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1.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 23(1): 3, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799781

RESUMO

An important challenge to overcome in the solid dosage forms technology is the selection of the most biopharmaceutically efficient polymeric excipients. The excipients can be selected, among others, by compatibility studies since incompatibilities between ingredients of the drug formulations adversely affect their bioavailability, stability, efficacy, and safety. Therefore, new, fast, and reliable methods for detecting incompatibility are constantly being sought. Hence, the purpose of this work was to assess the usefulness of a heating, cooling, and reheating differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) program for detecting potential incompatibilities between atenolol, an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and polymeric excipients. Hot-stage microscopy (HSM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) were used as supporting techniques. Additionally, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) served as tools to support the interpretation of the data acquired from the DSC curves and FTIR spectra. As the alterations in the shape of the DSC peak of atenolol which are indicative of incompatibility are visible only on the cooling and reheating curves of the mixtures, the DSC heating-cooling-reheating program was found to be very useful for identifying potential incompatibilities in the binary mixtures of atenolol and polymeric excipients. The melting and recrystallization of atenolol alone and in its mixtures were also confirmed by HSM, while FTIR displayed changes in the spectra of mixtures due to incompatibility. These studies revealed that atenolol is incompatible with hydroxyethylcellulose, hypromellose, and methylcellulose. PXRD measurements at room temperature revealed that the crystallinity of atenolol did not change in these mixtures. However, its crystallinity was reduced in the mixtures previously heated up to 155 °C and then cooled to 25 °C.


Assuntos
Atenolol , Excipientes , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Análise por Conglomerados , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
2.
Am J Vet Res ; 82(10): 811-817, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554869

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between short-term treatment with a previously described compounded transdermal formulation of atenolol and heart rate in cats. ANIMALS: 11 healthy adult cats. PROCEDURES: Cats received the atenolol gel formulation (gradually increased from 12.5 mg/cat, q 24 h to 25 mg/cat, q 12 h) by application to the pinnae at home over a 10-day period in a prospective, experimental study. On day 10, cats were hospitalized for measurement of serum atenolol concentrations 3, 6, and 12 hours after the morning treatment. Mean heart rate measured at the 3- and 6-hour time points was compared with a baseline value (measured at enrollment). RESULTS: All cats completed the study; 4 were excluded from analyses after an apparent formulation error was detected in 1 batch. Two cats had minor adverse effects (localized erythema of the pinna). Five of 7 cats had serum atenolol concentrations ≥ 260 ng/mL (considered therapeutic) at ≥ 1 time point. Heart rate had a strong negative correlation (r = -0.87) with serum atenolol concentration. A 90-day drug stability investigation of 4 formulations (identical to the intended study treatment except for pH [range, 6.5 to 7.7]) revealed an apparent decrease in atenolol concentration at a pH of 7.7. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Topical administration of the formulation as described resulted in targeted serum atenolol concentrations in most cats, with attendant HR reduction. Validation of these preliminary results in a larger sample and investigation of the treatment in cats with structural heart disease is needed. Verification of appropriate pH (target, 7.0) is likely essential for the compound's stability.


Assuntos
Atenolol , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Frequência Cardíaca , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 221: 112250, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243022

RESUMO

There is a current concern, among the scientific community, on the pollutants classified as "persistent organic pollutants (POPs)". Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) belong to this family of contaminants; therefore, it is necessary to find more efficient techniques able to achieve their removal from the environment. This study focuses on two different pharmaceuticals: carbamazepine and atenolol, chosen for their widespread use and their different chemical and medical properties. In this work, an organic dye, acetylated riboflavin, has been used in combination with visible light to achieve the photodegradation of these two POPs in <2 h. Moreover, photophysical experiments demonstrated the involvement of the singlet and triplet excited states of acetylated riboflavin and the generated singlet oxygen in the removal of these drugs. Besides, a detailed UFLC-MS-MS analysis of the photoproducts confirmed the oxidation of the drugs. Finally, a plausible mechanism has been postulated.


