect empirical support for the plausibility of the hypothesised evolutionary origin of the centipede venom system, which occurred through functional innovation and gradual specialisation of existing epidermal glands. Our results thus exemplify how continuous transformation and functional innovation can drive the apparent discontinuous emergence of novelties on higher levels of biological complexity.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Animais , Artrópodes/fisiologia , Venenos de Artrópodes/química , Evolução Biológica , Transcriptoma , Filogenia
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 14172, 2024 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38898081

RESUMO

Zygaenoidea is a superfamily of lepidopterans containing many venomous species, including the Limacodidae (nettle caterpillars) and Megalopygidae (asp caterpillars). Venom proteomes have been recently documented for several species from each of these families, but further data are required to understand the evolution of venom in Zygaenoidea. In this study, we examined the 'electric' caterpillar from North-Eastern Australia, a limacodid caterpillar densely covered in venomous spines. We used DNA barcoding to identify this caterpillar as the larva of the moth Comana monomorpha (Turner, 1904). We report the clinical symptoms of C. monomorpha envenomation, which include acute pain, and erythema and oedema lasting for more than a week. Combining transcriptomics of venom spines with proteomics of venom harvested from the spine tips revealed a venom markedly different in composition from previously examined limacodid venoms that are rich in peptides. In contrast, the venom of C. monomorpha is rich in aerolysin-like proteins similar to those found in venoms of asp caterpillars (Megalopygidae). Consistent with this composition, the venom potently permeabilises sensory neurons and human neuroblastoma cells. This study highlights the diversity of venom composition in Limacodidae.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Animais , Austrália , Larva , Proteômica/métodos , Venenos de Artrópodes/genética , Venenos de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Mariposas/genética , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Humanos , Mordeduras e Picadas , Proteoma
6.
Med Clin North Am ; 108(4): 757-776, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38816116

RESUMO

Stinging insects are a frequent cause of local and systemic hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis. For those with a history of life-threatening anaphylaxis, venom immunotherapy is effective, safe, and can be life-saving. Arachnids are a much less common source of envenomation through bites or stings and are less likely to cause a hypersensitivity reaction. However, recognizing the clinical manifestations when they do present is important for accurate diagnosis and treatment, and, when indicated, consideration of other diagnoses.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos , Humanos , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/complicações , Anafilaxia/terapia , Anafilaxia/diagnóstico , Anafilaxia/etiologia , Animais , Hipersensibilidade/terapia , Hipersensibilidade/diagnóstico , Venenos de Artrópodes/imunologia , Venenos de Artrópodes/efeitos adversos , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Hipersensibilidade a Veneno
7.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 45(3): 195-200, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755779

RESUMO

Introduction: Hymenoptera venom immunotherapy (VIT) is the only therapy that protects patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy by preventing systemic reactions after a new sting. Various extracts for VIT are available and used. VIT administration consists of an induction phase and a maintenance phase. Depot preparations of Hymenoptera VIT extracts are typically used for cluster and conventional protocols, and the maintenance phase. Many patients with Hymenoptera allergy need to achieve tolerance quickly because of the high risk of re-sting and possible anaphylaxis. Objective: Our study aimed to show the safety and efficacy of an accelerated regimen with depot preparations on aluminum hydroxide by using relatively high starting doses in a heterogeneous group of patients. Methods: The research focused on a group of patients with a history of severe systemic reactions to Hymenoptera stings, with the necessity of swift immunization due to high occupational risks. Aluminum hydroxide depot extracts either of Vepula species or Apis mellifera extracts were used. Results: The induction protocol was started with the highest concentration of depot venom extract of 100,000 standard quality unit and was well tolerated by 19 of 20 patients. Onne patient presented with a mild systemic reaction during the accelerated induction schedule, which was promptly treated with intravenous steroids and intramuscular H1 antihistamine; when switched to a conventional induction protocol, he had a similar reaction but finally reached maintenance with an H1-antagonist premedication. Conclusion: If validated, the accelerated induction protocol by using depot aluminum adsorbed extracts with the highest concentration of venom from the beginning could offer a streamlined and accessible treatment modality for patients diagnosed with anaphylaxis from bee and wasp venoms in need of rapid desensitization.


