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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682673

RESUMO

In February 2020, the paper "Sugar-Sweetened and Diet Beverage Consumption in Philadelphia One Year after the Beverage Tax" was published in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health [...].


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente , Açúcares , Bebidas , Philadelphia , Saúde Pública , Impostos
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682675

RESUMO

Thank you for the opportunity to respond to the recent letter to the editor regarding our paper "Sugar-Sweetened and Diet Beverage Consumption in Philadelphia One Year after the Beverage Tax" [...].


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente , Açúcares , Bebidas , Philadelphia , Saúde Pública , Impostos
3.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(9): 1159-1167, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619938

RESUMO

Objective: Using Meta-analysis to evaluate the relation of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) intakes and artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) intakes with risk of incident cardiovascular disease. Methods: "Sugar-sweetened beverages"(SSBs),"artificially sweetened beverages"(ASBs),"coronary heart disease"(CHD),"stroke","cardiovascular disease"(CVD), and related terms (both in English and in Chinese) were searched in Pubmed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane library, ProQuest, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang databases, and VIP Chinese Science and Technology Journal. Besides, it searched for additional references in websites including Clinical Tirals.gov and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. The time was up to May 31st 2020. Stata 13 software was used to calculate pooled RR, perform heterogeneity test, and assess publication bias. Results: A total of 14 articles were included from the 40 804 articles retrieved, including 12 articles from European and American countries and 2 articles from Asian countries. The baseline mean age of the participants ranged from 52 to 69 years, and the mean follow-up time was from 6 to 26 years. Meta-analysis showed that compared with those in the lowest group, the RR (95%CI) for those in the highest group of SSBs consumption was 1.11 (1.04-1.08) for CHD, 1.10 (1.01-1.19) for stroke, and 1.09 (0.96-1.24) for CVD events. The corresponding RR (95%CI) comparing extreme groups of ASBs consumption was 1.10 (0.98-1.23) for CHD, 1.19 (1.09-1.29) for stroke, and 1.32 (1.15-1.52) for CVD events. Further analysis for subtypes of stroke showed that compared with the lowest group, the RR (95%CI) for those in the highest groups of SSBs consumption was 1.10 (0.99-1.22) for ischemic stroke and 0.86 (0.71-1.04) for hemorrhagic stroke. The corresponding RR (95%CI) comparing extreme consumption of ASBs was 1.23 (1.04-1.46) for ischemic stroke and 1.33 (1.03-1.72) for hemorrhagic stroke. Conclusion: Higher consumption of SSBs or ASBs may lead to increased risk of incident CHD and stroke (particularly ischemic stroke).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Idoso , Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente , Bebidas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Sacarose na Dieta , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Edulcorantes/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos
4.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579031

RESUMO

Consumption of diet beverages (DB) containing low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) is widespread in the United States. LCS are ingested by nursing infants upon maternal DB consumption, which may impact infants' weight and health. This study aims to examine cross-sectional associations between infants' LCS exposure via maternal DB intake during lactation and infants' health outcomes. Six hundred and eighty-two mother-infant dyads at three months postpartum, from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II, 2005-2007, were included in the analysis. Maternal DB consumption during lactation was estimated using the serving size and frequency of DB consumption reported on the diet history questionnaire. Infants' LCS exposure was estimated by multiplying maternal DB consumption and breastfeeding intensity. Infant outcomes included weight, weight-for-age and BMI-for-age z-scores, overweight, and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms including diarrhea, reflux, and vomiting. Associations between infants' LCS exposure and continuous and categorical outcomes were examined using linear and logistic regressions adjusting for confounders, respectively. Forty-three percent of lactating women reported DB consumption. While no significant associations were observed between infants' LCS exposure and BMI-for-age or risk of overweight, infants' LCS exposure was associated with a 2.78-fold increased risk of vomiting (95% confidence interval 1.05-7.34). Potential adverse effects of LCS exposure on GI symptoms require further study, and null findings on infant weight should be interpreted with caution, given the small sample size. Additional research is needed to inform recommendations for or against DB consumption during lactation.


