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1.
Psychooncology ; 31(5): 761-769, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825748

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Acculturation discrepancy occurs when the rate of host culture acquisition and/or heritage culture retention between non-native parents and their children diverges. The resulting conflict may exacerbate mental health conditions in already vulnerable populations. The present study examined discrepancies between Hispanic and Anglo-American acculturation, as two separate constructs, and mental health symptomology in Hispanic childhood cancer survivors (HCCS) and their parents. METHODS: Participants were 68 matched parent-child dyads (HCCS (Mage  = 19.4 (2.77) years., 50.0% female); and parent (Mage  = 46.3 (6.07) years., 89.7% female)). Study variables were HCCS posttraumatic-growth (PTG) and quality-of-life (PedsQL); parent posttraumatic stress (PTSD); and parent/HCCS depressive symptoms (CESD) and acculturation orientations. Discrepancy was calculated as the dyadic difference between like acculturation measures. RESULTS: After controlling for covariates, Hispanic acculturation discrepancy and HCCS psychosocial health (a subset of PedsQL) was negatively correlated (r = -0.26, p < 0.5); while Anglo-American acculturation discrepancy was positively associated with HCCS PTG (r = 0.34, p < 0.01) and overall PedsQL (r = 0.24, p < 0.05), and moderated the relationship between parent CESD and HCCS PedsQL. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that the two acculturation discrepancy constructs have opposite effects. HCCS losing their heritage culture while their parents simultaneously retain it appears to be a deleterious process; whereas, HCCS learning the US culture more rapidly than parents may have protective benefits. This study has important implications for mental health interventions among HCCS. Findings should be used to inform the survivorship clinical community of the value of acculturation timing and parent/child discrepancy.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias , Aculturação , Adulto , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Associações de Ajuda a Doentes Mentais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/psicologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Pais/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(1): 21-50, 20210000.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178616

RESUMO

Introducción: El índice de vulnerabilidad CAPE es un índice global de política exterior que identifica a los países a los que se dará prioridad para recibir ayuda exterior. Ofrece un enfoque evidenciado, estructurado y razonado para utilizar la ayuda en acuerdos bilaterales con la salud mental como base. La presente versión está diseñada específicamente para la región de América Latina y el Caribe (ALC), que comprende 33 países. Objetivos: Identificar los países a ser priorizados para la ayuda externa, a través de la versión ALC del Índice de Vulnerabilidad CAPE (CAPE VI-LAC). Materiales y métodos: Al igual que con la versión global del Índice de Vulnerabilidad CAPE, consideramos varios índices o medidas a nivel de país que indican el estado de salud o que puede influir en la salud. Para el análisis, calificamos a los 20 peores países. Utilizamos 26 indicadores validados y disponibles internacionalmente para explorar y realizar el análisis. Resultados: Las cifras y el mapa muestran los 32 países que figuraron entre los 20 peores en al menos un indicador y también los 12 peores dentro de la CAPE VI-LAC en su conjunto. De los 33 países de ALC, sólo San Cristóbal y Nieves no figuraba en ninguno de los 20 países peores en ningún momento. Conclusión: Lo que podemos concluir con un alto grado de certeza es que los 12 países con peores puntuaciones son posiblemente estados frágiles; países donde los gobiernos no tienen el control o la autoridad completos, a menudo son represivos y corruptos, participan en graves abusos de los derechos humanos y se caracterizan por la inestabilidad política de diversas formas, la desventaja por los cambios climáticos extremos, la pobreza extrema, la desigualdad social y étnica divisiones, incapaces de proporcionar servicios básicos y sufren focos de insurgencia en forma de terrorismo, que a menudo son violentos y brutales. Los gobiernos, los donantes de ayuda, las organizaciones regionales y los profesionales y las asociaciones de salud mental deben trabajar juntos para abordar estas situaciones.


