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1.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 197-204, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427922

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had different waves within the same country. The spread rate and severity showed different properties within the COVID-19 different waves. The present work aims to compare the spread and the severity of the different waves using the available data of confirmed COVID-19 cases and death cases. Real-data sets collected from the Johns Hopkins University Center for Systems Science were used to perform a comparative study between COVID-19 different waves in 12 countries with the highest total performed tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 detection in the world (Italy, Brazil, Japan, Germany, Spain, India, USA, UAE, Poland, Colombia, Turkey, and Switzerland). The total number of confirmed cases and death cases in different waves of COVID-19 were compared to that of the previous one for equivalent periods. The total number of death cases in each wave was presented as a percentage of the total number of confirmed cases for the same periods. In all the selected 12 countries, Wave 2 had a much higher number of confirmed cases than that in Wave 1. However, the death cases increase was not comparable with that of the confirmed cases to the extent that some countries had lower death cases than in Wave 1, UAE, and Spain. The death cases as a percentage of the total number of confirmed cases in Wave 1 were much higher than that in Wave 2. Some countries have had Waves 3 and 4. Waves 3 and 4 have had lower confirmed cases than Wave 2, however, the death cases were variable in different countries. The death cases in Waves 3 and 4 were similar to or higher than Wave 2 in most countries. Wave 2 of COVID-19 had a much higher spread rate but much lower severity resulting in a lower death rate in Wave 2 compared with that of the first wave. Waves 3 and 4 have had lower confirmed cases than Wave 2; that could be due to the presence of appropriate treatment and vaccination. However, that was not reflected in the death cases, which were similar to or higher than Wave 2 in most countries. Further studies are needed to explain these findings.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Ásia/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/virologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Mutação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(11): e25837, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761871

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Trans people are disproportionately impacted by HIV yet have not been adequately prioritized in national HIV responses or policy documents. This review aims to understand the extent of meaningful inclusion of trans people in national strategic plans (NSPs) for HIV/AIDS as an essential step in ensuring that HIV policy aligns with epidemiologic data, and trans-specific programming is funded, implemented and sustained. METHODS: HIV NSPs from 60 countries, across five global regions, were assessed for the level of inclusion of trans populations between January and March 2021. The most recently available NSP for each country, published after 2011, was obtained through publicly accessible online sources or through researcher networks. Data were manually extracted from NSPs using a framework of indicators focusing on trans inclusion in these five major sections of NSPs: (1) narratives; (2) epidemiological data; (3) monitoring and evaluation (M&E) indicators and targets; (4) activities; and (5) budgets. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Within all reviewed NSPs, 65.0% (39/60) mentioned trans people in at least one of the five key sections but only 8.3% (5/60) included trans people in all five key sections. Trans people were more commonly mentioned in the background/narratives of NSPs (61.7%, 37/60) but less commonly included NSP activities (38.3%, 23/60), in M&E indicators and targets (23.7%, 14/60), in epidemiological data (20.0% 12/60), and in NSP budgets (13.3%, 8/60). Countries in the Asia and Pacific region most frequently included trans people in all five key sections (38%, 5/13), while no countries in Eastern and Southern Africa included trans people in all NSP sections. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis finds substantial gaps in the inclusion of trans populations in NSPs globally. Results highlight the pressing need for states, technical partners, and international funders to engage with trans communities to improve trans-inclusion in all key sections of NSPs. Trans inclusion in NSPs is an essential step towards reaching the populations most at risk of HIV and ultimately achieving country-level epidemic control.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , África Austral , Ásia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Prevalência
5.
J Water Health ; 19(5): 687-704, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665764

RESUMO

Blastocystis is a prevalent protozoan parasite reported in humans, animals, and environmental samples. Over the past decade, numerous studies have investigated the prevalence and subtype distribution of Blastocystis sp. alongside with its genetic and biochemical features. However, studies on subtype distribution of this protozoan in humans, animals, and environmental samples represent the potential transmission routes. In this review, we evaluated studies performed in Asian countries and in Australia to provide an overview of environmental factors on the prevalence and subtype distribution of Blastocystis sp. among humans, animals, and the environment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Blastocystis/genética , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário , Fezes , Humanos , Prevalência
6.
Science ; 374(6564): 182-188, 2021 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618559
7.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 7787624, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676263

