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1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(suppl 3): e20211430, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417611

RESUMO

Digeneans are common parasites of small mammals. Dicrocoeliidae is a family with a cosmopolitan distribution, with 18 genera previously recorded from mammals in the Americas, six of them parasitizing rodents in Argentina. In this study, an updated compilation is provided of Dicrocoeliidae from rodents in the Americas. Also, a new Platynosomoides species is described parasitizing the cricetid rodent Akodon montensis of the Atlantic Forest in Argentina. Digital repositories were used to search for Dicrocoeliidae from rodents in the Americas. Rodents were collected in four localities of the Atlantic Forest, Argentina. Digeneans were removed from the rodent's bile duct, and conventional studies were used for the morphological description. A total of 15 Dicrocoeliidae species were found parasitizing 18 rodent species from eight countries in the Americas. The new species of Platynosomoides from Akodon montensis differs from the other two species of genus by the size of body, testes, ovary, cecum length and position and length of the vitelline bands. Dicrocoeliidae show growing diversity, and the compilation of species in a rodent host base allows a clearer comparison and identification of new taxa in the future.


Assuntos
Dicrocoeliidae , Doenças dos Roedores , Trematódeos , Animais , Feminino , Roedores , Argentina , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Sigmodontinae , Arvicolinae
2.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1987): 20221164, 2022 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36416044

RESUMO

How do Great Gray Owls (Strix nebulosa) capture voles (Cricetidae) through a layer of snow? As snow is a visual barrier, the owls locate voles by ear alone. To test how snow absorbs and refracts vole sound, we inserted a loudspeaker under the snowpack and analysed sound from the loudspeaker, first buried, then unburied. Snow attenuation coefficients rose with frequency (0.3 dB cm-1 at 500 Hz, 0.6 dB cm-1 at 3 kHz) such that low-frequency sound transmitted best. The Great Gray Owl has the largest facial disc of any owl, suggesting they are adapted to use this low-frequency sound. We used an acoustic camera to spatially localize sound source location, and show that snow also refracts prey sounds (refractive index: 1.16). To an owl not directly above the prey, this refraction creates an 'acoustic mirage': prey acoustic position is offset from its actual location. Their hunting strategy defeats this mirage because they hover directly over prey, which is the listening position with least refraction and least attenuation. Among all birds, the Great Gray Owl has the most extreme wing morphologies associated with quiet flight. These extreme wing traits may function to reduce the sounds of hovering, with implications for bioinspiration.


Assuntos
Estrigiformes , Animais , Arvicolinae , Neve , Caça , Acústica
3.
Microbiome ; 10(1): 194, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seasonal breeding in mammals has been widely recognized to be regulated by photoperiod, but the association of gut microbiota with photoperiodic regulation of seasonal breeding has never been investigated. RESULTS: In this study, we investigated the association of gut microbiota with photoperiod-induced reproduction in male Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) through a long-day and short-day photoperiod manipulation experiment and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experiment. We found photoperiod significantly altered reproductive hormone and gene expression levels, and gut microbiota of voles. Specific gut microbes were significantly associated with the reproductive hormones and genes of voles during photoperiod acclimation. Transplantation of gut microbes into recipient voles induced similar changes in three hormones (melatonin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone) and three genes (hypothalamic Kiss-1, testicular Dio3, and Dio2/Dio3 ratio) to those in long-day and short-day photoperiod donor voles and altered circadian rhythm peaks of recipient voles. CONCLUSIONS: Our study firstly revealed the association of gut microbiota with photoperiodic regulation of seasonal breeding through the HPG axis, melatonin, and Kisspeptin/GPR54 system. Our results may have significant implications for pest control, livestock animal breeding, and human health management. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Melatonina , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Fotoperíodo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Melatonina/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Arvicolinae/fisiologia
4.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 1299, 2022 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36435943