Introduction: The CAPE Vulnerability Index is a global foreign policy index that identifies the countries to be prioritise for foreign aid. It offers an evidenced, structured and reasoned approach to using aid in bi-lateral agreements with mental health as a foundation. The present version is specifically design for Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region, which comprises of 33 countries. Objectives: To identify the countries to be prioritized for foreign aid, through the LAC version of the CAPE Vulnerability Index (CAPE VI-LAC). Materials and methods: Like with the CAPE Vulnerability Index global version we consider various indices or measures at country level that indicate health status or what may influence health. For the analysis we score the worst 20 countries. We used 26 internationally available and validated indicators to explore and perform the analysis. Results: The figures and map show the 32 countries that featured in the worst 20 in at least one indicator and also the worst 12 within the CAPE VI-LAC as a whole. Of the 33 LAC countries only St Kitts and Nevis did not feature in any of the worst 20 countries at any time. Conclusion: What we can conclude with a great degree of certainty that the worst 12 scoring countries are possibly fragile states; countries where the Governments do not have complete control or authority, are often repressive and corrupt, participate in serious human rights abuses and are characterised by political instability of various forms, disadvantage by the extremes of climate changes, extreme poverty, inequality, social and ethnic divisions, unable to provide basic services and suffer from pockets of insurgency in the form of terrorism, which are often violent and brutal. Governments, aid donors, regional organizations, and mental health professionals and associations should work together in order to address these situations.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Inseminação Artificial Heteróloga , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Associações de Ajuda a Doentes Mentais
3.
Int J Eat Disord ; 54(7): 1171-1180, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33665848

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Little is known about prevalence estimates of new and revised DSM-5 eating disorders diagnoses in general, and especially among high-risk, underserved and diverse eating disorder populations. The aim of the current study was to determine prevalence, gender differences and correlates of DSM-5 eating disorders in veterans. METHOD: Iraq and Afghanistan war era veterans (N = 1,121, 51.2% women) completed the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale-5 and validated measures of eating pathology and mental health between July 2014 and September 2019. RESULTS: Overall more women than men (32.8% vs. 18.8%, p < .001) reported symptoms consistent with a DSM-5 eating disorder. Prevalence estimates (women vs. men) for the specific diagnoses were: Anorexia Nervosa (AN; 0.0% vs. 0.0%), Bulimia Nervosa (BN; 6.1% vs. 3.5%), Binge-Eating Disorder (BED; 4.4% vs. 2.9%), Atypical AN (AAN; 13.6% vs. 4.9%), Subclinical BN (0.0% vs. 0.2%), Subclinical BED (1.4% vs. 0.6%), Purging Disorder (2.1% vs. 0.7%), and Night Eating Syndrome (NES; 5.2% vs. 6.0%). Women were more likely to have BN or AAN, and there was no difference for BED or NES among genders. The eating disorder group had a higher mean BMI, and significantly greater eating pathology and mental health symptoms than the non-eating disorder group. DISCUSSION: Approximately one-third of women, and one-fifth of men, reported symptoms consistent with a DSM-5 eating disorder diagnosis. These high prevalence estimates across genders, and associated mental health concerns, suggest an urgent need to better understand and address eating disorders in military and veteran populations.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Bulimia Nervosa , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Veteranos , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Associações de Ajuda a Doentes Mentais , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Rev. psiquiatr. infanto-juv ; 37(2): 7-22, abr.-jun. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194685

RESUMO

La Asociación española de psiquiatría del niño y del adolescente (AEPNyA) se fundó en Barcelona en el año 1950 como una sociedad médica que tenía como objetivo el estudio de los trastornos psiquiátricos de niños y adolescentes. Su desarrollo corre en paralelo con la de la psiquiatría infantil europea. Los fundadores fueron hombres y mujeres ilustrados, comprometidos con su tiempo y con la salud mental, la educación y los derechos de la infancia. Este artículo aborda los hitos principales de la historia de AEPNyA y distingue tres periodos: los comienzos, la fase de afianzamiento y el tiempo de la madurez. Los autores desean rendir un homenaje a los miembros fundadores y a todos aquellos que han contribuido al desarrollo de la Asociación