RESUMO

The ascendancy of coronavirus has become widespread all around the world. For the prevention of viral transmission, the pattern of disease is explored. Epidemiological modeling is a vital component of the research. These models assist in studying various aspects of infectious diseases, such as death, recovery, and infection rates. Coronavirus trends across several countries may analyze sufficiently using SIR, SEIR, and SIQR models. Across this study, we propose two modified versions of the SEIRD method for evaluating the transmission of this infectious disease in the South Asian countries, more precisely, in the south Asian subcontinent. The SEIRD model is updated further by fusing some new factors, namely, isolation for the suspected people and recovery and death of the people who are not under the coverage of healthcare schemes or reluctant to receive treatment for various catastrophes. We will investigate the influences of those ingredients on public health-related issues. Finally, we will predict and display the infection scenario and relevant elements with the concluding remarks through the statistical analysis.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Ásia/epidemiologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Distanciamento Físico , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 23(12): 181, 2021 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687374

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To revisit the importance of prevention strategies and policies in reducing the burden of ischemic heart disease in South Asian countries. RECENT FINDINGS: South Asia has seen rapid growth in its population with variable improvement in health indicators such as life expectancy at birth over the last three decades. Parallel to these improvements, there has been a stark rise in noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) but without a commensurate improvement in infrastructure/policies and health system interventions to address NCDs. South Asia is the epicenter of the cardiovascular disease (CVD) epidemic in Asia. It has a population that manifests accelerated atherosclerosis at a younger age. Poverty, lower health literacy, lack of health-promoting behaviors, poor urban design, rising air pollution, weak health systems, and lack and poor implementation of existing policies contribute to the continued rise in the incidence of CVD and the associated case fatality rates. A relatively young population presents an opportunity for implementation of prevention measures now which if not adequately utilized will result in an exponential rise in the CVD burden. There is a large gap between policymaking and implementation in this part of the world. Economic realities further constrain coverage of prevention policies; and therefore, stronger collaboration between governments, stakeholders, civil society, and regional and international funding agencies is needed to universally implement prevention strategies in South Asia.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Epidemias , Ásia/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682359

RESUMO

The association between the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score and several adverse health outcomes, including mortality, has been reported in the scientific literature. We conducted a comprehensive literature review of studies on the relationship between SPPB and mortality. The current paper synthesizes the characteristics and main findings of longitudinal studies available in the literature that investigated the role of the SPPB in predicting mortality in older adults. The studies (n = 40) are from North America, South America, Europe, and Asia; the majority (n = 16) were conducted with community-dwelling older adults and reported an association between lower SPPB scores and a higher risk of mortality, and between higher SPPB scores and higher survival. Nevertheless, few studies have analyzed the accuracy of the instrument to predict mortality. The only study that established cut-off points was conducted with older adults discharged from an acute care hospital. Although an SPPB score lower than 10 seems to predict all-cause mortality, further studies showing cut-off points in specific settings and loco-regional specificities are still necessary.