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente , Aleitamento Materno , Lactação , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Edulcorantes , Estados Unidos
5.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444794

RESUMO

Although studies have examined the association between habitual consumption of sugar- (SSBs) and artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) and health outcomes, the results are inconclusive. Here, we conducted a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies in order to summarize the relationship between SSBs and ASBs consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), and all-cause mortality. All relevant articles were systematically searched in PubMed, Embase, and Ovid databases until 20 June 2020. Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria and were eligible for analysis. Summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using random effects or fixed-effects model for highest versus lowest intake categories, as well as for linear and non-linear relationships. With each additional SSB and ASB serving per day, the risk increased by 27% (RR: 1.27, 95%CI: 1.15-1.41, I2 = 80.8%) and 13% (95%CI: 1.03-1.25, I2 = 78.7%) for T2D, 9% (RR: 1.09, 95%CI: 1.07-1.12, I2 = 42.7%) and 8% (RR: 1.08, 95%CI: 1.04-1.11, I2 = 45.5%) for CVDs, and 10% (RR: 1.10, 95%CI: 0.97-1.26, I2 = 86.3%) and 7% (RR: 1.07, 95%CI: 0.91-1.25, I2 = 76.9%) for all-cause mortality. Linear relationships were found for SSBs with T2D and CVDs. Non-linear relationships were found for ASBs with T2D, CVDs, and all-cause mortality and for SSBs with all-cause mortality. The findings from the current meta-analysis indicate that increased consumption of SSBs and ASBs is associated with the risk of T2D, CVDs, and all-cause mortality.


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Açúcares/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Edulcorantes
6.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444862

RESUMO

Recent studies using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) have used inconsistent approaches to identify and categorize beverages, especially those containing low-calorie sweeteners (LCS), also referred to as low-calorie sweetened beverages (LCSBs). Herein, we investigate the approaches used to identify and categorize LCSBs in recent analyses of NHANES data. We reviewed published studies examining LCS consumption in relation to dietary and health outcomes and extracted the methods used to categorize LCS as reported by the authors of each study. We then examined the extent to which these approaches reliably identified LCSBs using the Internet Archive Wayback Machine to examine beverage ingredients lists across three NHANES cycles (2011-2016). None of the four general strategies used appeared to include all LCSBs while also excluding all beverages that did not contain LCS. In some cases, the type of sweetener in the beverage consumed could not be clearly determined; we found 9, 16, and 18 of such "mixed" beverage identifiers in the periods 2011-2012, 2013-2014, and 2015-2016, respectively. Then, to illustrate how heterogeneity in beverage categorization may impact the outcomes of published analyses, we compared results of a previously published analysis with outcomes when "mixed" beverages were grouped either all as LCSBs or all as sugary beverages. Our results suggest that caution is warranted in design and interpretation of studies using NHANES data to examine dietary and health correlates of sweetened beverage intake.


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente/classificação , Bebidas/classificação , Ingredientes de Alimentos/análise , Inquéritos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Edulcorantes/análise , Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente/análise , Bebidas/análise , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estados Unidos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938398

RESUMO

Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors are commonly used to treat erectile dysfunction. There is a problem with synthesis and illegal use of a wide range of analogues of the licenced drugs and a simple class-wide analytical method is required. In this work, based on structural modelling, we developed an immunological method using norneovardenafil as a hapten as it contains only the general sub-structure and the common features of sildenafil-like adulterants, such as hydrophobic centres, hydrogen-bond donor atoms and hydrogen-bond acceptor atoms. Thus theoretically it could induce production of antibody which could recognise multiple sildenafil-like adulterants. By immunising rabbits, a group-specific polyclonal antibody was obtained with the desired broad-spectrum molecular recognition performance against sildenafil-like adulterants. Then, an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) was developed for the detection of sildenafil-like adulterants in herbal spirit drinks. Under the optimised conditions, the icELISA method showed broad linear ranges for acetildenafil, sildenafil and vardenafil respectively of 0.7 to 27.7 µg/kg, 1.0 to 70.7 µg/kg and 1.5 to 22.7 µg/kg, with half-maximal inhibition concentration (IC50) values of 4.5 µg/kg, 8.3 µg/kg and 5.7 µg/kg, respectively. For eleven herbal spirit drinks, there was good agreement between total levels of sildenafil-like adulterants measured by icELISA and levels of each of four individual adulterants determined by LC-MS/MS. In short, the developed icELISA can be employed for rapid and simple screening for adulteration of herbal spirit drinks with sildenafil-like compounds.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/química , Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Citrato de Sildenafila/química , Animais , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Haptenos/química , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Moleculares , Coelhos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920365