The Spanish Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AEPNyA) was founded in 1950 in Barcelona as a medical society, and was one of the first Societies for Child Psychiatry in Europe. Its founders were learned men and women who were concerned not only with children's psychiatric disorders, but also with their education and rights. The history of child psychiatry in Spain is intertwined with the development of this field throughout Europe. Over the course of its history, the AEPNyA has gone through several stages: its beginnings, its development, and its more established stage. This article pays tribute to the founders of the AEPNyA and to all those that have made a contribution to its development


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XX , Associações de Ajuda a Doentes Mentais/história , Psiquiatria Infantil/história , Psiquiatria do Adolescente/história , Sociedades Médicas/história , Transtornos Mentais/história , Psiquiatria Infantil/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Biografias como Assunto
9.
Psychiatry Res ; 237: 331-8, 2016 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26805562

RESUMO

Hoarding Disorder (HD) is associated with substantial distress, impairment, and individual and societal costs. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) tailored to HD is the best-studied form of treatment and can be led by mental health professionals or by non-professionals (peers) with specific training. No previous study has directly compared outcomes for therapist-led and peer-led groups, and none have examined the effectiveness of these groups in a real-world setting. We used retrospective data to compare psychologist-led CBT groups (G-CBT) to groups led by peer facilitators using the Buried in Treasures workbooks (G-BiT) in individuals who sought treatment for HD from the Mental Health Association of San Francisco. The primary outcome was change in Hoarding Severity Scale scores. Approximate costs per participant were also examined. Both G-CBT and G-BiT showed improvement consistent with previous reports (22% improvement overall). After controlling for baseline group characteristics, there were no significant differences in outcomes between G-CBT and G-BiT. For G-CBT, where additional outcome data were available, functional impairment and severity of hoarding symptoms improved to a similar degree as compared to previous G-CBT studies, while hoarding-related cognition improved to a lesser degree (also consistent with previous studies). G-BiT cost approximately $100 less per participant than did G-CBT.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Transtorno de Acumulação/terapia , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Grupos de Autoajuda , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Associações de Ajuda a Doentes Mentais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , São Francisco
13.
Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci ; 52(3): 71-5, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27357558

RESUMO

The Israeli-Polish Mental Health Association (IPMHA) was founded in 2000. It is a unique organization as it is not only one of the many associations for mental health professionals but also a platform for people from distant countries who share an important and traumatic past. IPMHA members have been engaged in studies of consequences of massive trauma, intergenerational transmission of trauma and help for trauma survivors. Keeping in mind the obligation of mental health professions to contribute to an enlightened and tolerant society, the IPMHA members have been trying to deal with "the past in the present," investigating the roots of the harm caused by racial and ethnic hatred, anti-Semitism and other forms of social prejudice. The IPMHA activities included symposia with discussions facilitated by the use of the dynamic group formula. Some of the materials presented in the meetings were published in Polish professional journals. This article reports on the activities of the IPMHA with special focus on the accompanying emotionally loaded problems.


Assuntos
Associações de Ajuda a Doentes Mentais , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Israel , Polônia , Sociedades Médicas/história
14.
Psychiatr Serv ; 65(6): 710-2, 2014 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24881682

