Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 255
Filtrar
1.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 692022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36534006

RESUMO

The genus Maxvachonia Chabaud et Brygoo, 1960 (Ascaridomorpha: Cosmocercidae) is a poorly known group of parasitic nematodes. Species of Maxvachonia are native to Madagascar-Australo-Papuan Region, where they are known to parasitise frogs, snakes and skinks. Unfortunately, most of Maxvachonia species have been inadequately described. In the present study, we report the native species Maxvachonia chabaudi Mawson, 1972 from the intestine of the invasive marine toad Rhinella marina (Linnaeus) in Australia for the first time. We speculate that the marine toads infected with M. chabaudi are likely related to their eating skinks or the similarity in diet/habitat/ecology between the toad and the skinks. The detailed morphology of M. chabaudi was studied using light microscopy and, for the first time, scanning electron microscopy, based on the newly collected specimens. Some characters important for the specific diagnosis of M. chabaudi are reported for the first time, including each lip with distinct inner flanges, the location of vulva varying from anterior to posterior of the oesophageal bulb and the presence of single medio-ventral precloacal papilla. An identification key to the species of Maxvachonia is provided.


Assuntos
Ascaridídios , Nematoides , Animais , Feminino , Bufo marinus/parasitologia , Austrália , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
2.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 36: 100785, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36436885

RESUMO

Parasites are highly prevalent in poultry; thus, the management of parasites is a key component in the profitable production of poultry. The most common nematode parasite of poultry, Heterakis gallinarum, typically causes no direct pathology but is the vector of Histomonas meleagridis, a highly pathogenic protozoan parasite that causes blackhead disease. There are no approved treatments for H. meleagridis, making control reliant on controlling the helminth vector. In the United States, the benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole (FBZ) is the only approved treatment for H. gallinarum. We were contacted by an industry veterinarian regarding clinical problems with histomoniasis despite frequent anthelmintic treatments. Given that we had recently diagnosed FBZ resistance in the closely related parasite Ascaridia dissimilis, we were interested to determine if H. gallinarum had also evolved resistance. An initial on-farm pilot study using 20 birds suggested that FBZ was poorly effective, therefore a larger controlled study was initiated. Heterakis gallinarum eggs were isolated from litter at the farm and used to infect 118 chicks. Treatment groups included a non-treated control, a label-, and a 2×-label dose of FBZ, with 36 birds per group divided into two replicates of 18 birds. Three weeks post-hatch, birds were infected with 150 embryonated eggs. Two weeks post-infection treated birds were administered either a label- or 2× label-dose of FBZ in water for five days (SafeGuard® Aquasol, 1 mg/kg BW). To increase the likelihood that all birds consumed the full intended dose, the dosage was calculated using 1.25 times the average body weight. One-week post-treatment, birds were euthanized, and parasites enumerated. There were no significant differences in worm numbers recovered from any of the three groups (p-value = 0.3426), indicating that both dosages of FBZ failed to provide the expected levels of efficacy. These data provide strong evidence that H. gallinarum has developed resistance to FBZ on this farm. Consequently, on this farm, or any farm with FBZ-resistant H. gallinarum, H. meleagridis will continue to cycle in an unrestricted manner despite administration of anthelmintic treatments. Given recent evidence of increasing problems with histomoniasis, and the fact that resistance was documented on the first farm we investigated, further investigations are needed to determine the prevalence of resistance in H. gallinarum on poultry farms. These data, when viewed together with our recent findings of FBZ resistance in A. dissimilis on multiple farms, suggest that drug resistance in ascarid nematodes may be an emerging problem in the US poultry industry.