RESUMO

Taurine is one of the main ingredients used in energy drinks which are highly consumed in adolescents for their sugary taste and stimulating effect. With energy drinks becoming a worldwide phenomenon, the biological effects of these beverages must be evaluated in order to fully comprehend the potential impact of these products on the health due to the fact nutrition is closely related to science since the population consumes food to prevent certain diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the biological effects of taurine, glucose, classic Red Bull® and sugar-free Red Bull® in order to check the food safety and the nutraceutical potential of these compounds, characterising different endpoints: (i) Toxicology, antitoxicology, genotoxicology and life expectancy assays were performed in the Drosophila melanogaster model organism; (ii) The in vitro chemopreventive activity of testing compounds was determined by assessing their cytotoxicity, the proapoptotic DNA-damage capability to induce internucleosomal fragmentation, the strand breaks activity and the modulator role on the methylation status of genomic repetitive sequences of HL-60 promyelocytic cells. Whereas none tested compounds showed toxic or genotoxic effect, all tested compounds exerted antitoxic and antigenotoxic activity in Drosophila. Glucose, classic Red Bull® and sugar-free Red Bull® were cytotoxic in HL-60 cell line. Classic Red Bull® induced DNA internucleosomal fragmentation although none of them exhibited DNA damage on human leukaemia cells. In conclusion, the tested compounds are safe on Drosophila melanogaster and classic Red Bull® could overall possess nutraceutical potential in the in vivo and in vitro model used in this study. Besides, taurine could holistically be one of the bioactive compounds responsible for the biological activity of classic Red Bull®.


Assuntos
Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Fragmentação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Bebidas Energéticas/análise , Glucose/farmacologia , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente/análise , Cafeína/análise , Bebidas Gaseificadas/análise , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaio Cometa , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Drosophila melanogaster/efeitos dos fármacos , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Feminino , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino
9.
Adv Nutr ; 12(2): 374-383, 2021 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786594

RESUMO

Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and artificially sweetened beverage (ASB) intakes have been reported to be associated with mortality; however, conclusions have been inconsistent. This review synthesized the evidence on the associations of SSB and ASB intakes with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer among all populations (including general, diseased, or occupational populations, etc.). PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, ProQuest, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched up to March 2020. Fifteen studies including 17 cohorts were included in meta-analyses. Each serving (12 fluid ounces or 355 mL) increase in daily SSB consumption was associated with higher risks of all-cause (HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.12; 11 cohorts with 965,851 participants) and CVD (HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.12; 13 cohorts with 898,005 participants) mortality. The associations of ASB intakes with all-cause and CVD mortality were J-shaped, and HRs (95% CI) across different doses (0, 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 servings/d) were 1.00, 1.01 (0.99, 1.03), 1.04 (1.02, 1.07), 1.08 (1.05, 1.11), and 1.13 (1.09, 1.18) for all-cause mortality and 1.00, 1.01 (0.96, 1.07), 1.07 (1.01, 1.13), 1.15 (1.08, 1.23), and 1.25 (1.14, 1.37) for CVD mortality. No significant association was found for cancer mortality. According to the NutriGrade scoring system, the quality of evidence on the associations of SSB intakes with all-cause and CVD mortality was high, and the quality of evidence on other associations was low to moderate. In summary, higher SSB and ASB intakes were associated with higher risks of all-cause mortality and CVD mortality. Given the limited evidence, future studies should further investigate the association between ASB intakes and cause-specific mortality.