Assuntos
Vida Independente , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Idoso , Ásia , Europa (Continente) , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais
11.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021069, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to validate a simple risk assessment tool for estimating the advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACN) risk at colonoscopy screenings and potential factors relevant for implementing this tool in the Korean population. METHODS: Our study analyzed data from the Cancer Screenee Cohort Study conducted by the National Cancer Center in Korea. The risk level was assessed using the Asia Pacific Colorectal Screening (APCS) score developed by the Asia-Pacific Working Group on Colorectal Cancer. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between colorectal-related outcomes and the risk level by APCS score. The discriminatory performance of the APCS score for various colorectal-related outcomes was assessed using C-statistics. RESULTS: In 12,520 individuals, 317 ACN cases and 4,528 adenoma cases were found. The APCS tool successfully classified the study population into different risk groups, and significant differences in the ACN rate and other outcomes were observed. The APCS score demonstrated acceptable discrimination capability with area under the curve values ranging from 0.62 to 0.65 for various outcomes. The results of the multivariate logistic regression model revealed that the high-risk group had a 3.1-fold higher risk of ACN (95% confidence interval, 2.08 to 4.67) than the average-risk group. Body mass index (BMI) was identified as a significant predictor of ACN in both multivariate and subgroup analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlighted significant differences in colorectal-related screening outcomes by colorectal risk level measured using the APCS score, and BMI could be used to improve the discriminatory capability of the APCS score.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Ásia , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5929, 2021 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642339

RESUMO

Arab populations are largely understudied, notably their genetic structure and history. Here we present an in-depth analysis of 6,218 whole genomes from Qatar, revealing extensive diversity as well as genetic ancestries representing the main founding Arab genealogical lineages of Qahtanite (Peninsular Arabs) and Adnanite (General Arabs and West Eurasian Arabs). We find that Peninsular Arabs are the closest relatives of ancient hunter-gatherers and Neolithic farmers from the Levant, and that founder Arab populations experienced multiple splitting events 12-20 kya, consistent with the aridification of Arabia and farming in the Levant, giving rise to settler and nomadic communities. In terms of recent genetic flow, we show that these ancestries contributed significantly to European, South Asian as well as South American populations, likely as a result of Islamic expansion over the past 1400 years. Notably, we characterize a large cohort of men with the ChrY J1a2b haplogroup (n = 1,491), identifying 29 unique sub-haplogroups. Finally, we leverage genotype novelty to build a reference panel of 12,432 haplotypes, demonstrating improved genotype imputation for both rare and common alleles in Arabs and the wider Middle East.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Y , Genoma Humano , Haplótipos , Migração Humana/história , Filogenia , África , Alelos , Árabes/genética , Ásia , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Fluxo Gênico , Frequência do Gene , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Masculino , Filogeografia , Catar , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
14.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(10): 1207-1213, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601843

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the diagnostic performance of urinary microRNAs (miRNAs) in bladder cancer (BC) in the Asian population. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library were searched for relevant literature on the diagnostic performance of miRNAs for BC in the Asian population. Subsequently, quality assessment on diagnostic accuracy studies-2 (QUADAS-2) was used for evaluating the quality of the included literature, and Stata version 15.0 for statistical analysis. Eleven published studies, including 1,220 BC patients, met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and, therefore, were investigated in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio of urinary miRNAs in the diagnosis of BC were 0.80 (95%CI: 0.74-0.85), 0.76 (95%CI: 0.69-0.81), 3.28 (95%CI: 2.63-4.10), 0.26(95%CI: 0.21-0.33), respectively. Additionally, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.85 in the summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve, and the diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was 12.39 (95%CI: 9.00-17.07). In conclusion, urinary miRNAs show good performance in diagnosing BC in Asia, and, therefore, can serve as effective biomarkers for early clinical screening and auxiliary diagnosis of BC. Key Words: MicroRNAs, Bladder cancer, Diagnostic value, Meta-analysis.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Ásia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética
15.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 9(6): e00881, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676997

Assuntos
Ásia
17.
Public Health ; 199: 110-117, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626911