Assuntos
Ascaridídios , Nematoides , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Infecções por Protozoários , Animais , Fenbendazol/uso terapêutico , Fazendas , Galinhas , South Carolina , Projetos Piloto , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Infecções por Protozoários/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Protozoários/epidemiologia
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(4): e008622, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36197399

RESUMO

Aelurostrongylosis, caused by the metastrongylid nematode Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, is an underestimated feline respiratory disease. Cats infected by A. abstrusus may show subclinical to severe clinical signs. Aelurostrongylus abstrusus has a worldwide distribution. Nevertheless, studies on this parasite in Brazil are scarce, and most have been conducted in the southern regions. This study investigated the occurrence of A. abstrusus in cats in Vilhena, Rondônia, Brazil, from April 2020 to February 2021. Three consecutive individual fecal samples from 101 cats were examined using Baermann and Hoffman tests. Two cats (1.98%) scored positive for A. abstrusus, one with the Baermann examination, and one with the Hoffman technique. No other lungworms were retrieved. The clinicopathological and epizootiological implications are described and discussed.


Assuntos
Ascaridídios , Doenças do Gato , Metastrongyloidea , Infecções por Strongylida , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Fezes/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária
4.
J Helminthol ; 96: e78, 2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36305478

RESUMO

Amphibians are a widespread Chordata taxon and are important for maintaining the balance of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Brazil has a rich amphibian fauna; however, little is known about the role of their ecology and phylogenetic relationships during the assembly processes of associated endoparasite communities. Herein, we describe an endoparasite community in an anuran assemblage in the Caatinga, a unique biome of dry forests in north-eastern Brazil. We studied endoparasite diversity, as well as the effects of body length, body mass, body volume and sex on parasite abundance. We also investigated the influence of ecological and historical factors and anuran microhabitat use on endoparasite composition. We analysed individuals from 13 anuran species distributed across five families: Odontophrynidae (Proceratophrys cristiceps); Leptodactylidae (Leptodactylus fuscus, Leptodactylus vastus, Leptodactylus macrosternum, Leptodactylus troglodytes and Physalaemus cuvieri); Hylidae (Pithecopus gonzagai, Scinax x-signatus, Boana raniceps and Dendropsophus nanus); Bufonidae (Rhinella diptycha and Rhinella granulosa); and Microhylidae (Dermatonotus muelleri). We found nine species of endoparasites, including seven nematodes (Aplectana membranosa, Cosmocerca sp., Oswaldocruzia mazzai, Raillietnema spectans, Rhabdias fuelleborni, Schrankiana sp. and Physaloptera sp.), one species of Trematoda (Glypthelmins pseudium) and one non-identified cestode. There was no significant relationship between endoparasite abundance and host body length, body mass, body volume and sex. A phylogenetic principal component analysis showed that ecological factors had a greater influence on endoparasite assemblage than historical factors. Similarly, our results showed that ecological factors had a greater influence on anuran microhabitat use compared to historical factors, which contributed to the generalist characteristics presented by most of the sampled endoparasite species.


Assuntos
Ascaridídios , Nematoides , Trematódeos , Humanos , Animais , Ecossistema , Filogenia , Florestas , Brasil , Anuros
5.
Syst Parasitol ; 99(6): 761-769, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36131122

RESUMO

Nematodes collected from the stomach and large intestine of Rhinoclemmys punctularia (Daudin) from the eastern Amazon, Brazil, are assigned to a new genus, Vogtnema n. gen., allocated in the family Atractidae (Cosmocerdoidea). Vogtnema n. gen. differs from all other genera of Atractidae based on the combination of the following morphological characters: four lips V-shaped (two subdorsal and two subventral) without sclerotized structures associated, absence of sclerotized formations and/or pieces surrounding the oral opening, oral aperture surrounded by flange internal membranous structures; in males the larger spicule is alate. The type species Vogtnema asymmetrica n. gen., n. sp. has the five precloacal pairs of papillae situated on the right side of the body that are more prominent than those on the left side. We also provide an identification key to the genera of the family Atractidae.