RESUMO

This column describes a partnership between the Maryland Mental Hygiene Administration (MHA) and the Division of Psychiatric Services Research, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, that has implemented several evidence-based and emerging practices, such as supported employment, family psychoeducation, assertive community treatment, treatment for co-occurring mental and substance use disorders, and services for transition-age youths. The public-academic partnership has also created a separate center that employs a variety of approaches and tools to evaluate implementation fidelity and the quality and outcomes of services. These data are used by the legislature and by the governor and his executive staff to develop new policies and improvement strategies and monitor priority initiatives.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental , Comportamento Cooperativo , Política de Saúde , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação , Associações de Ajuda a Doentes Mentais , Formulação de Políticas , Readaptação ao Emprego , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Maryland , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Melhoria de Qualidade , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Reabilitação Vocacional
15.
Pediatr Radiol ; 44(3): 244-51, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24276507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of post-mortem imaging, including skeletal radiography, CT and MRI, is increasing, providing a minimally invasive alternative to conventional autopsy techniques. The development of clinical guidelines and national standards is being encouraged, particularly for cross-sectional techniques. OBJECTIVE: To outline the current practice of post-mortem imaging amongst members of the European Society of Paediatric Radiology (ESPR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We e-mailed an online questionnaire of current post-mortem service provisions to members of the ESPR in January 2013. The survey included direct questions about what services were offered, the population imaged, current techniques used, imaging protocols, reporting experience and intended future involvement. RESULTS: Seventy-one percent (47/66) of centres from which surveys were returned reported performing some form of post-mortem imaging in children, of which 81 % perform radiographs, 51% CT and 38% MRI. Eighty-seven percent of the imaging is performed within the radiology or imaging departments, usually by radiographers (75%), and 89% is reported by radiologists, of which 64% is reported by paediatric radiologists. Overall, 72% of positive respondents have a standardised protocol for radiographs, but only 32% have such a protocol for CT and 27% for MRI. Sixty-one percent of respondents wrote that this is an important area that needs to be developed. CONCLUSION: Overall, the majority of centres provide some post-mortem imaging service, most of which is performed within an imaging department and reported by a paediatric radiologist. However, the populations imaged as well as the details of the services offered are highly variable among institutions and lack standardisation. We have identified people who would be interested in taking this work forwards.


Assuntos
Autopsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Autopsia/normas , Diagnóstico por Imagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Diagnóstico por Imagem/normas , Pediatria/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Radiologia/normas , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Morte Fetal/diagnóstico , Morte Fetal/epidemiologia , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Associações de Ajuda a Doentes Mentais , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Natimorto/epidemiologia
16.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 25(3): 283-291, jul.-sept. 2013. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-114065

RESUMO

Background: Diverse national and international organizations have been developing projects for many years to improve testing practices. The main goal of this paper is to present the revised model of the European Federation of Psychologists’ Associations (EFPA) for the evaluation of the quality of tests. This model aims to provide test users with rigorous information about the theoretical, practical and psychometric characteristics of tests, in order to enhance their use. Method: For the revision of the test review model, an EFPA task force was established, consisting of six European experts from different countries, who worked on the update of the previous European model, adapting it to the recent developments in the field of psychological and educational measurement. Results: The updated EFPA model provides for the comprehensive evaluation of tests. The first part describes test characteristics exhaustively, and in the second part, a quantitative and narrative evaluation of the most relevant psychometric characteristics of tests is presented. Conclusions: A revision of the European model for the description and evaluation of psychological and educational tests is presented. The revised model is analyzed in light of recent developments in the field (AU)


Antecedentes: el objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una revisión del modelo de la Federación Europea de Asociaciones de Psicólogos (EFPA) para la evaluación de los tests. El modelo trata de poner a disposición de los usuarios información contrastada sobre las características teóricas, prácticas y psicométricas de los tests, facilitando con ello un mejor uso de las pruebas. Método: para llevar a cabo la revisión del modelo de evaluación de los tests se formó una comisión de trabajo en el seno de la EFPA formada por seis expertos de diferentes países que trabajaron en la actualización del modelo europeo previo, adaptándolo a los nuevos desarrollos en el ámbito de la evaluación psicológica y educativa. Resultados: la versión actualizada del modelo de la EFPA permite evaluar los tests de forma integral. En una primera parte se describe la prueba de forma exhaustiva, y en la segunda se lleva a cabo la evaluación cuantitativa y cualitativa de las características psicométricas de la prueba. Conclusiones: se presenta la revisión del modelo europeo para la descripción y evaluación de los tests y se comentan los resultados a la luz de los desarrollos recientes en el ámbito de la evaluación psicológica y educativa (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Testes Psicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes Psicológicos/normas , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Associações de Ajuda a Doentes Mentais/organização & administração , Sociedades/legislação & jurisprudência , Sociedades/métodos , Psicometria/ética , Psicometria/organização & administração , Psicometria/normas
17.
Rev. psicoanál. (Madr.) ; (67): 209-219, nov. 2012.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-125785