RESUMO

Although much has been written on the topic of social behavior, many terms referring to different aspects of social behavior have become inappropriately conflated and the specific mechanisms governing them remains unclear. It is therefore critical that we disentangle the prosocial and antisocial elements associated with different forms of social behavior to fully understand the social brain. The lateral septum (LS) mediates social behaviors, emotional processes, and stress responses necessary for individuals to navigate day-to-day social interactions. The LS is particularly important in general and selective prosocial behavior (monogamy) but its role in how these two behavioral domains intersect is unclear. Here, we investigate the effects of chemogenetic-mediated LS activation on social responses in male prairie voles when they are 1) sex-naïve and generally affiliative and 2) after they become pair-bonded and display selective aggression. Amplifying neural activity in the LS augments same-sex social approach behaviors. Despite partner preference formation remaining unaltered, LS activation in pair-bonded males leads to reduced selective aggression while increasing social affiliative behaviors. These results suggest that LS activation alters behavior within certain social contexts, by increasing sex-naïve affiliative behaviors and reducing pair bonding-induced selective aggression with same-sex conspecifics, but not altering bonding with opposite-sex individuals.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Pradaria , Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Arvicolinae , Comportamento Social , Agressão/fisiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276897, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378642

RESUMO

Several studies using mice have examined the effects of aging on cognitive tasks, as well as sensory and motor functions. However, few studies have examined the influence of aging on social behavior. Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are a socially monogamous and biparental rodent that live in small family groups and are now among the most popular rodent models for studies examining social behavior. Although the social behavioral trajectories of early-life development in prairie voles have been well-studied, how social behavior may change throughout adulthood remains unknown. Here we examined behavior in virgin male and female prairie voles in four different age groups: postnatal day (PND) 60-80, 140-160, 220-240, and 300-320. All animals underwent testing in a novel object task, a dominance test, a resident-intruder test, and several iterations of social approach and social interaction tests with varying types of social stimuli (i.e., novel same-sex conspecific, novel opposite-sex conspecific, familiar same-sex sibling/cagemate, small group of novel same-sex conspecifics). We found that age influenced neophobia and dominance, but not social approach behavior. Further, we found that young adult, but not older adult, prairie voles adapt prosocial and aggressive behavior relative to social context, and that selective aggression occurs in relation to age even in the absence of a pair bond. Our results suggest that prairie voles calibrate social phenotype in a context-dependent manner in young adulthood and stop adjusting behavior to social context in advanced age, demonstrating that social behavior is plastic not only throughout early development, but also well into adulthood. Together, this study provides insight into age-related changes in social behavior in prairie voles and shows that prairie voles may be a viable model for studying the cognitive and physiological benefits of social relationships and social engagement in advanced age.


Assuntos
Arvicolinae , Pradaria , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Arvicolinae/fisiologia , Ligação do Par , Comportamento Social , Meio Social , Envelhecimento
6.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 22(1): 126, 2022 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ancient DNA studies suggest that Late Pleistocene climatic changes had a significant effect on population dynamics in Arctic species. The Eurasian collared lemming (Dicrostonyx torquatus) is a keystone species in the Arctic ecosystem. Earlier studies have indicated that past climatic fluctuations were important drivers of past population dynamics in this species. RESULTS: Here, we analysed 59 ancient and 54 modern mitogenomes from across Eurasia, along with one modern nuclear genome. Our results suggest population growth and genetic diversification during the early Late Pleistocene, implying that collared lemmings may have experienced a genetic bottleneck during the warm Eemian interglacial. Furthermore, we find multiple temporally structured mitogenome clades during the Late Pleistocene, consistent with earlier results suggesting a dynamic late glacial population history. Finally, we identify a population in northeastern Siberia that maintained genetic diversity and a constant population size at the end of the Pleistocene, suggesting suitable conditions for collared lemmings in this region during the increasing temperatures associated with the onset of the Holocene. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights an influence of past warming, in particular the Eemian interglacial, on the evolutionary history of the collared lemming, along with spatiotemporal population structuring throughout the Late Pleistocene.