Assuntos
Ascaridídios , Nematoides , Parasitos , Tartarugas , Animais , Brasil , Masculino , Especificidade da Espécie , Tartarugas/parasitologia
6.
J Parasitol ; 108(5): 419-422, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098751

RESUMO

Texas quail populations have declined over the past few decades. While habitat loss has been identified as the primary cause, it has been speculated that pathogens may also play a role in this decline. To help address this, we collected scaled quail, Callipepla squamata, Gambel's quail, Callipepla gambelii, and Montezuma quail, Cyrtonyx montezumae, from across the Trans-Pecos ecoregion of Texas via hunter-harvest. Quail samples were then necropsied to document pathogens not previously recorded in the host species. Pathogens were submitted to the Texas A&M University Veterinary Medicine Diagnostic Lab (TVMDL), where parasite identification and histopathological analyses were conducted. From this, we identified several parasites that had never been documented in the quails of the Trans-Pecos ecoregion of Texas. This study was the first to document Mycobacterium sp. and Sarcocystis sp. in scaled quail, Subulura sp. and Physaloptera sp. in Montezuma quail, and Oxyspirura petrowi and Aulonocephalus pennula in a Texas Gambel's quail.


Assuntos
Ascaridídios , Doenças das Aves , Galliformes , Thelazioidea , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Humanos , Codorniz/parasitologia
7.
Syst Parasitol ; 99(6): 741-749, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087215

RESUMO

Cucullanus tunisiensis sp. nov., (Nematoda: Cucullanidae), collected from the intestine of the white grouper Epinephelus aeneus from waters off the coast of Tunisia is described based on light and scanning electron microscopic observations. The new species is characterized by the presence of lateral alae, ventral sucker, long unequal spicules (left spicule 2474-2789 µm long, right spicule 2357-2518 µm long). This is the sixth nominal species of the genus Cucullanus Müller, 1777 and the first representative of this genus infecting fishes of Serranidae family reported from Tunisian waters.


Assuntos
Ascaridídios , Ascaridoidea , Bass , Doenças dos Peixes , Nematoides , Parasitos , Perciformes , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Perciformes/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Tunísia
8.
J Helminthol ; 96: e60, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35942907

RESUMO

The parasite biodiversity of mouse opossums in Brazil remains incompletely explored. We describe a new species of Subulura (Ascaridida: Subuluroidea) from the large intestine of the white-bellied woolly mouse opossum, Marmosa constantiae, based on the results of light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also partially sequenced the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (MT-CO1) gene of the new species, using molecular phylogenetic analyses to determine its relationships within the Subuluroidea superfamily. As molecular data on subuluroid species are extremely limited, few inferences could be drawn from our phylogenies. Our SEM observations showed the detailed morphology of the cephalic extremity, precloacal pseudo-sucker, caudal papillae, phasmids and vulva. Subulura eliseae sp. n. differs from the other four Subulura parasites species of marsupials by the number of caudal papillae and the structure dimensions, and size of the spicule. Moreover, S. eliseae sp. n. has ten pairs of caudal papillae, which is unique compared to other species. We present morphometric and molecular data on this new species, contributing to future studies on subuluroids.


Assuntos
Ascaridídios , Parasitos , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Camundongos , Gambás , Filogenia , Floresta Úmida
9.
Parasitology ; 149(11): 1487-1504, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35929484

RESUMO

Cruzia tentaculata is a helminth parasite of marsupials and has a wide geographic distribution from Mexico to Argentina. The aim of this study was to analyse the genetic population structure of this nematode along the Atlantic Forest biome. Cruzia tentaculata specimens were recovered from Didelphis aurita, Didelphis albiventris and Philander quica in 9 localities. Morphological and morphometric data were investigated for phenotypic diversity among localities and hosts using multivariate discriminant analysis of principal components. Phylogenetic relationships of C. tentaculata were determined using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. The population structure was analysed by fixation indices, molecular variance analysis, Tajima's D and Fu's Fs neutrality tests, Mantel tests and Bayesian clustering analysis. A higher significant morphometric difference for males was observed between localities. In the haplogroup networks, 2 groups were recovered, separating locations from the north and from the south/southeast. The morphometric variation in C. tentaculata between different localities was compatible with this north and southeast/south pattern, suggesting adaptation to different ecological conditions. Population genetic analyses suggested a pattern of evolutionary processes driven by Pleistocene glacial refugia in the northeast and southeast of the Atlantic Forest based on the distribution of genetic diversity.