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Edulcorantes , Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas/análise , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Edulcorantes/efeitos adversos
10.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48056

RESUMO

“O lado oculto das bebidas açucaradas: doenças, mortes e custos à saúde" é uma pesquisa internacional realizada ao longo de 2020 com o objetivo de estimar as cargas de doenças atribuíveis ao consumo de bebidas açucaradas em países da América Latina. O estudo foi coordenado pelo Instituto de Efectividad Clinica y Sanitária (IECS), e contou com a participação de pesquisadores em saúde de universidades, centros de pesquisa e instituições públicas da Argentina (IECS), Brasil (ACT Promoção da Saúde), El Salvador ( Ministério da Saúde) e Trinidad e Tobago (Universidade das Índias Ocidentais). Um projeto colaborativo, financiado pelo Centro de Desenvolvimento Internacional do Canadá (IDRC).


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente , Diabetes Mellitus
11.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(3): 930-938, 2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The overconsumption of sucrose is closely related to sugar-sweetened beverages and one of the main factors associated with the increase of metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and insulin resistance. So, the addition of alternative sweeteners to new fruit-based drinks could contribute to minimizing the incidence or severity of these pathologies. Nevertheless, current knowledge on the influence of these additives on the bioactive compounds present in these beverages is still scarce.new-onset hypertension, but few data were published in Asian. We aimed to investigate the association of lipid profiles with new-onset hypertension in a Chinese community-based non-hypertensive cohort without lipid-lowering treatment (n = 1802). METHODS AND RESULTS: Hence, to contribute to the understanding of this issue, the plasma concentration of phenolic compounds (anthocyanins and flavanones), after the ingestion of a new maqui-citrus-based beverage, supplemented with sucrose (natural high caloric), stevia (natural non-caloric), or sucralose (artificial non-caloric), was evaluated as evidence of their intestinal absorption and metabolism previous to renal excretion. The beverages were ingested by volunteers (n = 20) and the resulting phenolic metabolites in plasma were analyzed by UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS. A total of 13 metabolites were detected: caffeic acid sulfate, caffeic acid glucuronide, 3,4-dihydroxyfenylacetic, 3,4-dihydroxyfenylacetic sulfate. 3,4-dihydroxyfenylacetic acid di-sulfate, 3,4-dihydroxyfenylacetic di-glucuronide, 3,4-dihydroxyfenylacetic glucuronide-sulfate, trans-ferulic acid glucuronide, naringenin glucuronide, vanillic acid, vanillic acid sulfate, vanillic acid glucuronide-sulfate, and vanillic acid di-glucuronide, being recorded their maximum concentration after 30-60 min. CONCLUSION: In general, sucralose provided the greatest absorption value for most of these metabolites, followed by stevia. Due to this, the present study proposes sucralose and stevia (non-caloric sweeteners) as valuable alternatives to sucrose (high caloric sweetener), to avoid the augmented risk of several metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/sangue , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Edulcorantes/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Antocianinas/administração & dosagem , Antocianinas/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Flavanonas/administração & dosagem , Flavanonas/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adoçantes não Calóricos/administração & dosagem , Espanha , Stevia , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Sacarose/análogos & derivados
12.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 320(5): R641-R652, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533320

RESUMO

In healthy humans, fructose-sweetened water consumption increases blood pressure variability (BPV) and decreases spontaneous cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity (cBRS) and heart rate variability (HRV). However, whether consuming commercially available soft drinks containing high levels of fructose elicits similar responses is unknown. We hypothesized that high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)-sweetened soft drink consumption increases BPV and decreases cBRS and HRV to a greater extent compared with artificially sweetened (diet) and sucrose-sweetened (sucrose) soft drinks and water. Twelve subjects completed four randomized, double-blinded trials in which they drank 500 mL of water or commercially available soft drinks matched for taste and caffeine content. We continuously measured beat-to-beat blood pressure (photoplethysmography) and R-R interval (ECG) before and 30 min after drink consumption during supine rest for 5 min during spontaneous and paced breathing. BPV was evaluated using standard deviation (SD), average real variability (ARV), and successive variation (SV) methods for systolic and diastolic blood pressure. cBRS was assessed using the sequence method. HRV was evaluated using the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) in R-R interval. There were no differences between conditions in the magnitude of change from baseline in SD, ARV, and SV (P ≥ 0.07). There were greater reductions in cBRS during spontaneous breathing in the HFCS (-3 ± 5 ms/mmHg) and sucrose (-3 ± 5 ms/mmHg) trials compared with the water trial (+1 ± 5 ms/mmHg, P < 0.03). During paced breathing, HFCS evoked greater reductions in RMSSD compared with water (-26 ± 34 vs. +2 ± 26 ms, P < 0.01). These findings suggest that sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption alters cBRS and HRV but not BPV.