Assuntos
Carbamazepina/química , Luz , Fotólise/efeitos da radiação , Riboflavina/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Acetilação , Atenolol/química , Catálise , Cinética , Fotólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxigênio Singlete/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(43): 60663-60675, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34164790

RESUMO

The cardiovascular drugs (CDDs), such as metoprolol (MET), atenolol (ATE), bezafibrate (BZB), and atorvastatin (ATO), have been frequently detected in the water environment. They can cause potential threats to the ecological environment and human health due to their "pseudo-persistence" effect. In this study, the photolysis kinetics, degradation mechanisms, by-products, influencing factors, and acute toxicity of these four typical CDDs under polychromatic ultraviolet irradiation (200-400 nm) were investigated. The results showed that the photolysis of ATE, BZB, MET, and ATO all followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, and their average photon quantum yields of the wavelength studied were 0.14×10-2, 0.33×10-3, 0.78×10-4, and 0.24×10-4 mol einstein-1, respectively. Singlet oxygen (1O2), hydroxyl radical (·OH), and the triplet-excited state of the cardiovascular drug (3CDD*) were all involved in the photolysis while 1O2 was the dominator. The effects of NO3-, Cl-, HCO3-, and humic acid (HA) on the photolysis were the combination of light-shielding, quenching, and excitation of reactive species. Seven, four, four, and nine photolysis products of ATO, BZB, ATE, and MET were identified, respectively, and their possible degradation pathways were proposed. The acute toxicity of ATE was basically unchanged during photolysis; however, ATO, BZB, and MET toxicity all increased due to the generation of ketonization and hydroxylation products.


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares , Fotólise , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Atenolol/efeitos da radiação , Atorvastatina/efeitos da radiação , Bezafibrato/efeitos da radiação , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/efeitos da radiação , Substâncias Húmicas , Cinética , Metoprolol/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos da radiação
5.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070523

RESUMO

The pace of industrialization and rapid population growth in countries such as India entail an increased input of industrial and sanitary organic micropollutants, the so-called emerging contaminants (EC), into the environment. The emission of EC, such as pharmaceuticals, reaching Indian water bodies causes a detrimental effect on aquatic life and ultimately on human health. However, the financial burden of expanding sophisticated water treatment capacities renders complementary, cost-efficient alternatives, such as adsorption, attractive. Here we show the merits of washed and milled pigeon pea husk (PPH) as low-cost adsorbent for the removal of the EC trimethoprim (TMP) and atenolol (ATN) that are among the most detected pharmaceuticals in Indian waters. We found a linear increase in adsorption capacity of PPH for TMP and ATN at concentrations ranging from 10 to 200 µg/L and from 50 to 400 µg/L, respectively, reflecting the concentrations occurring in Indian water bodies. Investigation of adsorption kinetics using the external mass transfer model (EMTM) revealed that film diffusion resistance governed the adsorption process of TMP or ATN onto PPH. Moreover, analysis of the adsorption performance of PPH across an extensive range of pH and temperature illustrated that the highest adsorption loadings achieved concurred with actual conditions of Indian waters. We anticipate our work as starting point towards the development of a feasible adsorbent system aiming at low-cost water treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Urinários/isolamento & purificação , Atenolol/isolamento & purificação , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cajanus/química , Trimetoprima/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/isolamento & purificação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura , Termodinâmica
6.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071328