Assuntos
Ascaridídios , Didelphis , Marsupiais , Nematoides , Parasitos , Animais , Ascaridídios/anatomia & histologia , Teorema de Bayes , Didelphis/parasitologia , Florestas , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Masculino , Filogenia , América do Sul
10.
J Parasitol ; 108(4): 366-373, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925595

RESUMO

Morphological examination was made of the larval forms of Grassenema procaviae (Cosmocercoidea: Atractidae), an autoinfective and viviparous nematode parasite in the stomach of Cape hyrax (Procavia capensis). Three different larval stages (second-, third- and fourth-stages), and the adult stage were found among the worms collected at necropsy of 3 hosts, which were reared in a zoo in Japan. Molting phases between the larval stages and the final molt to the adult stage were also observed. It was considered that the gravid female delivers the second-stage larva, which develops to the adult stage through 3 molts. The cephalic structure was identical throughout the second to adult stages; all with transparent filaments extending from the mouth. Because starch grains were frequently found attached to the filaments and the worm intestinal lumen also contained starch grains ingested, the filaments were surmised to act as nutrient catchers.


Assuntos
Ascaridídios , Procaviídeos , Nematoides , Animais , Feminino , Amido , Estômago
11.
J Helminthol ; 96: e64, 2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36017718

RESUMO

Cosmocerca spp. are common nematode parasites of amphibians. We provide herein molecular data for two species of Cosmocerca and describe a new species, Cosmocerca albopunctata n. sp., using light microscopy and molecular data (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 - COI mtDNA). Cosmocerca albopunctata n. sp. can be easily distinguished from other congeneric species by the combination of characteristics such as body size, length of spicules and gubernaculum, and the arrangements and number of caudal papillae (7 + 1:1 + 1:6). The phylogenetic results based on the partial COI mtDNA sequences clustered the new species in a monophyletic clade along with the other sequences of Cosmocerca spp. Therefore, our results contribute to the knowledge about the species diversity and genetic data for Cosmocerca spp. in the Neotropical region.


Assuntos
Anuros , Ascaridídios , Animais , Anuros/parasitologia , Brasil , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Filogenia
12.
Infect Genet Evol ; 103: 105341, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35878819

RESUMO

In high abundance, females of the genus Mansonia (Blanchard) can be a nuisance to humans and animals because they are voraciously hematophagous and feed on the blood of a myriad of vertebrates. The spatial-temporal distribution pattern of Mansonia species is associated with the presence of their host plants, usually Eichhornia crassipes, E. azurea, Ceratopteris pteridoides, Limnobium laevigatum, Pistia stratiotes, and Salvinia sp. Despite their importance, there is a lack of investigation on the dispersion and population genetics of Mansonia species. Such studies are pivotal to evaluating the genetic structuring, which ultimately reflects populational expansion-retraction patterns and dispersal dynamics of the mosquito, particularly in areas with a history of recent introduction and establishment. The knowledge obtained could lead to better understanding of how anthropogenic changes to the environment can modulate the population structure of Mansonia species, which in turn impacts mosquito population density, disturbance to humans and domestic animals, and putative vector-borne disease transmission patterns. In this study, we present an Illumina NGS sequencing protocol to obtain whole-mitogenome sequences of Mansonia spp. to assess the microgeographic genetic diversity and dispersion of field-collected adults. The specimens were collected in rural environments in the vicinities of the Santo Antônio Energia (SAE) hydroelectric reservoir on the Madeira River.