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente/efeitos adversos , Barorreflexo , Pressão Sanguínea , Frequência Cardíaca , Coração/inervação , Xarope de Milho Rico em Frutose/efeitos adversos , Sacarose/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Nervo Vago/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Respiração , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557387

RESUMO

The consumption of sweet beverages, including sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), artificial-sweetened beverages (ASB) and fruit juices (FJ), is associated with the risk of different cardiometabolic diseases. It may also be linked to the development of certain types of tumors. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies aimed at examining the association between sweet beverage intake and cancer risk. Suitable articles published up to June 2020 were sourced through PubMed, Web of Science and SCOPUS databases. Overall, 64 studies were identified, of which 27 were selected for the meta-analysis. This was performed by analyzing the multivariable-adjusted OR, RR or HR of the highest sweet beverage intake categories compared to the lowest one. Random effects showed significant positive association between SSB intake and breast (RR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01-1.30) and prostate cancer risk (RR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.10-1.27) and also between FJs and prostate cancer risk (RR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.05). Although the statistically significant threshold was not reached, there tended to be positive associations for the following: SSBs and colorectal and pancreatic cancer risk; FJs and breast, colorectal and pancreatic cancer risk; and ASBs and pancreatic cancer risk. This study recommends limiting sweet beverage consumption. Furthermore, we propose to establish a homogeneous classification of beverages and investigate them separately, to better understand their role in carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente/efeitos adversos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente/estatística & dados numéricos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Eur J Nutr ; 60(4): 1945-1955, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945955

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Current evidence on the associations between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intakes and mortality is inconsistent, whereas the evidence on artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) was sparse. We aimed to investigate the associations of SSB and ASB intakes with mortality in a nationally representative sample of US adults. METHODS: Participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 1999-2014; n = 31,402) were linked to the US mortality registry by the end of 2015. SSB and ASB intakes were collected using 24-h dietary recalls. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to assess the associations of intakes of SSBs, ASBs, and added sugar from SSBs with mortality with adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, comorbidity, and dietary factors. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 7.9 years, 3878 deaths were identified. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) associated with each additional serving/d of SSB were 1.05 (1.01-1.09) for all-cause mortality and 1.11 (1.03-1.21) for heart disease mortality. Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing the extreme quintiles of added sugar intakes from SSBs were 1.22 (1.05-1.42) for all-cause mortality and 1.45 (1.06-1.97) for heart disease mortality. No significant relationship was found between SSB intakes and cancer mortality or between high ASB intakes and mortality. Substituting one serving/d of SSB by an equivalent amount of ASBs, unsweetened coffees and teas, and plain water was associated with a 4-7% lower risk of all-cause mortality. CONCLUSION: Higher SSB intakes were associated with higher risks of all-cause mortality and heart disease mortality. High ASB intakes were not significantly associated with mortality. ASBs, unsweetened coffees and teas, and plain water might be optional alternatives for reducing SSB intakes.


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Adulto , Bebidas/análise , Dieta , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Edulcorantes
15.
Eur J Nutr ; 60(4): 2087-2097, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030577