RESUMO

Enzymes are highly specific biological catalysts that accelerate the rate of chemical reactions within the cell. Our knowledge of how enzymes work remains incomplete. Computational methodologies such as molecular mechanics (MM) and quantum mechanical (QM) methods play an important role in elucidating the detailed mechanisms of enzymatic reactions where experimental research measurements are not possible. Theories invoked by a variety of scientists indicate that enzymes work as structural scaffolds that serve to bring together and orient the reactants so that the reaction can proceed with minimum energy. Enzyme models can be utilized for mimicking enzyme catalysis and the development of novel prodrugs. Prodrugs are used to enhance the pharmacokinetics of drugs; classical prodrug approaches focus on alternating the physicochemical properties, while chemical modern approaches are based on the knowledge gained from the chemistry of enzyme models and correlations between experimental and calculated rate values of intramolecular processes (enzyme models). A large number of prodrugs have been designed and developed to improve the effectiveness and pharmacokinetics of commonly used drugs, such as anti-Parkinson (dopamine), antiviral (acyclovir), antimalarial (atovaquone), anticancer (azanucleosides), antifibrinolytic (tranexamic acid), antihyperlipidemia (statins), vasoconstrictors (phenylephrine), antihypertension (atenolol), antibacterial agents (amoxicillin, cephalexin, and cefuroxime axetil), paracetamol, and guaifenesin. This article describes the works done on enzyme models and the computational methods used to understand enzyme catalysis and to help in the development of efficient prodrugs.


Assuntos
Enzimas/química , Pró-Fármacos/química , Aciclovir/química , Atenolol/química , Atovaquona/química , Catálise , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Decitabina/química , Dopamina/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/química , Conformação Molecular , Nucleosídeos/química , Fenilefrina/química , Prótons , Teoria Quântica , Software , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/métodos , Temperatura , Ácido Tranexâmico/química
7.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(6): 1454-1463, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The implications of removing the adjustment for Black race in equations to eGFR on the prevalence of CKD and management strategies are incompletely understood. METHODS: We estimated changes in CKD prevalence and the potential effect on therapeutic drug prescriptions and prediction of kidney failure if race adjustment were removed from the CKD-EPI GFR estimating equation. We used cross-sectional and longitudinal data from adults aged ≥18 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2015 to 2016, and the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care System in 2015. In the VA cohort, we assessed use of common medications that require dose adjustment on the basis of kidney function, and compared the prognostic accuracy of the Kidney Failure Risk Equation with versus without race adjustment of eGFR. RESULTS: The prevalence of CKD among Black adults increased from 5.2% to 10.6% in NHANES, and from 12.4% to 21.6% in the VA cohort after eliminating race adjustment. Among Black veterans, 41.0% of gabapentin users, 33.5% of ciprofloxacin users, 24.0% of metformin users, 6.9% of atenolol users, 6.6% of rosuvastatin users, and 5.8% of tramadol users were reclassified to a lower eGFR for which dose adjustment or discontinuation is recommended. Without race adjustment of eGFR, discrimination of the Kidney Failure Risk Equation among Black adults remained high and calibration was marginally improved overall, with better calibration at higher levels of predicted risk. CONCLUSIONS: Removal of race adjustment from CKD-EPI eGFR would double the estimated prevalence of CKD among Black adults in the United States. Such a change is likely to affect a sizeable number of drug-dosing decisions. It may also improve the accuracy of kidney failure risk prediction among higher-risk Black adults.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Conceitos Matemáticos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/classificação , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etnologia , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Atenolol/uso terapêutico , Ciprofloxacina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Gabapentina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes , Masculino , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Fatores Raciais , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/uso terapêutico , Tramadol/uso terapêutico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Chirality ; 33(7): 397-408, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964031

RESUMO

In this work, enantiomeric separation of a drug combination of two chiral drugs, namely, atenolol and chlorthalidone, is described. Prior investigation of the effect of different variables on the resolution of the enantiomers' peaks and the total run time represented by the retention time of the last eluted peak was conducted using face-centered composite design. Twenty-two experiments were carried out by varying the chiral stationary phase type as a categorical factor and mobile phase composition including the percentage of ethanol and percentage of diethylamine as continuous factors. According to the optimization process, a mobile phase consisting of hexane:ethanol:DEA:TFA (60:40:0.2:0.1%, v/v/v/v) pumped at flow rate 1 ml min-1 onto Lux-Cellulose 2 stationary phase was applied for the chiral separation and quantification of the drug combination at 230 nm. Application of the developed method to the pharmaceutical formulation of this combination was successfully performed, and satisfactory percentage of recoveries was obtained. The method was also fully validated following International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. This method could be of high value and relevance for application in quality control laboratories.