Assuntos
Arvicolinae , Ecossistema , Animais , Dinâmica Populacional , Regiões Árticas , DNA Antigo
7.
J Helminthol ; 96: e75, 2022 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36250383

RESUMO

Calodium hepaticum is a zoonotic nematode with a worldwide distribution. Although the host range of C. hepaticum includes a wide spectrum of mammals (including humans), this parasite is predominantly associated with the families Muridae and Cricetidae. Several Sigmodontinae species from Argentina were found to be infected by C. hepaticum, with a high prevalence in Akodon azarae. The present study focuses on C. hepaticum eggs from natural infection of three species of sigmodontine rodents from Argentina. Eggs were genetically characterized (intergenic 18S rRNA region). The objectives of this work are: (i) to propose a new analytical methodology; and (ii) to morphologically characterize C. hepaticum eggs, from three Sigmodontinae species (A. azarae, Calomys callidus and Oligoryzomys flavescens). Analyses were made by the Computer Image Analysis System based on the new standardized measurements and geometric morphometric tools. The resulting factor maps clearly illustrate global size differences in the parasite eggs from the three Sigmodontinae species analysed. The degree of similarity between egg populations was assessed through pairwise Mahalanobis distances, showing that the largest distances were detected between parasite eggs from C. callidus and O. flavescens. Herein, the phenotypical plasticity of C. hepaticum eggs is shown. Significant positive correlations were obtained between each egg parasite principal component 1 and rodent corporal characteristics: weight; liver weight; rodent length; and rodent body condition. The usefulness of the geometric morphometric analysis in studies of the relationship between C. hepaticum and its host must be highlighted. The high prevalence observed in A. azarae, associated with the wide size range of the parasite eggs evidenced by principal component analysis, suggests A. azarae to be the Sigmodontinae host species that plays the most important role as reservoir host for C. hepaticum in the New World.


Assuntos
Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Doenças dos Roedores , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Arvicolinae , Capillaria , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 18S , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Roedores , Sigmodontinae/parasitologia
8.
J Vector Ecol ; 47(2): 195-201, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36314674

RESUMO

The genus Bartonella contains facultative Gram-negative intracellular bacteria from the family Bartonellaceae that can cause diseases in humans and animals. Various Bartonella species have been detected in rodents' ectoparasites, such as fleas, ticks, mites, and lice. However, the role of laelapid mites (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) as carriers of Bartonella spp. needs to be confirmed. We aimed to investigate the presence of Bartonella spp. in laelapid mites collected from small rodents in Lithuania using real-time PCR targeting the transfer-messenger RNA/tmRNA (ssrA) gene and to characterize Bartonella strains using nested PCR and sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region (ITS). A total of 271 laelapid mites of five species (Laelaps agilis, Haemogamasus nidi, Eulaelaps stabularis, Myonyssus gigas, and Hyperlaelaps microti) were collected from five rodent species (Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus agrarius, Clethrionomys glareolus, Micromys minutus, and Microtus oeconomus) during 2015-2016. Bartonella DNA was detected in three mite species L. agilis, M. gigas, and Hg. nidi with an overall prevalence of 11.4%. Sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA ITS region revealed the presence of Bartonella taylorii in L. agilis, Hg. nidi, and M. gigas, and Bartonella grahamii in L. agilis. Our results suggest that laelapid mites are involved in the maintenance of rodent-associated Bartonella spp. in nature. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the presence of Bartonella spp. DNA in laelapid mites from small rodents.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella , Bartonella , Mercúrio , Ácaros , Humanos , Animais , Ácaros/genética , Ácaros/microbiologia , Lituânia/epidemiologia , RNA Ribossômico 23S , Bartonella/genética , Murinae , Arvicolinae , DNA Intergênico , Filogenia
9.
Biomolecules ; 12(10)2022 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36291746