RESUMO

Se esboza el problema de algunas dificultades que presentan las asociaciones psicoanalíticas a la hora de movilizar ciertas actitudes de los integrantes, que han sido el fruto de inercias y temores al cambio. Se sugieren algunas variables para ayudar al cambio/evolución que facilitarían a que los miembros de las asociaciones se sintiesen, sin la pérdida de rigor, más ajustados al tiempo en el que vivimos. Se bosqueja la hipótesis de que algunos integrantes podrían sufrir ciertas distorsiones de las percepciones de la realidad, debido a que el juicio de existencia pudiese disolverse, en parte, por la fuerte seducción de las representaciones desiderativas (AU)


The problema posed by some difficulties seen inside of psychoanalytic associations when trying to mobilize certain attitudes in their members, which are the result of inertias and fears of change, is drafted. Some factors that could foster change/evolution are suggested, which would facilitate the associations members to feel, without any loss or rigour, a better adjustment to the time we live in. An hypothesis is also drafted that some participants might suffer of some distortions in their perception of reality owing to the existence judgement being dissolved, in part, because of the intense seduction of wishful representation (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Psicanálise/métodos , Psicanálise/tendências , Teoria Psicanalítica , Terapia Psicanalítica/métodos , Terapia Psicanalítica/organização & administração , Psicanálise/organização & administração , Psicanálise/normas , Interpretação Psicanalítica , Associações de Ajuda a Doentes Mentais/organização & administração
19.
Death Stud ; 36(1): 23-40, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24567993

RESUMO

The authors argued that death competence, defined as specialized skill in tolerating and managing clients' problems related to dying, death, and bereavement, is a necessary prerequisite for ethical practice in grief counseling. A selected review of the literature tracing the underpinnings of this concept reveals how a robust construct of death competence evolved. Using the vehicle of a case study, the authors analyzed an example of empathic failure resulting from an apparent lack of death competence on the part of a mental health provider to illustrate the importance of this characteristic in delivering clinically effective and ethically sensitive grief counseling.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Morte , Luto , Competência Clínica , Aconselhamento/ética , Ética Médica , Pesar , Psicoterapia/ética , Adaptação Psicológica/ética , Adulto , Códigos de Ética , Contratransferência , Feminino , Humanos , Associações de Ajuda a Doentes Mentais , Relações Médico-Paciente/ética , Estados Unidos , Viuvez/psicologia
20.
Rev. bras. crescimento desenvolv. hum ; 22(2): 259-266, 2012. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-647562

RESUMO

A escassez de informação e o estigma associado às perturbações mentais são importantes obstáculos à promoção da saúde mental. O projecto "UPA Faz a Diferença: Acções de sensibilização pró-saúde mental", que pretende contribuir para o aumento de conhecimentos sobre questões de saúde mental junto de jovens, faz parte do movimento UPA "Unidos Para Ajudar", destinado a combater o estigma e a discriminação associados às perturbações mentais.OBJETIVOS: descrever as características psicométricas do questionário UPA (Unidos Para Ajudar) e verificar a adequabilidade da ação de promoção de saúde mental construída.MÉTODO: o estudo envolveu 26 alunos (15-17 anos). A acção de promoção de saúde mental consistiu em 2 sessões. O questionário foi aplicado no início da 1ª e no final da 2ª sessão.RESULTADOS: a avaliação da consistência interna (alpha de Cronbach) indicou níveis mínimos e satisfatórios em 2 secções do "Questionário UPA" (secção percepções estigmatizantes e percepções de conhecimentos, respectivamente). Após a implementação da acção observou-se um aumento significativo das percepções de conhecimentos, não se verificando diferenças significativas nas percepções estigmatizantes; e uma diminuição significativa da intenção do próprio procurar ajuda se confrontado com um problema de saúde mental, embora a maioria dos participantes tenha passado a considerar diferentes tipos de ajuda.CONCLUSÃO: os resultados sugerem a necessidade de rever a estrutura da secção "percepções estigmatizantes" do questionário e de se proceder a novas análises numa amostra mais expressiva; e revelam a adequação da acção de promoção de saúde mental, especialmente ao nível do aumento dos conhecimentos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adolescente , Promoção da Saúde , Saúde Mental , Associações de Ajuda a Doentes Mentais , Preconceito , Estereotipagem
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