Assuntos
Dessensibilização Imunológica , Himenópteros , Humanos , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Dessensibilização Imunológica/efeitos adversos , Animais , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Himenópteros/imunologia , Hidróxido de Alumínio , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/imunologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem , Alérgenos/imunologia , Alérgenos/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Hipersensibilidade/terapia , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Venenos de Artrópodes/imunologia , Idoso , Venenos de Abelha/imunologia , Venenos de Abelha/administração & dosagem , Venenos de Abelha/efeitos adversos
8.
BMC Immunol ; 25(1): 23, 2024 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38678193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flow cytometry-based basophil activation tests (BAT) have been performed with various modifications, differing in the use of distinct identification and activation markers. Established tests use liquid reagents while a new development involves the use of tubes with dried antibody reagents. The aim of this pilot study was to compare these two techniques in patients with insect venom allergy. METHODS: Seventeen patients with an insect venom allergy were included in the study. The established "BAT 1" utilizes conventional antibody solutions of anti-CCR3 for basophil identification and anti-CD63 to assess basophil activation, whereas "BAT 2" uses dried anti-CD45, anti-CD3, anti-CRTH2, anti-203c and anti-CD63 for identification and activation measurement of basophils. Negative and positive controls as well as incubations with honey bee venom and yellow jacket venom at three concentrations were performed. RESULTS: Seven patients had to be excluded due to low basophil counts, high values in negative controls or negative positive controls. For the remaining 10 patients the overall mean (± SD) difference in activated basophils between the two tests was 0.2 (± 12.2) %P. In a Bland-Altman plot, the limit of agreement (LoA) ranged from 24.0 to -23.7. In the qualitative evaluation (value below/above cut-off) Cohen's kappa was 0.77 indicating substantial agreement. BAT 2 took longer to perform than BAT 1 and was more expensive. CONCLUSION: The BAT 2 technique represents an interesting innovation, however, it was found to be less suitable compared to an established BAT for the routine diagnosis of insect venom allergies.


Assuntos
Basófilos , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Basófilos/imunologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Venenos de Artrópodes/imunologia , Projetos Piloto , Animais , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/diagnóstico , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/imunologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/diagnóstico , Venenos de Abelha/imunologia , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Anticorpos/imunologia , Adolescente , Teste de Degranulação de Basófilos/métodos , Hipersensibilidade a Veneno
9.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 23(1): 59-68, 2024 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485910

RESUMO

Little is known about the quality of life of patients with anaphylaxis to Hymenoptera venom. The Vespid Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire (VQLQ) is commonly used to assess the psychological burden of this condition. This study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Persian version of VQLQ. In this cross-sectional study, VQLQ was translated into Persian according to expert recommendations.  The final translated version of VQLQ was then administered to 115 patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy at an asthma and allergy clinic in Iran. More than half of the participants were between 20 and 40 years of age, and 60% were male. Fear, anxiety, and outdoor activities had the most significant impact on the quality of life of patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy. Additionally, quality of life was more affected in women than in men, while no correlation was found with age. Furthermore, the quality of life was affected by a history of acute anaphylactic shock due to Hymenoptera venom. The Persian version of VQLQ enables the measurement of quality of life in patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy in the Iranian population. The inclusion of VQLQ in the initial evaluation of these patients may potentially guide allergist in providing support for venom-specific immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia , Venenos de Artrópodes , Himenópteros , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Transversais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Dessensibilização Imunológica
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(6)2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542470

RESUMO

Allergen-specific venom immunotherapy (VIT) is a well-established therapy for Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA). However, the precise mechanism underlying its clinical effect remains uncertain. Our study aimed to identify the molecular mechanisms associated with VIT efficiency. We prospectively included 19 patients with HVA undergoing VIT (sampled before the beginning of VIT, after reaching the maintenance dose, one year after finishing VIT, and after a sting challenge) and 9 healthy controls. RNA sequencing of whole blood was performed on an Illumina sequencing platform. Longitudinal transcriptomic profiling revealed the importance of the inhibition of the NFκB pathway and the downregulation of DUX4 transcripts for the early protection and induction of tolerance after finishing VIT. Furthermore, successful treatment was associated with inhibiting Th2, Th17, and macrophage alternative signalling pathways in synergy with the inhibition of the PPAR pathway and further silencing of the Th2 response. The immune system became activated when reaching the maintenance dose and was suppressed after finishing VIT. Finally, successful VIT restores the immune system's balance to a state similar to that of healthy individuals. Our results underline the important role of the inhibition of four pathways in the clinical effect of VIT: Th2, Th17, NFκB, and macrophage signalling. Two biomarkers specific for successful VIT, regardless of the time of sampling, were C4BPA and RPS10-NUDT3 and should be further tested as potential biomarkers.