Assuntos
Ascaridídios , Culicidae , Malvaceae , Adulto , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genética Populacional , Humanos , Mitocôndrias , Mosquitos Vetores , Rios
13.
Infect Genet Evol ; 103: 105336, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35817398

RESUMO

Lyssavirus is a genus that causes infectious disease transmit by bats transmit, which results in economic losses in livestock and public health problems. From 2005 to 2019, more than 49 thousand cases of the disease were registered in animals in Brazil, with 3418 registered in Mato Grosso (MT). The lack of information on the genetic diversity and distribution of the rabies virus in MT was the motivation for carrying out this study. A total of 117 samples of brain tissue from cattle, horses, donkeys, mules and sheep from 29 municipalities in the state of MT and one municipality in Rondônia were used. Direct immunofluorescence and/or biological tests performed from 2014 to 2021 indicated that all samples were positive for the disease. RNA was extracted and molecular analysis was performed using RT-PCR for the N gene. Of the 117 samples analyzed, 50 were amplified by RT-PCR, purified and sequenced. The samples showed 93.13%-100% identity with the rabies virus. The sequences were submitted to phylogenetic analysis that resulted in a tree of four clades; these were genetically grouped into distinct regions within the Desmodus rotundus lineage. The results of the geolocation of clades will be useful to guide monitoring, control and health surveillance programs in MT.


Assuntos
Ascaridídios , Quirópteros , Vírus da Raiva , Raiva , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Genótipo , Filogenia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/veterinária , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Ovinos
14.
Avian Dis ; 66(2): 243-247, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35838747

RESUMO

This case report describes the clinical, parasitologic, pathologic, and histologic characteristics of a golden pheasant (Chrysolopus pictus) with an infection of Heterakis isolonche in Mississippi. An approximately 2-yr-old golden pheasant from a flock of 8 to 10 birds was submitted to the Poultry Research and Diagnostic Laboratory in Pearl, MS, for necropsy. Clinical history indicated that three flock mates had died of unknown causes in the past. At necropsy, the submitted pheasant showed severe nodular typhlitis associated with the presence of numerous whitish small nematodes inside the cecal walls and lumen with morphologic features consistent with H. isolonche. The histologic examination showed multifocal to coalescing, nodular, granulomatous, and lymphocytic typhlitis with fibroplasia, and multiple intralesional nematodes. Furthermore, the presence of similar nematodes in the lung indicated a possible aberrant migration of Heterakis sp. to this organ. The flock was subsequently treated with an oxfendazole-containing dewormer and suffered no further losses.


Reporte de Caso- Infección por Heterakis isolonche asociada a tiflitis nodular severa y posible migración pulmonar aberrante en un faisán dorado (Chrysolopus pictus). Este informe de caso describe las características clínicas, parasitológicas, patológicas e histológicas de un faisán dorado (Chrysolopus pictus) con una infección por Heterakis isolonche en Mississippi. Un faisán dorado de aproximadamente dos años de edad de una parvada de ocho a diez aves fue remitido al Laboratorio de Investigación y Diagnóstico Avícolas en Pearl, Mississippi, para su necropsia. La historia clínica indicó que tres aves de la misma parvada habían muerto previamente por causas desconocidas. En la necropsia se observó tiflitis nodular grave asociada con la presencia de numerosos nematodos pequeños blanquecinos dentro de las paredes cecales y en el lumen con características morfológicas compatibles con H. isolonche. El examen histológico mostró tiflitis multifocal nodular coalescente, granulomatosa y linfocítica con fibroplasia y múltiples nematodos intralesionales. Además, la presencia de nematodos similares en el pulmón indicó una posible migración aberrante de Heterakis sp. a este órgano. Posteriormente, la parvada fue tratada con un antiparasitario que contenía oxfendazol y no presentó más pérdidas por mortalidad.