Assuntos
Atenolol , Clortalidona , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estereoisomerismo
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(11): 7551-7560, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988986

RESUMO

The correction factor (CF) is a critical parameter in wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) that significantly influences the accuracy of the final consumption estimates. However, most CFs have been derived from a few old pharmacokinetic studies and should be re-evaluated and refined to improve the accuracy of the WBE approach. This study aimed to review and estimate the CFs for atenolol, carbamazepine, and naproxen for WBE using the daily mass loads of those pharmaceuticals in wastewater and their corresponding dispensed prescription data in Australia. Influent wastewater samples were collected from wastewater treatment plants serving approximately 24% of the Australian population and annual national dispensed prescription data. The estimated CFs for atenolol and carbamazepine are 1.37 (95% CI: 1.17-1.66) and 8.69 (95% CI: 7.66-10.03), respectively. Due to significant over-the-counter sales of naproxen, a reliable CF could not be estimated based on prescription statistics. Using an independent dataset of 186 and 149 wastewater samples collected in an urban catchment in 2011 and 2012, WBE results calculated using the new CFs matched well with the dispensed data for atenolol and carbamazepine in the catchment area.


Assuntos
Vigilância Epidemiológica Baseada em Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Atenolol , Austrália , Carbamazepina , Naproxeno , Prescrições , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e218418, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914047

RESUMO

Importance: Accumulating evidence indicates that higher blood pressure (BP) variability from one physician office visit to the next (hereafter referred to as visit-to-visit BP variability) is associated with poor outcomes. Short-term measurement (throughout 1 year) of visit-to-visit BP variability in high-risk older patients may help identify patients at increased risk of death. Objective: To evaluate whether short-term visit-to-visit BP variability is associated with increased long-term mortality risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: The US cohort of the International Verapamil SR-Trandolapril Study (INVEST), a randomized clinical trial of 16 688 patients aged 50 years or older with hypertension and coronary artery disease, was conducted between September 2, 1997, and December 15, 2000, with in-trial follow-up through February 14, 2003. The study evaluated a calcium antagonist (sustained-release verapamil plus trandolapril) vs ß-blocker (atenolol plus hydrochlorothiazide) treatment strategy. Blood pressure measurement visits were scheduled every 6 weeks for the first 6 months and biannually thereafter. Statistical analysis was performed from September 2, 1997, to May 1, 2014. Exposures: Visit-to-visit systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP variability during the first year of enrollment using 4 different BP variability measures: standard deviation, coefficient of variation, average real variability, and variability independent of the mean. Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause death, assessed via the US National Death Index, beginning after the exposure assessment period through May 1, 2014. Results: For the present post hoc analysis, long-term mortality data were available on 16 688 patients (9001 women [54%]; mean [SD] age, 66.5 [9.9] years; 45% White patients, 16% Black patients, and 37% Hispanic patients). During a mean (SD) follow-up of 10.9 (4.2) years, 5058 patients (30%) died. All 4 variability measures for SBP were significantly associated with long-term mortality after adjustment for baseline demographic characteristics and comorbidities. After comparison of lowest vs highest variability measure quintiles, the magnitude of the association with death remained statistically significant even after adjustment for baseline demographic characteristics and comorbidities (average real variability: adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.18; 95% CI, 1.08-1.30; standard deviation: aHR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.04-1.24; coefficient of variation: aHR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.06-1.26; variability independent of the mean: aHR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.05-1.25). The signal was stronger in women compared with men. Associations of diastolic BP variability measures with death were weaker than for SBP and were not significant after adjustment. Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that, in a large population of older patients with hypertension and coronary artery disease, short-term visit-to-visit SBP variability was associated with excess long-term mortality, especially for women. Efforts to identify and minimize visit-to-visit SBP variability may be important in reducing excess mortality later in life. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00133692.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Mortalidade , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Atenolol/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroclorotiazida/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores Sexuais , Verapamil/uso terapêutico
11.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 147(7): 599-607, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856430