Assuntos
Venenos de Artrópodes , Himenópteros , Hipersensibilidade , Animais , Humanos , Himenópteros/genética , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Hipersensibilidade/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Imunoterapia , Biomarcadores , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Expressão Gênica
11.
Toxicon ; 241: 107685, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503352

RESUMO

Determination of protein concentration in Hymenoptera venoms requires an accurate and reproducible assay as the results will be used to support subsequent proteomic techniques employed in their analyses. However, all protein assay techniques have inherent strengths and weaknesses, demanding their assessment before selecting the most suitable platform for sample analysis. In this study, protein profiles of ant, honeybee, and wasp venoms, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) and hyaluronidase standards were qualitatively assessed using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Their amino acid and protein concentration were quantitatively determined via Amino Acid Analysis (AAA). Amino acid concentration was determined via hydrolysis, derivatization, and chromatographic quantification. Protein concentration was estimated using four different protein concentration assays. The ratios of protein concentration in venom samples to protein standards were calculated, and the accuracy of the protein concentration assays was analysed relative to the concentration determined from AAA. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that BSA contained several protein bands, while hyaluronidase contained a mixture of peptide and protein bands. Ant and honeybee venoms contained a higher proportion of peptide bands, while wasp venom contained more protein bands. As determined by AAA, the ratio of protein concentration in Hymenoptera venoms varied between 1.01 and 1.11 to BSA, and between 0.96 and 1.06 to hyaluronidase. Overall, the Bradford assay was found to be the least accurate and the BCA assay was the most accurate in estimating protein concentration in Hymenoptera venoms. There was no significant advantage in using hyaluronidase as a standard or increasing incubation temperature of BCA assay when analysing Hymenoptera venoms. Diluent solutions containing phenol and human serum albumin interfered with Lowry-based assays.


Assuntos
Venenos de Artrópodes , Venenos de Abelha , Himenópteros , Abelhas , Humanos , Animais , Proteoma , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/análise , Proteômica , Venenos de Vespas , Peçonhas , Aminoácidos , Soroalbumina Bovina , Peptídeos , Alérgenos
12.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 185(7): 694-703, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503271

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While a consensus seems to have been reached with regard to the definition of anaphylaxis, there is no universal instrument for scoring allergic reaction severity despite more than 30 having been proposed by the time of writing. This severely hampers comparison of data between studies. While scales have been compared with regard to their utility in grading food-related reactions, no such comparisons have been made for Hymenoptera venom-associated reactions. METHODS: The study conducted a retrospective analysis to compare the severity of Hymenoptera venom allergy reactions in 104 participants with suspected Hymenoptera venom allergy. The study applied six grading instruments to each reaction, also evaluating them against the NIAID/FAAN anaphylaxis criteria. Sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (AUC) for identifying anaphylaxis were calculated. Severity scales were simplified into "mild," "moderate," and "severe" categories. The most common severity grade across the five scales was determined using a custom function to establish a consensus severity grade. RESULTS: The most common culprit insects were honeybees (49.0%). Among the 88 participants with generalized reactions, the highest proportion had involvement of four organ systems. The scales showed high specificity for detecting anaphylaxis, especially when using higher grades of the Mueller, WAO, and Dribin scales. The diagnostic yields (AUC) varied, with the WAO scale having the highest AUC (0.94) for grades 3, 4, and 5. Spearman correlation analysis showed the strongest correlations seen between the Brown and Dribin, Ring and Messmer and Dribin, and Ring and Messmer and Reisman scales. The lowest correlations were observed with the Mueller scale when paired with the WAO, Reisman, and Dribin scales. An inter-rater reliability analysis showed substantial agreement between scales with the same number of grading levels. The agreement was highest for the Brown and Dribin scales, indicating a strong consistency in reaction severity classification across different instruments. CONCLUSION: While all instruments were effective in stratifying reactions, they showed limitations in differentiating milder phenotypes. The Brown and Dribin scales stood out for their high agreement with the consensus score and sensitivity in identifying anaphylaxis. Our findings suggest that adopting either of these scales could significantly unify the reporting of allergic reactions. We believe the format of an instrument should be tailored to its intended purpose, with clinical decision aids being simpler and research tools being more detailed.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia , Himenópteros , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Adulto , Anafilaxia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Himenópteros/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Venenos de Artrópodes/imunologia , Venenos de Artrópodes/efeitos adversos , Alérgenos/imunologia , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/diagnóstico , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Criança
13.
Toxicon ; 240: 107630, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342412