Assuntos
Ascaridídios , Tiflite , Animais , Tiflite/veterinária , Codorniz , Ceco , Pulmão
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 203, 2022 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35698157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The population genetics of parasites may be influenced by host specificity, life cycle, host geographical range, evolutionary history, and host population structure. The nematode Aspidodera raillieti infects different marsupial and rodent hosts in the Nearctic and Neotropical regions, implying a gene flow among populations. However, niche diversification of the main hosts of A. raillieti in superimposed areas may provide conditions for population genetic structuring within this parasite species. We examined the genetic structuring of A. raillieti infecting three marsupial species co-occurring along the South and Southeast Brazilian Atlantic Forest, a hotspot of biodiversity. METHODS: We employed morphometric analyses and partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequences (MT-CO1) to characterize populations via phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses. RESULTS: Among 175 A. raillieti specimens recovered from the marsupial hosts Didelphis aurita, D. albiventris, and Philander quica, we identified 99 MT-CO1 haplotypes forming four haplogroups and four clades in networks and phylogenetic trees, respectively. Clades I and II encompassed parasites of D. albiventris from the South region, clade III comprised parasites of D. aurita from the South and Southeast regions, and clade IV encompassed parasites of D. aurita and D. albiventris from the South and Southeast regions and parasites of P. quica from the South region. High genetic differentiation between clades, with a high fixation index and greater genetic variation in the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), indicated low gene flow between clades. Haplotypes shared among host species revealed a lack of host specificity. A significant correlation in the Mantel test suggested parasite isolation by distance, while there was no evidence of geographical structure between populations. Negative neutrality test values for clades III and IV suggested recent population expansion. Morphometric differentiation between A. raillieti specimens recovered from different host species, as well as from different localities, was more evident in males. CONCLUSION: The genetic structure of A. raillieti populations in the South and Southeast Atlantic Forest resulted from historical events rather than from current geographical distribution or host specificity. We also demonstrate morphometric variation associated with host species and localities, suggesting phenotypic plasticity to host attributes and to spatial variables.


Assuntos
Ascaridídios , Didelphis , Marsupiais , Parasitos , Animais , Brasil , Didelphis/parasitologia , Florestas , Estruturas Genéticas , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Haplótipos , Masculino , Filogenia , Filogeografia
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 116, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genus Cissophyllus (Cosmocercoidea: Kathlaniidae) is a rare group of nematodes parasitic in turtles and lizards. To date, only four species have been reported in Asia and North America. However, most of them are inadequately described. The species Cissophyllus leytensis has never been reported since it was originally described by Tubangui and Villaamil in 1933 from the Philippine sailfin lizard Hydrosaurus pustulatus (Eschscholtz, 1829) (Reptilia: Squamata). Furthermore, the systematic status of Cissophyllus/Cissophyllinae in the family Kathlaniidae of the superfamily Cosmocercoidea remains under debate. METHODS: The detailed morphology of C. leytensis was studied using light microscopy (LM) and, for the first time, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), based on newly collected specimens from the type host H. pustulatus. Six different genetic markers, including nuclear sequences [small ribosomal subunit (18S), internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large ribosomal subunit (28S)], plus mitochondrial genes [cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (cox2) and 12S small subunit ribosomal RNA gene] of C. leytensis were sequenced. Additionally, in order to test the validity of the subfamily Cissophyllinae and clarify the phylogenetic relationships of Cissophyllus and the other genera in the family Kathlaniidae, phylogenetic analyses based on 18S + 28S and ITS sequence data were performed using maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) analyses, respectively. RESULTS: Our observations using LM and SEM revealed some previously unreported morphological features, necessitating the redescription of this poorly known species. The presence of remarkable morphological variation in the isthmus and the position of excretory pore among different individuals was found. Molecular analysis showed no intraspecific nucleotide divergence detected in the 18S, ITS, 28S, cox2 and 12S regions among different individuals of C. leytensis, but a low level of intraspecific genetic variation was found in the cox1 (0.52%). Our phylogenetic results showed the representatives of the Cosmocercoidea divided into four large clades (Cosmocerca + Aplectana + Cosmocercoides representing the family Cosmocercidae, Cruzia representing the subfamily Cruzinae of Kathlaniidae, Falcaustra + Cissophyllus + Megalobatrachonema representing the subfamily Kathlaniinae of Kathlaniidae, and Orientatractis + Rondonia representing the family Atractidae). The genus Cissophyllus clustered together with the genus Megalobatrachonema in both the ML and BI trees using ITS sequence data, but displayed a sister relationship to the genus Falcaustra in the ML tree and to the genera Falcaustra + Megalobatrachonema in the BI tree using 18S + 28S sequence data. CONCLUSIONS: Molecular phylogenetic results further confirmed that the family Kathlaniidae is not a monophyletic group. The subfamily Cruziinae should be moved from the hitherto-defined family Kathlaniidae and elevated as a separate family Cruziidae. The present phylogenetic results also negated the validity of the subfamily Cissophyllinae and supported the genus Cissophyllus assigned in the subfamily Kathlaniinae. Molecular analysis indicated that the morphological variation in the isthmus and position of excretory pore among different individuals should be considered as intraspecific variation. Moreover, some characters important for the specific diagnosis of C. leytensis are reported for the first time: the number of acuminate denticles (lamellae) on each lip, the chitinized pharynx with three flabellate pharyngeal plates, the presence of single medioventral precloacal papilla and the detailed morphology of caudal papillae. The present study is only the second record of C. leytensis.