RESUMO

Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) is a rare genetic prion disease. A large GSS kindred linked to the serine-for-phenylalanine substitution at codon 198 of the prion protein gene (GSS-F198S) is characterized by conspicuous accumulation of prion protein (PrP)-amyloid deposits and neurofibrillary tangles. Recently, we demonstrated the transmissibility of GSS-F198S prions to bank vole carrying isoleucine at 109 PrP codon (BvI). Here we investigated: (i) the transmissibility of GSS-F198S prions to voles carrying methionine at codon 109 (BvM); (ii) the induction of hyperphosphorylated Tau (pTau) in two vole lines, and (iii) compared the phenotype of GSS-F198S-induced pTau with pTau induced in BvM following intracerebral inoculation of a familial Alzheimer's disease case carrying Presenilin 1 mutation (fAD-PS1). We did not detect prion transmission to BvM, despite the high susceptibility of BvI previously observed. Immunohistochemistry established the presence of induced pTau depositions in vole brains that were not affected by prions. Furthermore, the phenotype of pTau deposits in vole brains was similar in GSS-F198S and fAD-PS1. Overall, results suggest that, regardless of the cause of pTau deposition and its relationship with PrPSc in GSS-F198S human-affected brains, the two components possess their own seeding properties, and that pTau deposition is similarly induced by GSS-F198S and fAD-PS1.


Assuntos
Doença de Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker , Príons , Animais , Humanos , Doença de Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker/genética , Doença de Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker/metabolismo , Doença de Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker/patologia , Proteínas Priônicas/genética , Presenilina-1/genética , Isoleucina/genética , Flavina-Adenina Dinucleotídeo , Príons/genética , Mutação , Arvicolinae/genética , Códon , Serina , Metionina/genética , Fenilalanina
10.
Oecologia ; 200(3-4): 471-478, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36242620

RESUMO

In seasonal environments, appropriate adaptations are crucial for organisms to maximize their fitness. For instance, in many species, the immune function has been noticed to decrease during winter, which is assumed to be an adaptation to the season's limited food availability. Consequences of an infection on the health and survival of the host organism could thus be more severe in winter than in summer. Here, we experimentally investigated the effect of a zoonotic, endemic pathogen, Borrelia afzelii infection on the survival and body condition in its host, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), during late autumn-early winter under semi-natural field conditions in 11 large outdoor enclosures. To test the interaction of Borrelia infection and energetic condition, four populations received supplementary nutrition, while remaining seven populations exploited only natural food sources. Supplementary food during winter increased the body mass independent of the infection status, however, Borrelia afzelii infection did not cause severe increase in the host mortality or affect the host body condition in the late autumn-early winter. While our study suggests that no severe effects are caused by B. afzelii infection on bank vole, further studies are warranted to identify any potentially smaller effects the pathogen may cause on the host fitness over the period of whole winter.