RESUMO

Importance: Propranolol has become the first-line therapy for problematic infantile hemangiomas (IHs) that require systemic therapy. However, different adverse events have been reported during propranolol treatment. The positive efficacy and safety of atenolol raise the question of whether it could be used as a promising therapy for IH. Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of propranolol vs atenolol in infants (between age 5 and 20 weeks) with problematic IHs who required systemic therapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label clinical trial conducted in collaboration among 6 separate investigation sites in China from February 1, 2015, to December 31, 2018. A total of 377 patients met the criteria for inclusion and were randomized to the propranolol (190 [50.4%]) and atenolol (187 [49.6%]) groups. Data were analyzed in June 2020. Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive either propranolol or atenolol for at least 6 months. They completed efficacy assessments at 2 years after the initial treatment. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was any response or nonresponse at 6 months. The key secondary outcome was changes in the hemangioma activity score. Results: Of 377 participants, 287 (76.1%) were female, and the mean (SD) age was 10.2 (4.0) weeks in the propranolol group and 9.8 (4.1) weeks in the atenolol group. After 6 months of treatment, in the propranolol and atenolol groups, the overall response rates were 93.7% and 92.5%, respectively (difference, 1.2%; 95% CI, -4.1% to 6.6%). At 1 and 4 weeks after treatment, and thereafter, the hemangioma activity score in the atenolol group aligned with the propranolol group (odds ratio, 1.034; 95% CI, 0.886-1.206). No differences between the propranolol group and atenolol group were observed in successful initial responses, quality of life scores, complete ulceration healing times, or the rebound rate. Both groups presented a similar percentage of complete/nearly complete responses at 2 years (82.1% vs 79.7%; difference, 2.4%; 95% CI, -5.9% to 10.7%). Adverse events were more common in the propranolol group (70.0% vs 44.4%; difference, 25.6%; 95% CI, 15.7%-34.8%), but the frequency of severe adverse events did not differ meaningfully between the groups. Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, when compared with propranolol, atenolol had similar efficacy and fewer adverse events in the treatment of infants with problematic IHs. The results suggest that oral atenolol can be used as an alternative treatment option for patients with IH who require systemic therapy. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrial.gov Identifier: NCT02342275.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Atenolol/uso terapêutico , Hemangioma Capilar/tratamento farmacológico , Propranolol/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Atenolol/administração & dosagem , China , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Propranolol/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Environ Geochem Health ; 43(10): 4299-4313, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860411

RESUMO

Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) released into the environment have an adverse impact on the soil and water ecosystem as well as human health. Sorption of PhACs by soils and its potential modification through introduced DOM in the applied animal manure or treated wastewater (TWW) determines the mobility and environmental relevance of PhACs. Sulfadiazine, caffeine and atenolol were selected as target PhACs to investigate their sorption behaviors by five selected arable soils in the absence and presence of pig manure DOM. Sulfadiazine was least sorbed, followed by caffeine and atenolol according to the Freundlich sorption isotherm fit (soil average Kf [µg(1-n) mLn g-1] 4.07, 9.06, 18.92, respectively). The addition of manure DOM (31.34 mg C L-1) decreased the sorption of sulfadiazine and especially of caffeine and atenolol (average Kf 3.04, 6.17, 5.79, respectively). Freundlich sorption isotherms of the PhACs became more nonlinear in the presence of manure DOM (Freundlich exponent n changed from 0.74-1.40 to 0.62-1.12), implying more heterogeneous sorption of PhACs in soil-DOM binary systems. Sorption competition of DOM molecules with sulfadiazine and caffeine mostly contributed to their decreased soil sorption when DOM was present. In contrast, the formation of DOM-atenolol associates in the solution phase caused the largely decreased soil sorption of atenolol in the presence of DOM. It is suggested that DOM concentration (e.g., ≥ 60 mg C L-1) and its interaction with PhACs should be taken into consideration when assessing the environmental impact of land application of animal manure or irrigation with TWW.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes do Solo , Adsorção , Animais , Atenolol , Cafeína , Ecossistema , Esterco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Sulfadiazina , Suínos
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(29): 39637-39647, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33763832