RESUMO

The pathophysiology of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) involves deficiencies in the proliferation and migration capacities of endometrial stromal cells (hESCs), which impair embryo implantation and development. Since animal venoms are rich source of bioactive molecules, we aimed to characterize the cytoprotective effects of Lonomia obliqua venom on hESCs. hESCs were isolated from endometrial biopsies and the mechanisms of L. obliqua venomous secretions on cell viability, proliferation and migration were characterized. Venom components were identified by chromatography and proteomic analyses. L. obliqua venom induced hESC proliferation, viability and migration in a dose-dependent manner, both in the presence and absence of serum. By ion-exchange chromatography, one fraction enriched in cytoprotective components and devoid of hemotoxins was obtained. Venom proteome identified at least six protein classes with potential cytoprotective properties (hemolins, lipocalins, hemocyannins, antiviral proteins, antimicrobial peptides, and protease inhibitors). L. obliqua venom protected hESCs from oxidative insult. Cytoprotection was also related to nitric oxide and PKC-ERK-activation and down-regulation of cAMP-PKA-dependent pathways that control cell proliferation. L. obliqua venom-induced hESC viability, proliferation and migration occurs mainly by protecting against oxidative damage and activating ERK. Thus, L. obliqua venom components are promising pharmacological tools to understand the underlying mechanisms of hESC deficiency in RPL.


Assuntos
Venenos de Artrópodes , Animais , Humanos , Venenos de Artrópodes/química , Proteômica , Células Epiteliais
14.
Dermatologie (Heidelb) ; 75(2): 126-133, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38214725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Germany, honeybees (Apis mellifera) and various Vespula species (wasps) are primarily relevant for hypersensitivity reactions to stings. Hornets (Vespa crabro), bumblebees, paper wasps (Polistes) and yellowjackets (Dolichovespula) less frequently cause sting reactions. OBJECTIVE: What effects do intensive agricultural utilization and climate change have on the living conditions and occurrence of Hymenoptera and what consequences do they have for the diagnostics and treatment of hypersensitivity reactions to Hymenoptera stings. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A literature search was carried out. RESULTS: Honeybees and wild bees are endangered due to introduced diseases, invasive species and pesticides. The aim of widespread beekeeping activity is to protect honeybees, which is why no reduction in stings is to be expected despite increased bee mortality. In Germany, there is evidence of the spread of thermophilic Polistes species (paper wasps) from south to north and the immigration of Vespa velutina nigrithorax (Asian hornet). It is unlikely that these species will lead to a significant increase in sting reactions. Nests of the red fire ant (Solenopsis invicta), which was originally common in South America, were first detected in Sicily in 2022. Red fire ants are aggressive insects with a high potential for adverse sting reactions. CONCLUSION: Invasive insects must be considered as a trigger in the anamnesis and diagnostics. Diagnostics are only available for the detection of Polistes sensitization. Therapeutic allergens can be obtained from other European countries for venom immunotherapy of a Polistes allergy. Due to cross-reactivity, diagnostic and therapeutic allergens from Vespula spp. are used for the diagnosis and treatment of suspected allergies to the Asian hornet.


Assuntos
Formigas , Venenos de Artrópodes , Hipersensibilidade , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos , Hipersensibilidade a Veneno , Vespas , Abelhas , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/diagnóstico , Venenos de Vespas , Hipersensibilidade/diagnóstico , Alérgenos , Formigas Lava-Pés
15.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 53(2): 194-200, 2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38268403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To isolate a potassium ion channel Kv4.1 inhibitor from centipede venom, and to determine its sequence and structure. METHODS: Ion-exchange chromatography and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography were performed to separate and purify peptide components of centipede venom, and their inhibiting effect on Kv4.1 channel was determined by whole-cell patch clamp recording. The molecular weight of isolated peptide Kv4.1 channel inhibitor was identified with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry; its primary sequence was determined by Edman degradation sequencing and two-dimensional mass spectrometry; its structure was established based on iterative thread assembly refinement online analysis. RESULTS: A peptide SsTx-P2 was separated from centipede venom with the molecular weight of 6122.8, and its primary sequence consists of 53 amino acid residues NH2-ELTWDFVRTCCKLFPDKSECTKACATEFTGGDESRLKDVWPRKLRSGDSRLKD-OH. Peptide SsTx-P2 potently inhibited the current of Kv4.1 channel transiently transfected in HEK293 cell, with 1.0 µmol/L SsTx-P2 suppressing 95% current of Kv4.1 channel. Its structure showed that SsTx-P2 shared a conserved helical structure. CONCLUSIONS: The study has isolated a novel peptide SsTx-P2 from centipede venom, which can potently inhibit the potassium ion channel Kv4.1 and displays structural conservation.