Assuntos
Infecções por Borrelia , Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi , Ixodes , Doença de Lyme , Animais , Doença de Lyme/veterinária , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Roedores , Arvicolinae
11.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 679, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The importance of fathers' engagement in care and its critical role in the offspring's cognitive and emotional development is now well established. Yet, little is known on the underlying neurobiology due to the lack of appropriate animal models. In the socially monogamous and bi-parental prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), while 60-80% of virgin males show spontaneous paternal behaviors (Paternal), others display pup-directed aggression (Attackers). Here we took advantage of this phenotypic dichotomy and used RNA-sequencing in three important brain areas to characterize gene expression associated with paternal behaviors of Paternal males and compare it to experienced Fathers and Mothers. RESULTS: While Paternal males displayed the same range and extent of paternal behaviors as experienced Fathers, we observed structure-specific transcriptomic differences between parental behaviors phenotypes. Using differential expression, gene set expression, as well as co-expression network analyses, we found that phenotypic differences between Paternal males and Attackers were mainly reflected by the lateral septum (LS), and to a lower extent, the nucleus accumbens (NAc), transcriptomes. In the medial preoptic area (MPOA), the profiles of gene expression mainly reflected differences between females and males regardless of their parental behaviors phenotype. Functional enrichment analyses of those gene sets associated with Paternal males or Attackers in the LS and the NAc revealed the involvement of processes related to the mitochondria, RNA translation, protein degradation processes, as well as epigenetic regulation of gene expression. CONCLUSIONS: By leveraging the natural phenotypic differences in parental behaviors in virgin male prairie voles alongside fathers and mothers, we identified a marked structure- and phenotype-specific pattern of gene expression associated with spontaneous paternal behaviors independently from fatherhood and pair-bonding. The LS transcriptome related to the mitochondria, RNA translation, and protein degradation processes was thus highlighted as a primary candidate associated with the spontaneous display of paternal behaviors. Altogether, our observations further characterize the behavioral and transcriptomic signature of parental behaviors in the socially monogamous prairie vole and lay the groundwork to further our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of paternal behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento Paterno , Transcriptoma , Animais , Arvicolinae/genética , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Pradaria , Masculino , Comportamento Paterno/fisiologia , RNA/metabolismo
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 366, 2022 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36229832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bartonella are intracellular bacteria that are transmitted via animal scratches, bites and hematophagous arthropods. Rodents and their associated fleas play a key role in the maintenance of Bartonella worldwide, with > 22 species identified in rodent hosts. No studies have addressed the occurrence and diversity of Bartonella species and vectors for small mammals in Arctic and Subarctic ecosystems, which are increasingly impacted by invasive species and climate change. METHODS: In this study, we characterized the diversity of rodent fleas using conventional PCR targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase II gene (COII) and Bartonella species in rodents and shrews (n = 505) from northern Canada using conventional PCR targeting the ITS (intergenic transcribed spacer) region and gltA (citrate synthase) gene. Metagenomic sequencing of a portion of the gltA gene was completed on a subset of 42 rodents and four rodent flea pools. RESULTS: Year, total summer precipitation the year prior to sampling, average minimum spring temperature and small mammal species were significant factors in predicting Bartonella positivity. Occurrence based on the ITS region was more than double that of the gltA gene and was 34% (n = 349) in northern red-backed voles, 35% (n = 20) in meadow voles, 37% (n = 68) in deer mice and 31% (n = 59) in shrews. Six species of Bartonella were identified with the ITS region, including B. grahamii, B. elizabethae, B. washoensis, Candidatus B. rudakovii, B. doshiae, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and subsp. arupensis. In addition, 47% (n = 49/105) of ITS amplicons had < 97% identity to sequences in GenBank, possibly due to a limited reference library or previously unreported species. An additional Bartonella species (B. heixiaziensis) was detected during metagenomic sequencing of the gltA gene in 6/11 rodents that had ITS sequences with < 97% identity in GenBank, highlighting that a limited reference library for the ITS marker likely accounted for low sequence similarity in our specimens. In addition, one flea pool from a northern red-backed vole contained multiple species (B. grahamii and B. heixiaziensis). CONCLUSION: Our study calls attention to the usefulness of a combined approach to determine the occurrence and diversity of Bartonella communities in hosts and vectors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella , Bartonella , Infestações por Pulgas , Sifonápteros , Animais , Arvicolinae , Bartonella/genética , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Citrato (si)-Sintase/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Intergênico , Ecossistema , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Roedores/microbiologia , Musaranhos , Sifonápteros/microbiologia
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17239, 2022 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36241909

RESUMO

Rodents are natural reservoirs of diverse zoonotic viruses and widely distributed on the Tibetan Plateau. A comprehensive understanding of the virome in local rodent species could provide baseline of viral content and assist in efforts to reduce the risk for future emergence of rodent related zoonotic diseases. A total of 205 tissue and fecal samples from 41 wild Qinghai voles were collected. Metagenomic analyses were performed to outline the characteristics of the viromes, and phylogenetic analyses were used to identify the novel viral genomes. The virome distribution among five tissues (liver, lung, spleen, small intestine with content and feces) was also compared. We identified sequences related to 46 viral families. Novel viral genomes from distinct evolutionary lineages with known viruses were characterized for their genomic and evolutionary characteristics, including Hepatovirus, Hepacivirus, Rotavirus, and Picobirnavirus. Further analyses revealed that the core virome harbored by rodent internal tissues were quite different from the virome found in intestine and fecal samples. These findings provide an overview of the viromes in wild Qinghai voles, which are unique and the most common rodent species in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. A high diversity of viruses is likely present in rodent species in this area.