RESUMO

PURPOSE: It has been suggested that a high intake of sugar or sweeteners may result in an unfavorable microbiota composition; however, evidence is lacking. Hence, in this exploratory epidemiological study, we aim to examine if intake of added sugar, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) or artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) associate with the gut microbiota composition. METHODS: Participants (18-70 years) in the Malmö Offspring Study have provided blood, urine, and fecal samples and completed both web-based 4 day food records and short food frequency questionnaires. The gut microbiota was assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing, processed in QIIME and matched to Greengenes (v.13.8), giving 64 included genera after filtering. Intake of added sugar (n = 1371) (also supported by the overnight urinary sugar biomarker in a subgroup n = 577), SSBs (n = 1086) and ASBs (n = 1085) were examined as exposures in negative binomial regressions. RESULTS: Various genera nominally associated with intake of added sugar, SSBs, and ASBs. Only the negative association between SSB intake and Lachnobacterium remained significant after multiple testing correction. A positive association between SSB intake and the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio was also observed. CONCLUSION: In this wide population, the cross-sectional associations between added sugar and sweet beverage intake and the gut microbiota are modest, but the results suggest that SSB intake is associated negatively with the genus Lachnobacterium and positively with the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Larger studies, preferably using metagenomic sequencing, are needed to further evaluate if a link exists between intake of sugars and sweeteners and the human gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente , Bebidas , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Açúcares , Edulcorantes/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS Med ; 17(12): e1003453, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been consistently associated with a higher risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and premature mortality, whereas evidence for artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) and fruit juices on health is less solid. The aim of this study was to evaluate the consumption of SSBs, ASBs, and fruit juices in association with frailty risk among older women. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed data from 71,935 women aged ≥60 (average baseline age was 63) participating in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), an ongoing cohort study initiated in 1976 among female registered nurses in the United States. Consumption of beverages was derived from 6 repeated food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) administered between 1990 and 2010. Frailty was defined as having at least 3 of the following 5 criteria from the FRAIL scale: fatigue, poor strength, reduced aerobic capacity, having ≥5 chronic illnesses, and weight loss ≥5%. The occurrence of frailty was assessed every 4 years from 1992 to 2014. During 22 years of follow-up, we identified 11,559 incident cases of frailty. Consumption of SSBs was associated with higher risk of frailty after adjustment for diet quality, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, and medication use, specifically, the relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for ≥2 serving/day versus no SSB consumption was 1.32 (1.10, 1.57); p-value <0.001. ASBs were also associated with frailty [RR ≥2 serving/day versus no consumption: 1.28 (1.17, 1.39); p-value <0.001]. Orange juice was associated with lower risk of frailty [RR ≥1 serving/day versus no consumption: 0.82 (0.76, 0.87); p-value <0.001], whereas other juices were associated with a slightly higher risk [RR ≥1 serving/day versus no consumption: 1.15 (1.03, 1.28); p-value <0.001]. A limitation of this study is that, due to self-reporting of diet and frailty, certain misclassification bias cannot be ruled out; also, some residual confounding may persist. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that consumption of SSBs and ASBs was associated with a higher risk of frailty. However, orange juice intake showed an inverse association with frailty. These results need to be confirmed in further studies using other frailty definitions.


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente/efeitos adversos , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 4281802, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33204696