RESUMO

This study is on photocatalytic degradation of pharmaceutical residues of atenolol (ATL) and acetaminophen (ACT) present in secondary effluent under visible light irradiation stimulated by Ag doped ZnO (Ag-ZnO) photocatalyst. Lawsonia inermis leaf extract was used for reduction of Zinc sulphate to ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). Further, ZnO NPs were doped with Ag and characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM-EDX, surface area analyzer, UV-Vis, and photoluminescence spectrometry to analyze the structure, morphology, chemical composition, and optical property. FT-IR analysis revealed major functional groups such as OH, C=O, and SEM analysis depicted the polyhedron shape of the NPs with size range of 100 nm. Ag-ZnO NPs were used in the photocatalytic degradation of ATL and ACT, and its removal was evaluated by varying initial contaminant concentration, catalyst dosage, and initial pH. Findings indicate that Ag-ZnO NPs demonstrated relative narrow bandgap and efficient charge separation that resulted in enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light illumination. The photocatalytic degradation of ATL and ACT fitted well with pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Further, it was found that under optimal conditions of 5 mg/L of contaminants, pH of 8.5, and catalyst dose of 1 g/L, degradation efficiency of 70.2% (ATL) and 90.8% (ACT) was achieved for a reaction time of 120 min. More than 60% reduction in TOC was observed for both contaminants and OH• pathway was found to be the major removal process. Ag-ZnO photocatalyst showed good recycling performance, and these findings indicate that it could be cost effectively employed for removing emerging contaminants under visible light radiation.


Assuntos
Óxido de Zinco , Acetaminofen , Atenolol , Catálise , Luz , Prata , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
15.
J AOAC Int ; 104(1): 103-112, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nowadays, emergence of unexpected contaminants in drinking water is a challenging environmental problem facing humanity. OBJECTIVE: Two eco-friendly spectrofluorimetric methods were proposed for the determination of three unexpected contaminants in drinking tap water. METHODS: The first method is first derivative synchronous spectrofluorimetric method which was developed for simultaneous determination of atenolol (ATN) and diclofenac (DCF) without prior separation at Δλ = 70 nm and at Δλ = 80 nm for ATN and DCF, respectively. The second method was based on using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as fluorescent enhancer of triclosan (TCS) native fluorescence. TCS exhibits enhanced fluorescence at λ emission = 600 nm upon excitation at λ excitation = 299.4 nm. Solid phase extraction was carried out in both methods. RESULTS: Linear calibration curves were obtained in concentration range of (4-3000 ng/mL) for ATN and (4-2000 ng/mL) for DCF, by measuring first derivative signal of fluorescence at 300 nm and 375.2 nm, respectively. TCS exhibits linear range (0.1-1 ng/mL) at 600 nm. Mean percentage recoveries were 101.04 ± 0.571, 99.66 ± 1.443, and 99.73 ± 0.566 for ATN, DCF, and TCS, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Validation of both methods were performed according to the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. Results obtained were statistically compared with published methods and no significant differences were found. The proposed methods' greenness is evaluated using analytical Eco-scale and Green Analytical Procedure Index. A greenness comparison with previously published methods has been performed. HIGHLIGHTS: Both methods were found to be eco-friendly and were successfully applied for the determination of the emerging contaminants in drinking tap water.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Triclosan , Atenolol , Diclofenaco , Micelas , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 213: 111993, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578102