Assuntos
Ascaridídios , Lagartos , Nematoides , Parasitos , Animais , Ascaridídios/anatomia & histologia , Teorema de Bayes , Filipinas , Filogenia
17.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 29: 100692, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35256120

RESUMO

Rural chicken production in Ghana is predominantly done under the extensive system that exposes birds to parasitic infections. We investigated the prevalence of Ascaridia spp. and Heterakis spp. and as a preliminary study characterized the genetic variance of the Ascaridia galli isolates from rural chicken in Kumbungu, Savelugu and Tolon Districts in the Northern Region, Ghana. A total of 86 chickens aged 6-10 weeks were dissected and GIT inspected for nematodes. Nematode were described based on morphological features to be A. galli and H. gallinarum. Additionally, the mitochondrial cox1 gene (475 bp) of Ascaridia isolates was amplified and sequenced. The overall prevalence of nematodes was 47.67%: A. galli 37.21% and H. gallinarum 20.93%. Prevalence values of A. galli in the Kumbungu, Savelugu and Tolon Districts were 25.00%, 36.00%, 56.00%, respectively, and that of H. gallinarum, respectively were 16.67%, 28.00% and 20.00%. A Chi-square test (x2 = 6.0907, p < 0.048) showed an association of A. galli prevalence to the district of origin of birds. From 20 A. galli cox1 sequences analyzed, all sequences were identified as A. galli. Two haplotypes were recorded, namely, GHA1 and GHA2. Haplotype GHA1 was found to have wide distribution globally, whereas GHA2 appear to be novel in the present study. The data shows the importance of A. galli and H. gallinarum infection in rural chicken in northern Ghana and pave way for further epidemiological study of avian nematodes.


Assuntos
Ascaridídios , Nematoides , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Ascaridia/genética , Galinhas/parasitologia , Gana/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Prevalência
18.
Parasitol Res ; 121(2): 563-571, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35043259

RESUMO

Cosmocercid nematodes have been documented with much criticism due to the numerous inaccurate descriptions, redescriptions and synonymisation of found species. This is due to indistinguishable characters of females and the lack of male specimens found. Consequently, the species C. ornata is the most commonly found species worldwide and the only species of the genus reported in South Africa. In the present study, we found Cosmocerca in three different amphibian species, namely Cacosternum boettgeri, Kassina senegalensis and Phrynomantis bifasciatus. Based on differences in the shape of the gubernaculum and number of papillae, the found nematodes were assigned to three new species namely C. daly n. sp., C. monicae n. sp. and C. makhadoensis n. sp. Descriptions of species are followed by pairwise and phylogenetic analysis of partial ITS-28S sequences. All three species were found only in their host types from distant localities. Therefore, we hypothesise that host specificity of Cosmocerca from South African amphibians might be rather high and that the presence of C. ornata throughout South Africa is rather doubtful.