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the effects of chronic fluid restriction and hydration with a sweetened beverage (SB) in rats from weaning until adolescence, in a posterior acute kidney injury (AKI) event induced by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). We followed 5 groups of weaning rats: control group (C); two groups with 22 h/day fluid restriction, a group hydrated for two hours with water (-W) and a group hydrated with SB; one group receiving SB ad libitum all day (+SB); and one group in which water consumption was increased using a gel diet. The rats that reached adolescence were submitted to I/R. Fluid restriction and/or SB hydration induced mild renal alterations that were significantly accentuated in the -SB group and resulted in worse outcomes after I/R-induced AKI that resulted in a catastrophic fall in creatinine clearance and diffuse acute tubular necrosis. In summary, low tap water intakes, as well as SB intake in infancy, prompt kidney worse outcomes in a later event of AKI during adolescence and both insults magnify kidney damage. Studies on hydration habits in children are recommended to disclose the potentially harmful effects that those behavioral patterns might carry to future renal health.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Ingestão de Líquidos , Frutose/farmacologia , Animais , Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente , Frutoquinases/metabolismo , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Testes de Função Renal , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Lipocalina-2/metabolismo , Masculino , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo , Ratos Wistar , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/complicações , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/etiologia
19.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003245, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beverages, especially sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), have been increasingly subject to policies aimed at reducing their consumption as part of measures to tackle obesity. However, precision targeting of policies is difficult as information on what types of consumers they might affect, and to what degree, is missing. We fill this gap by creating a typology of beverage consumers in Great Britain (GB) based on observed beverage purchasing behaviour to determine what distinct types of beverage consumers exist, and what their socio-demographic (household) characteristics, dietary behaviours, and weight status are. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used cross-sectional latent class analysis to characterise patterns of beverage purchases. We used data from the 2016 GB Kantar Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) panel, a large representative household purchase panel of food and beverages brought home, and restricted our analyses to consumers who purchase beverages regularly (i.e., >52 l per household member annually) (n = 8,675). Six categories of beverages were used to classify households into latent classes: SSBs; diet beverages; fruit juices and milk-based beverages; beer and cider; wine; and bottled water. Multinomial logistic regression and linear regression were used to relate class membership to household characteristics, self-reported weight status, and other dietary behaviours, derived from GB Kantar FMCG. Seven latent classes were identified, characterised primarily by higher purchases of 1 or 2 categories of beverages: 'SSB' (18% of the sample; median SSB volume = 49.4 l/household member/year; median diet beverage volume = 38.0 l), 'Diet' (16%; median diet beverage volume = 94.4 l), 'Fruit & Milk' (6%; median fruit juice/milk-based beverage volume = 30.0 l), 'Beer & Cider' (7%; median beer and cider volume = 36.3 l; median diet beverage volume = 55.6 l), 'Wine' (18%; median wine volume = 25.5 l; median diet beverage volume = 34.3 l), 'Water' (4%; median water volume = 46.9 l), and 'Diverse' (30%; diversity of purchases, including median SSB volume = 22.4 l). Income was positively associated with being classified in the Diverse class, whereas low social grade was more likely for households in the classes SSB, Diet, and Beer & Cider. Obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2) was more prevalent in the class Diet (41.2%, 95% CI 37.7%-44.7%) despite households obtaining little energy from beverages in that class (17.9 kcal/household member/day, 95% CI 16.2-19.7). Overweight/obesity (BMI > 25 kg/m2) was above average in the class SSB (66.8%, 95% CI 63.7%-69.9%). When looking at all groceries, households from the class SSB had higher total energy purchases (1,943.6 kcal/household member/day, 95% CI 1,901.7-1,985.6), a smaller proportion of energy from fruits and vegetables (6.0%, 95% CI 5.8%-6.3%), and a greater proportion of energy from less healthy food and beverages (54.6%, 95% CI 54.0%-55.1%) than other classes. A greater proportion of energy from sweet snacks was observed for households in the classes SSB (18.5%, 95% CI 18.1%-19.0%) and Diet (18.8%, 95% CI 18.3%-19.3%). The main limitation of our analyses, in common with other studies, is that our data do not include information on food and beverage purchases that are consumed outside the home. CONCLUSIONS: Amongst households that regularly purchase beverages, those that mainly purchased high volumes of SSBs or diet beverages were at greater risk of obesity and tended to purchase less healthy foods, including a high proportion of energy from sweet snacks. These households might additionally benefit from policies targeting unhealthy foods, such as sweet snacks, as a way of reducing excess energy intake.


Assuntos
Bebidas/economia , Comércio/tendências , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Adulto , Animais , Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente , Cerveja , Peso Corporal , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Água Potável , Características da Família , Feminino , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Humanos , Renda , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Leite , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/psicologia , Reino Unido , Vinho
20.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957457

RESUMO

The need to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is widely accepted, but whether artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) are a recommended alternative is a growing policy issue because of emerging evidence of potential health effects associated with excess consumption. This study aimed to establish the extent of the Australian population's knowledge of the risks associated with consuming SSBs (e.g., soda) and ASBs (e.g., diet soda), which is essential for identifying which facets of knowledge to target with public health interventions. A national computer-assisted telephone survey of 3430 Australian adults was conducted in 2017. The survey included a range of measures to test associations between SSB and ASB knowledge and beliefs, demographic characteristics, and soda and diet soda consumption. Participants had an overall awareness that there were health risks associated with SSB and ASB consumption, but they lacked more detailed knowledge of health effects and nutritional composition of these drinks. These knowledge gaps are concerning given that SSBs and ASBs are consumed in large quantities in Australia. Public health interventions targeting consumers' limited knowledge and perceptions of health risks associated with excess sugar, calorie intake and artificial sweeteners are essential in reducing the health burden of obesity.


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Adolescente , Adulto , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Comportamento do Consumidor , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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