RESUMO

MoS2/montmorillonite (MoS2/Mt) composite was successfully synthesized through a simple hydrothermal method, and its adsorption performance for two emerging contaminants-atenolol (ATE) and acebutolol (ACE) was researched. The batch experiments revealed that the adsorption process can be described by the Pseudo-second order model and Langmuir model, and the adsorption capacity of MoS2/Mt, MoS2 and Mt for ATE were 132.08 mg/g, 60.68 mg/g and 74.23 mg/g, for ACE were 113.82 mg/g, 33.01 mg/g and 36.05 mg/g, respectively. Besides, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), BET specific surface area measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were also employed to analyze the adsorption mechanism. Moreover, quantitative molecular surface analysis and weak intermolecular interaction analysis with independent gradient model were combined to probe the microscopic interaction between the adsorbent and adsorbate. The results indicated the interactions included hydrogen bonding and vdW interaction. Mt and MoS2 interacted more strongly with ATE than ACE, which revealed the reason MoS2/Mt, Mt and MoS2 possessed higher adsorption capacity for ATE.


Assuntos
Atenolol/química , Bentonita/química , Molibdênio/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Acebutolol , Adsorção , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 452, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432057

RESUMO

Beta-adrenergic blocking agents (abbreviated as beta-blockers) have been used for treating various cardiovascular diseases. However, the potential for asthma exacerbation is one of the major adverse effects of beta-blockers. This study aimed to compare the level of risk for an asthma attack in patients receiving various beta-blockers. We searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of either placebo-controlled or active-controlled design. The current network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted under a frequentist model. The primary outcome was the incidence of asthmatic attack. A total of 24 RCTs were included. Overall NMA revealed that only oral timolol [risk ratio (RR) = 3.35 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-10.85)] and infusion of propranolol [RR = 10.19 (95% CI 1.29-80.41)] were associated with significantly higher incidences of asthma attack than the placebo, whereas oral celiprolol [RR = 0.39 (95% CI 0.04-4.11)], oral celiprolol and propranolol [RR = 0.46 (95% CI 0.02-11.65)], oral bisoprolol [RR = 0.46 (95% CI 0.02-11.65)], oral atenolol [RR = 0.51 (95% CI 0.20-1.28)], infusion of practolol [RR = 0.80 (95% CI 0.03-25.14)], and infusion of sotalol [RR = 0.91 (95% CI 0.08-10.65)] were associated with relatively lower incidences of asthma attack than the placebo. In participants with a baseline asthma history, in addition to oral timolol and infusion of propranolol, oral labetalol, oxprenolol, propranolol, and metoprolol exhibited significantly higher incidences of asthma attack than did the placebo. In conclusion, oral timolol and infusion of propranolol were associated with a significantly higher risk of developing an asthma attack in patients, especially in those with a baseline asthma history, and should be avoided in patients who present a risk of asthma.Trial registration: PROSPERO CRD42020190540.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estado Asmático/induzido quimicamente , Administração Oral , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Atenolol/administração & dosagem , Atenolol/efeitos adversos , Bisoprolol/administração & dosagem , Bisoprolol/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Celiprolol/administração & dosagem , Celiprolol/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Practolol/administração & dosagem , Practolol/efeitos adversos , Propranolol/administração & dosagem , Propranolol/efeitos adversos , Risco , Sotalol/administração & dosagem , Sotalol/efeitos adversos , Estado Asmático/epidemiologia , Timolol/administração & dosagem , Timolol/efeitos adversos
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(1): e24146, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429792

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Since 2008, oral propranolol has evolved as the first-line therapy for infantile hemangiomas (IHs). Meanwhile, oral atenolol gradually shows comparative effectiveness versus oral propranolol with few side effects. Here, we conducted a mobile internal survey among a group of Chinese clinicians about how they choose the dosage, dose regimen, and dose escalation methods of propranolol and atenolol for the treatment of IH.A mobile-ready internal survey on the application of oral propranolol and oral atenolol for IH in mainland China was performed and distributed to 333 potential clinicians from different levels of healthcare institutions in mainland China. Eighty-one doctors responded to the survey. All the respondents had the experience of treating IH with oral propranolol and 32 had the experience with oral atenolol.Most of the doctors from tertiary hospitals chose 2 mg/kg/d twice daily, while most of those with the experience of propranolol from private hospitals chose 1 mg/kg/d once daily. More doctors from tertiary hospitals had the experience of atenolol than those from private hospitals.Oral atenolol has become another medication intervention option for IH in mainland China. This survey is helpful to standardize and develop a guideline of oral atenolol therapy for IH.