Assuntos
Ascaridídios , Nematoides , Animais , Anuros , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , África do Sul
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e241819, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278484

RESUMO

Abstract The composition of macro endoparasites associated with the lizard Norops fuscoauratus (Squamata) was analysed in two localities in the Atlantic Forest on the northeast of Brazil between December 2012 and July 2015. 74 specimens of N. fuscoauratus were examined and five species of helminths were reported, being: (a) for the population of Pernambuco: Cystacanth (Prevalence=37.5%), Physaloptera retusa Rudolphi, 1819 (Prevalence=4.16%), larva of flatworm (Prevalence=2.08%), Rhabdias sp. (Prevalence=2.08%) and Strongyluris oscari Travassos, 1923 (Prevalence=2.08%), and (b) of Alagoas: S. oscari (Prevalence=17.85%) and Rhabdias sp. (Prevalence=3.57%). The differences in the composition of endoparasites in the two populations are attributed to individualities of environments occupied by the lizards. The collection period does not influence the abundance of parasites, but when associated with sex, there was a positive correlation with the abundance of helminths, with more females than males being infected with parasites in the rainy season.


Resumo A composição de macro endoparasitas associada com o lagarto Norops fuscoauratus (Squamata) foi analisada em duas localidades da Mata Atlântica no nordeste do Brasil, entre dezembro de 2012 e julho de 2015. 74 espécimes foram examinados e cinco espécies de helmintos foram encontradas, sendo: (a) para a população de Pernambuco: Cistacanto (Prevalência=37.5%), Physaloptera retusa Rudolphi, 1819 (Prevalência=4.16%), larva de platelminto (Prevalência=2.08%), Rhabdias sp. (Prevalência =2.08%) e Strongyluris oscari Travassos, 1923 (Prevalência =2.08%) e (b) Alagoas: S. oscari (Prevalência=17.85%) e Rhabdias sp. (Prevalência =3.57%). As diferenças na composição dos endoparasitas nas duas populações pode ser atribuída as individualidades dos ambientes ocupados por esses lagartos. O período de coleta não influenciou na abundância de parasitas, mas quando associado com o sexo, houve uma correlação positiva com a abundância de helmintos, com mais fêmeas do que machos, infectadas na estação chuvosa.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Ascaridídios , Helmintos , Lagartos , Brasil , Florestas
20.
Infect Genet Evol ; 96: 105123, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688888

RESUMO

Cosmocercoid nematodes are common parasites in the digestive tract of amphibians. However, our knowledge of the species diversity, genetic data and molecular phylogeny of the superfamily Cosmocercoidea are far from being well understood. In the present study, large numbers of cosmocercoid nematodes were collected from the fine-spined frog Sylvirana spinulosa (Smith) (Anura: Ranidae) and the white-spotted thigh tree-frog Polypedates megacephalus (Hallowell) (Anura: Rhacophoridae) in Guangxi Province, China. Integrated morphological and genetic evidence reveals these nematode specimens to be a new species of the genus Aplectana, A. dayaoshanensis n. sp. (Cosmocercoidea: Cosmocercidae). The molecular characterization of small ribosomal DNA (18S), internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large ribosomal DNA (28S) of A. dayaoshanensis n. sp., together with the 28S of A. chamaeleonis (Baylis, 1929) (collected from Hyperolius kivuensis Ahl in Rwanda), were reported for the first time. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses using maximum likelihood (ML) inference based on 18S + 28S and ITS sequence data, respectively, both supported the family Cosmocercidae to be a monophyletic group and the family Kathlaniidae to be a paraphyletic group. Our phylogenetic results rejected the monophyly of the genus Aplectana. The present results contribute to the knowledge of the species diversity and genetic data of cosmocercoid nematodes, and preliminarily revealed the phylogenetic relationships of the major families and some genera in the Cosmocercoidea.


Assuntos
Anuros , Infecções por Ascaridida/veterinária , Ascaridídios/classificação , Animais , Ascaridídios/anatomia & histologia , Ascaridídios/genética , Infecções por Ascaridida/parasitologia , China , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Ranidae
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...