Assuntos
Viroma , Vírus , Animais , Arvicolinae/genética , Fezes , Metagenômica , Filogenia , Roedores/genética , Tibet , Vírus/genética
14.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 1124, 2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36284161

RESUMO

The Hengduan Mountains (HDM) of China are a biodiversity hotspot whose temperate flora and fauna are among the world's richest. However, the origin and evolution of biodiversity in the HDM remain poorly understood, especially in mammals. Given that the HDM shows the highest richness of vole species in the world, we used whole-exome capture sequencing data from the currently most comprehensive sampling of HDM voles to investigate their evolutionary history and diversification patterns. We reconstructed a robust phylogeny and re-estimated divergence times of the HDM voles. We found that all HDM voles could be divided into a western lineage (Volemys, Proedromys, and Neodon) and an eastern lineage (Caryomys and Eothenomys), and the two lineages originated from two migration events from North Eurasia to the HDM approximately 9 Mya. Both vole lineages underwent a significant acceleration of net diversification from 8-5 Mya, which was temporally congruent with the orogeny of the HDM region. We also identified strong intertribal gene flow among the HDM voles and hypothesized that frequent gene flow might have facilitated the speciation burst of the HDM voles. Our study highlights the importance of both environmental and biotic factors in shaping the biodiversity of mammals in mountain ecosystems.


Assuntos
Arvicolinae , Ecossistema , Animais , Arvicolinae/genética , Biodiversidade , Fluxo Gênico , Filogenia , China
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(41): e2113896119, 2022 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36201538

RESUMO

Advances in sequencing techniques have made comparative studies of gene expression a current focus for understanding evolutionary and developmental processes. However, insights into the spatial expression of genes have been limited by a lack of robust methodology. To overcome this obstacle, we developed methods and software tools for quantifying and comparing tissue-wide spatial patterns of gene expression within and between species. Here, we compare cortex-wide expression of RZRß and Id2 mRNA across early postnatal development in mice and voles. We show that patterns of RZRß expression in neocortical layer 4 are highly conserved between species but develop rapidly in voles and much more gradually in mice, who show a marked expansion in the relative size of the putative primary visual area across the first postnatal week. Patterns of Id2 expression, by contrast, emerge in a dynamic and layer-specific sequence that is consistent between the two species. We suggest that these differences in the development of neocortical patterning reflect the independent evolution of brains, bodies, and sensory systems in the 35 million years since their last common ancestor.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Neocórtex , Animais , Arvicolinae/genética , Córtex Cerebral , Expressão Gênica , Camundongos , Neocórtex/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(10): e0010844, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36223391

RESUMO

Orthohantaviruses are rodent-borne emerging viruses that may cause severe diseases in humans but no apparent pathology in their small mammal reservoirs. However, the mechanisms leading to tolerance or pathogenicity in humans and persistence in rodent reservoirs are poorly understood, as is the manner in which they spread within and between organisms. Here, we used a range of cellular and molecular approaches to investigate the interactions of three different orthohantaviruses-Puumala virus (PUUV), responsible for a mild to moderate form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans, Tula virus (TULV) with low pathogenicity, and non-pathogenic Prospect Hill virus (PHV)-with human and rodent host cell lines. Besides the fact that cell susceptibility to virus infection was shown to depend on the cell type and virus strain, the three orthohantaviruses were able to infect Vero E6 and HuH7 human cells, but only the former secreted infectious particles. In cells derived from PUUV reservoir, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), PUUV achieved a complete viral cycle, while TULV did not enter the cells and PHV infected them but did not produce infectious particles, reflecting differences in host specificity. A search for mature virions by electron microscopy (EM) revealed that TULV assembly occurred in part at the plasma membrane, whereas PHV particles were trapped in autophagic vacuoles in cells of the heterologous rodent host. We described differential interactions of orthohantaviruses with cellular factors, as supported by the cellular distribution of viral nucleocapsid protein with cell compartments, and proteomics identification of cellular partners. Our results also showed that interferon (IFN) dependent gene expression was regulated in a cell and virus species dependent manner. Overall, our study highlighted the complexity of the host-virus relationship and demonstrated that orthohantaviruses are restricted at different levels of the viral cycle. In addition, the study opens new avenues to further investigate how these viruses differ in their interactions with cells to evade innate immunity and how it depends on tissue type and host species.