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The management of non-communicable chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus is often poor in humanitarian crisis settings. Poor disease management can have serious long-term consequences. This review sought to identify studies that explored the effectiveness of interventions and the determinants that may improve the management of diabetes in the humanitarian context. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review was conducted of all types of studies that implemented diabetes programmes in humanitarian settings. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and Web of Science were searched for relevant articles using multiple search terms for relevant studies published in English between 2000 and June 2020. Quality assessments using valid tools, were conducted. A narrative synthesis of the findings was then performed. RESULTS: The search yielded 550 citations. After de-duplicating and screening, 19 studies were eligible for inclusion. Most studies were conducted in the Middle East (74%), Asia (16%) and Africa (10%). The interventions reported to improved diabetes care included the mHealth tool, intensive lifestyle intervention, task-shifting, psychosocial support, distribution of glucometers and comprehensive care. Insufficient drug supply, out-of-pocket cost, the complexity of insulin therapy and low adherence to guidelines were identified as barriers. CONCLUSION: There is a paucity of evidence on optimal diabetes care in acute crisis and natural disaster settings. The review was constrained by the low quality of the studies included. Nevertheless, it is likely that mHealth can be feasibly utilised, as educational SMS messages are cost-effective and electronic medical records can enhance disease monitoring. In addition, a multidisciplinary approach to care improves glycaemic control and is desirable due to the multifaceted nature of the disease and management required. Several key barriers have been identified that need to be tackled. Overall, the evidence base for diabetes care in humanitarian settings remains sparse, and further research is needed.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Socorro em Desastres , Ásia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Humanos , Renda
18.
BMJ Health Care Inform ; 28(1)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite wide usage across all areas of medicine, it is uncertain how useful standard reference ranges of laboratory values are for critically ill patients. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to assess the distributions of standard laboratory measurements in more than 330 selected intensive care units (ICUs) across the USA, Amsterdam, Beijing and Tarragona; compare differences and similarities across different geographical locations and evaluate how they may be associated with differences in length of stay (LOS) and mortality in the ICU. METHODS: A multi-centre, retrospective, cross-sectional study of data from five databases for adult patients first admitted to an ICU between 2001 and 2019 was conducted. The included databases contained patient-level data regarding demographics, interventions, clinical outcomes and laboratory results. Kernel density estimation functions were applied to the distributions of laboratory tests, and the overlapping coefficient and Cohen standardised mean difference were used to quantify differences in these distributions. RESULTS: The 259 382 patients studied across five databases in four countries showed a high degree of heterogeneity with regard to demographics, case mix, interventions and outcomes. A high level of divergence in the studied laboratory results (creatinine, haemoglobin, lactate, sodium) from the locally used reference ranges was observed, even when stratified by outcome. CONCLUSION: Standardised reference ranges have limited relevance to ICU patients across a range of geographies. The development of context-specific reference ranges, especially as it relates to clinical outcomes like LOS and mortality, may be more useful to clinicians.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Estado Terminal , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto , Ásia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , América do Norte , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684652

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe street food purchases in cities from Central Asia, considering customers' characteristics and the nutritional composition of the foods and beverages. Cross-sectional studies were conducted in 2016/2017 in Dushanbe (Tajikistan), Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan), Ashgabat (Turkmenistan) and Almaty (Kazakhstan). Direct observation was used to collect data on the purchases made by street food customers, selected by random and systematic sampling. Nutritional composition was estimated using data from chemical analyses, food composition tables or food labels. A total of 714 customers (56.6% females, 55.5% aged ≥35 years, 23.3% overweight/obese) were observed, who bought 852 foods and beverages, the most frequent being savoury pastries/snacks (23.2%), main dishes (19.0%), sweet pastries/confectionery (17.9%), tea/coffee (11.3%) and soft drinks/juices (9.8%). Fruit was the least purchased food (1.1%). Nearly one-third of customers purchased industrial food items (31.9%). The median energy content of a street food purchase was 529 kcal/serving. Saturated and trans-fat median contents were 4.7 g/serving and 0.36 g/serving (21.4% and 16.5% of maximum daily intake recommendations, respectively). Median sodium and potassium contents were 745 mg/serving (37.3% of maximum recommendation) and 304 mg/serving (8.7% of minimum recommendation), respectively. In general, the purchases observed presented high contents of energy, saturated-fat, trans-fat and sodium, and low levels of potassium. Policies towards the improvement of these urban food environments should be encouraged.


Assuntos
Alimentos , População Urbana , Adulto , Ásia , Bebidas , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo
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