Assuntos
Sequência de Aminoácidos , Venenos de Artrópodes , Canais de Potássio Shal , Animais , Humanos , Venenos de Artrópodes/química , Venenos de Artrópodes/farmacologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Peptídeos/química , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/farmacologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/isolamento & purificação , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/química , Canais de Potássio Shal/antagonistas & inibidores , Quilópodes/química
16.
Allergy ; 79(3): 702-710, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38093663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic data on occupational anaphylaxis is scarce, and there is a need of more knowledge about work-related anaphylactic episodes. METHODS: Based on the data of the Anaphylaxis Registry, we identified cases related to occupational exposure and analyzed the elicitors, demographics, severity of clinical reaction and management. RESULTS: Since 2017, 5851 cases with an information about the occupational relation of the anaphylactic episode were registered whereby 225 (3.8%) were assigned to be caused by an occupational allergen. The vast majority of these occupational anaphylaxis cases were caused by insects (n = 186, 82.7%) followed by food (n = 27, 12.0%) and drugs (n = 8, 3.6%). Latex elicited occupational anaphylaxis in only two cases. Beekeepers, gardeners, farmers, and individuals working in professions associated with food handling, for example, employees in restaurants, bakery, pastry, and cooks were most frequently affected. The comparison of the occupational insect venom-induced anaphylaxis to a group of non-occupational insect anaphylaxis in adults (n = 1842) revealed a significant younger age in occupational anaphylaxis (46 vs. 53 years), a predominance of bee-induced cases (38% vs. 17%), and a higher rate of venom immunotherapy in a primary care setting (3.3% vs. 1.3%, p = .044). In the occupational- versus non-occupational adults with food-induced anaphylaxis atopic dermatitis as concomitant atopic disease was observed more frequently (n = 486; 20% vs. 10%), although this was not significant. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate the impact of venom allergy in work-related anaphylaxis. Foods and drugs are less frequently elicitors, and latex-induced occupational anaphylaxis was rare. More data are needed to determine risk factors associated with occupational anaphylaxis.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia , Venenos de Artrópodes , Adulto , Humanos , Abelhas , Animais , Anafilaxia/etiologia , Anafilaxia/induzido quimicamente , Látex , Fatores de Risco , Venenos de Artrópodes/efeitos adversos , Alérgenos , Insetos , Sistema de Registros
18.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 45(1): 50-52, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38151734

RESUMO

Background: Hymenoptera venom anaphylaxis (HVA) is reported in up to 3% of stings and accounts for approximately 40 US deaths annually. HVA patients require immediate availability of epinephrine and Allergist referrals for consideration of venom immunotherapy. Data regarding epinephrine autoinjector prescriptions, Allergist referral rates, and potential racial disparities are limited. Objective: The primary objective was to determine if there were statistically significant differences in epinephrine autoinjector prescriptions and Allergist referrals between white and African American patients. The secondary objectives were to determine if there were statistically significant differences between adult and pediatric patients and to determine if there were significant differences between epinephrine prescriptions between patients with and without Allergist referrals. Method: This study is a retrospective, descriptive chart review analyzing patients seen between January 01, 2019 and December 31, 2021. Data were obtained utilizing the Epic Systems (Verona, WI) application Slicer Dicer. Individual chart review was performed for age, race, epinephrine autoinjector prescription, and Allergist referral. Results: 342 patients were identified as having HVA. White patients (60 out of 219; 27.4%) were more likely to get epinephrine autoinjector prescriptions than African American patients (17 out of 109; 15.6%) (p = 0.018). Adult patients (25 out of 314; 8.0%) were less likely than pediatric patients (8 out of 28; 28.6%) to have Allergist referrals (p = 0.004). Patients with Allergist referrals (25 out of 32; 78.1%) were more likely to be prescribed an epinephrine autoinjector than patient without Allergist referrals (54 out of 310; 17.4%) (p < 0.00001). Conclusion: Epinephrine autoinjector prescriptions and Allergist referrals are low overall in HVA. Racial disparities were identified with African American patients being significantly less likely to receive epinephrine autoinjector prescriptions. Additionally, adult patients, who may be at increased risk, were less likely to receive Allergist referrals.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia , Venenos de Artrópodes , Adulto , Humanos , Criança , Estudos Retrospectivos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Anafilaxia/tratamento farmacológico , Anafilaxia/epidemiologia , Anafilaxia/etiologia , Epinefrina/uso terapêutico , Desigualdades de Saúde
19.
Toxicon ; 238: 107588, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38147939