Assuntos
Atenolol/farmacologia , Hemangioma/tratamento farmacológico , Propranolol/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Atenolol/uso terapêutico , China , Feminino , Hemangioma/complicações , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Propranolol/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
N Engl J Med ; 384(3): 216-228, 2021 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A polypill comprising statins, multiple blood-pressure-lowering drugs, and aspirin has been proposed to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Using a 2-by-2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned participants without cardiovascular disease who had an elevated INTERHEART Risk Score to receive a polypill (containing 40 mg of simvastatin, 100 mg of atenolol, 25 mg of hydrochlorothiazide, and 10 mg of ramipril) or placebo daily, aspirin (75 mg) or placebo daily, and vitamin D or placebo monthly. We report here the outcomes for the polypill alone as compared with matching placebo, for aspirin alone as compared with matching placebo, and for the polypill plus aspirin as compared with double placebo. For the polypill-alone and polypill-plus-aspirin comparisons, the primary outcome was death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, stroke, resuscitated cardiac arrest, heart failure, or revascularization. For the aspirin comparison, the primary outcome was death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Safety was also assessed. RESULTS: A total of 5713 participants underwent randomization, and the mean follow-up was 4.6 years. The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was lower by approximately 19 mg per deciliter and systolic blood pressure was lower by approximately 5.8 mm Hg with the polypill and with combination therapy than with placebo. The primary outcome for the polypill comparison occurred in 126 participants (4.4%) in the polypill group and in 157 (5.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63 to 1.00). The primary outcome for the aspirin comparison occurred in 116 participants (4.1%) in the aspirin group and in 134 (4.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.67 to 1.10). The primary outcome for the polypill-plus-aspirin comparison occurred in 59 participants (4.1%) in the combined-treatment group and in 83 (5.8%) in the double-placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.97). The incidence of hypotension or dizziness was higher in groups that received the polypill than in their respective placebo groups. CONCLUSIONS: Combined treatment with a polypill plus aspirin led to a lower incidence of cardiovascular events than did placebo among participants without cardiovascular disease who were at intermediate cardiovascular risk. (Funded by the Wellcome Trust and others; TIPS-3 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01646437.).


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/administração & dosagem , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Atenolol/administração & dosagem , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Combinação de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroclorotiazida/administração & dosagem , Incidência , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Sinvastatina/administração & dosagem
20.
J Sep Sci ; 44(2): 565-575, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226168

RESUMO

Nowadays, various single-pill combinations are used as the best choice in hypertension management. However, these pills made a high challenge to analysts in terms of quality control assays. We have developed three sensitive, selective, fast, simple, green, accurate, precise, and robust isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography methods for simultaneous determination of valsartan and atenolol in dosage forms. To find the appropriate high-performance liquid chromatography conditions for the separation of the examined drugs, various columns, isocratic mobile phase systems were tried, and successful attempts were performed. The used columns proved to be indispensably applicable and gave a shorter analysis time and peak symmetries. This reduction in total run time leads to low solvent consumption and makes all methods more economical. The linearity, accuracy, and precision remained within the acceptable limits. Therefore, all developed methods are suitable for the routine quality control analysis of any pharmaceutical preparation containing the two tested drugs with the proposed chromatographic methods advantages for checking quality during stability studies of their pharmaceutical preparations.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/análise , Atenolol/análise , Valsartana/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
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