Assuntos
Hantavirus , Virus Puumala , Vírus de RNA , Vírus , Humanos , Animais , Roedores , Hantavirus/genética , Virus Puumala/genética , Arvicolinae , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , Interferons
18.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 981, 2022 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114276

RESUMO

The most likely pathway for many species to survive future climate change is by pre-existing trait variation providing a fitness advantage under the new climate. Here we evaluate the potential role of haemoglobin (Hb) variation in bank voles under future climate change. We model gene-climate relationships for two functionally distinct Hb types, HbS and HbF, which have a north-south distribution in Britain presenting an unusually tractable system linking genetic variation in physiology to geographical and temporal variation in climate. Projections to future climatic conditions suggest a change in relative climatic suitability that would result in HbS being displaced by HbF in northern Britain. This would facilitate local adaptation to future climate-without Hb displacement, populations in northern Britain would likely be suboptimally adapted because their Hb would not match local climatic conditions. Our study shows how pre-existing physiological differences can influence the adaptive capacity of species to climate change.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Mudança Climática , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Arvicolinae/genética , Hemoglobinas
19.
J Med Entomol ; 59(6): 1880-1890, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102300

RESUMO

The study of Acari associated with cricetid rodents in Mexico began at the end of the 1930s. Despite efforts to gathering the information, only listings were built, but none of these studies present an analysis of the available data. A search was made through electronic databases; in addition, some not published records contained at Collection of Laboratorio de Acarología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México were included in the inventory. Combining the literature records and those deposited in the collection, the total number of species of Acari associated with this family of rodents is 165, distributed in two superorders, four orders, 15 families, and 57 genera. Of the 15 families registered, the richest is Trombiculidae (70 nominal species and 75 taxa), followed by Laelapidae (39 and 42, respectively), Ixodidae (13 nominal and 16 taxa), and Leewenhoekiidae (13 nominal and taxa). From the bibliographic searches, a total of 76 papers were recovered with information on the association between Acari and cricetid rodents in Mexico. The main detected approach in the literature was taxonomic (75 works) and one on detection of pathogens. From the 145 known species of cricetids recorded in Mexico, only 72 (distributed in 18 genera) have been studied and found to host Acari. The use of regionalization of Mexico in provinces allowed us to map the records of Acari associated to cricetids in the most natural approximation of their distribution. We recognize and discuss seven factors that favor the scarcity and asymmetry of acarological studies in Mexico.


Assuntos
Ácaros e Carrapatos , Trombiculidae , Animais , Roedores , Arvicolinae , México , Geografia
20.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274068, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054191

RESUMO

The research was carried out at the cremation cemetery of the Lusatian culture in Wtórek, Ostrów Wielkopolski district, Wielkopolska province, Poland. Contrary to the so-far-studied topics related to the CT imaging of burnt bones and their virtual exploration, we concentrated on the analysis of the structures formed by the soil fauna activity in the fills of urns and additional vessels, and reconstruction of the dynamics of the ecosystem variability within the cemetery area based on thereof. We also demonstrated the impact of macrofaunal activity on stratigraphy and bone fragmentation. From the total of 222 excavated burials in 18 urns and one additional vessel, the remains of macrofauna or its bioturbation activity were identified. Out of 19 vessels subjected to CT examinations, traces of macrofaunal activity were demonstrated in 13: in five vessels animal bioturbative activity was not observed and in one, observations was impossible (due to significant metal-related artifacts). In two vessels both macrofaunal remains and traces of activity were identified. Discovered bioturbations were associated with specific species or genera. Nests or their parts of the genus Geotrupes sp. beetles were the most frequently observed traces of macrofaunal activity. Tunnels and aestivation chambers of earthworms and chambers of the genus Harpalus sp. beetles filled with Setaria sp. caryopses were discovered. The chitinous parts of other insects and the humerus bones of the vole of the genus Microtus sp. were also identified. It was shown, especially due to the non-destructive method, that rodents activity had the most destructive effect on the bone stratigraphy as well as on the movement and fragmentation of the burnt bones. The chances of visualizing bioturbations decreased with time since their creation. The process of disappearance of traces of macrofaunal activity concerned both traces of rodent activity and nests set up by Geotrupes sp. and other species.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Oligoquetos , Animais , Arvicolinae , Polônia , Solo/química
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