RESUMO

Pest insects pose a heavy burden on global agricultural industries with small molecule insecticides being predominantly used for their control. Unwanted side effects and resistance development plagues most small molecule insecticides such as the neonicotinoids, which have been reported to be harmful to honeybees. Bioinsecticides like Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins can be used as environmentally-friendly alternatives. Arachnid venoms comprise another promising source of bioinsecticides, containing a multitude of selective and potent insecticidal toxins. Unfortunately, no standardised insect models are currently available to assess the suitability of insecticidal agents under laboratory conditions. Thus, we aimed to develop a laboratory model that closely mimics field conditions by employing a leaf disk assay (LDA) for oral application of insecticidal agents in a bioassay tray format. Neonate larvae of the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) were fed with soybean (Glycine max) leaves that were treated with different insecticidal agents. We observed dose-dependent insecticidal effects for Bt toxin and the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid, with imidacloprid exhibiting a faster response. Furthermore, we identified several insecticidal arachnid venoms that were active when co-applied with sub-lethal doses of Bt toxin. We propose the H. armigera LDA as a suitable tool for assessing the insecticidal effects of insecticidal agents against lepidopterans.


Assuntos
Venenos de Artrópodes , Bacillus thuringiensis , Inseticidas , Mariposas , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Toxinas Biológicas , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Animais , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Glycine max , Helicoverpa armigera , Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis/farmacologia , Larva , Insetos , Toxinas Biológicas/farmacologia , Venenos de Artrópodes/farmacologia , Bioensaio , Folhas de Planta , Proteínas de Bactérias/farmacologia , Proteínas Hemolisinas/toxicidade , Endotoxinas , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Resistência a Inseticidas
20.
Toxicon ; 238: 107568, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38110040

RESUMO

Most anti-inflammatory drugs currently adopted to treat chronic inflammatory joint diseases can alleviate symptoms but they do not lead to remission. Therefore, new and more efficient drugs are needed to block the course of joint inflammatory diseases. Animal venoms, rich in bioactive compounds, can contribute as valuable tools in this field of research. In this study, we first demonstrate the direct action of venoms on cells that constitute the articular joints. We established a platform consisting of cell-based assays to evaluate the release of cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, TNFα, IL-1ß, and IL-10) by human chondrocytes, synoviocytes and THP1 macrophages, as well as the release of neuropeptides (substance-P and ß-endorphin) by differentiated sensory neuron-like cells, 24 h after stimulation of cells with 21 animal venoms from snake and arthropod species, sourced from different taxonomic families and geographic origins. Results demonstrated that at non-cytotoxic concentrations, the venoms activate at varying degrees the secretion of inflammatory mediators involved in the pathology of articular diseases, such as IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α by chondrocytes, synoviocytes, and macrophages and of substance P by neuron-like cells. Venoms of the Viperidae snake family were more inflammatory than those of the Elapidae family, while venoms of Arthropods were less inflammatory than snake venoms. Notably, some venoms also induced the release of the anti-inflammatory IL-10 by macrophages. However, the scorpion Buthus occitanus venom induced the release of IL-10 without increasing the release of inflammatory cytokines by macrophages. Since the cell types used in the experiments are crucial elements in joint inflammatory processes, the results of this work may guide future research on the activation of receptors and inflammatory signaling pathways by selected venoms in these particular cells, aiming at discovering new targets for therapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Animais Peçonhentos , Venenos de Artrópodes , Artrópodes , Artropatias , Venenos de Escorpião , Escorpiões , Viperidae , Animais , Humanos , Interleucina-10 , Interleucina-6 , Interleucina-8 , Venenos de Serpentes/química , Citocinas , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Anti-Inflamatórios
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