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1.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210264, 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1346042

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivo desvelar o movimento existencial da mãe após a morte do filho por acidente doméstico na infância. Método pesquisa embasada no referencial teórico-filosófico-metodológico da fenomenologia de Martin Heidegger, com dados coletados entre maio e junho de 2017, mediante entrevista fenomenológica com 10 mães cujos filhos morreram em decorrência de acidentes domésticos na infância. Resultados da compreensão dos relatos, emergiram três temáticas: Lembrando o sofrimento profundo diante da morte do filho e os primeiros dias/meses sem ele; Revivendo a dor no presente, por meio da falta diária e das datas importantes e objetos/símbolos da criança; e Antecipando que a dor e a falta que sentem dos filhos nunca irão passar. Conclusão e implicações para a prática o tempo não é preditor da elaboração do luto materno. Neste contexto, o vivido da mãe é composto por um conjunto de significados, que envolvem multiplicidade de fatores e geram importantes repercussões ao longo da vida. Na perspectiva para promoção do cuidado, emergem, assim, a necessidade de ampliar a compreensão e as ações de acolhimento à mãe enlutada, refletindo sobre a temporalidade como constituinte do enlutamento materno.


Resumen Objetivo develar el movimiento existencial de la madre tras la muerte del hijo a raíz de un accidente doméstico en la infancia. Método investigación basada en el marco teórico-filosófico-metodológico de la fenomenología de Martin Heidegger, con datos recolectados entre mayo y junio de 2017, a través de entrevistas fenomenológicas con 10 madres cuyos hijos fallecieron como consecuencia de accidentes domésticos en la infancia. Resultados de la comprensión de los relatos, surgieron tres temas: Recordar el profundo sufrimiento ante la muerte del niño y los primeros días/meses sin él; Revivir el dolor en el presente, a través de la ausencia diaria y las fechas y objetos/símbolos importantes del niño; y Anticipar que el dolor y la falta de sus hijos nunca desaparecerán. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica el tiempo no prodice la elaboración del duelo materno. En este contexto, la experiencia de la madre se compone de un conjunto de significados, que involucran multiplicidad de factores y generan importantes repercusiones a lo largo de la vida. Desde la perspectiva de promover el cuidado, surge la necesidad de ampliar la comprensión y las acciones de acogida de la madre en duelo y reflexionar sobre la temporalidad como constituyente del duelo materno.


Abstract Objective this study aimed at unveiling the existential movement of a mother after her child's death as a result of a home accident. Method it was a research study based on the theoretical-philosophical-methodological framework of Martin Heidegger's phenomenology, whose data collection occurred between May and June 2017 through a phenomenological interview with 10 mothers whose children died as a result of a home accident. Results from comprehension of the reports, three themes emerged: Remembering the deep suffering when facing the child's death and the first days/months without them; Reliving the pain in the present, through the child's daily absence and important dates and objects/symbols; and Anticipating that pain and yearning for the deceased will never disappear. Conclusion and implications for the practice time is not a predictor for the elaboration of maternal bereavement. Thus, the maternal experience is composed of a set of meanings, which involve multiple factors and generate important repercussions throughout life. From the perspective of care promotion, the need to expand the understanding and the actions for welcoming bereaved mothers emerges, reflecting on temporality as part of maternal bereavement.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Luto , Acidentes Domésticos/mortalidade , Atitude Frente a Morte , Morte , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Mães/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Angústia Psicológica , Comportamento Materno
2.
Rev. Nac. (Itauguá) ; 13(2): 40-53, DICIEMBRE, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1344198

RESUMO

RESUMEN Introducción: el afrontamiento a la muerte constituye una de las situaciones más difíciles y estresantes a las que se tienen que enfrentar los estudiantes de medicina por el contacto cercano a pacientes en riesgo vital. Objetivos: determinar el nivel de afrontamiento a la muerte en estudiantes de medicina. Metodología: se aplicó diseño con enfoque cuantitativo, de tipo observacional, transversal, multicéntrico. Se incluyó a estudiantes de medicina del Paraguay, de ambos sexos, en agosto 2021, que aceptaban participar del estudio. Se utilizó un cuestionario telemático. Se midieron variables sociodemográficas. El nivel de afrontamiento se determinó con la escala de Bugen. La investigación fue aprobada por Comité de Ética de la Universidad Privada del Este, Asunción. Resultados: se incluyeron 504 estudiantes, siendo del sexo femenino en 74 % y con edad media 22 ± 4 años. El 88 % de los encuestados eran de nacionalidad paraguaya (88 %) y 73 % de religión católica. La mayoría nació en Paraguay (88 %), era católica (73 %), se hallaba inscripta como donante de órganos (60 %) y tenía antecedente reciente de muerte de un familiar o amigo (76 %). La escala de Bugen detectó bajo nivel de afrontamiento a la muerte en 50 %, siendo 52 % en las mujeres y 42 % en los varones (p <0,05). Conclusión: el afrontamiento a la muerte en estudiantes de medicina fue bajo. Se sugiere incluir cursos, talleres y planes formativos dentro de las asignaturas o como actividades de extensión para mejorar ese aspecto en el currículo de las facultades de medicina del Paraguay.


ABSTRACT Introduction: coping with death is one of the most difficult tasks that medical students have to face. Objectives: to determine the level of coping with death in medical students. Methodology: we conducted an observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study. We included men and women, medical students from public and private universities from Paraguay in 2021, who agreed to participate in the study. A telematic questionnaire was used. Sociodemographic variables were measured. The level of coping was determined with the Bugen scale. The research was approved by the Comité de Ética of the Universidad Privada del Este, Asunción. Results: 504 students were included, 74 % being female and with a mean age of 22 ± 4 years. Most were born in Paraguay (88 %), were Catholic (73 %), registered as an organ donor (60 %), and had a recent history of the death of a family member or friend (76 %). The Bugen scale detected a low level of coping with death in 52 % of the women and 42 % of the men (p <0.05). Conclusion: coping with death in medical students was low. It is suggested to include courses or workshops to improve this aspect in the curriculum of the medical schools of Paraguay.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Estudantes de Medicina , Adaptação Psicológica , Atitude Frente a Morte , Medo , Paraguai , Faculdades de Medicina , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pandemias , COVID-19/psicologia
3.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 22(2): 5-18, jul.-dez. 2021. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1340809

RESUMO

RESUMO A sociedade contemporânea caracteriza-se por um processo de envelhecimento permeado por estereótipos relacionados à proximidade da morte, negada pela sociedade ocidental. Para descortinar essa temática, objetivou-se identificar os significados que idosos em cuidados paliativos atribuem à morte e à vida. Realizou-se dois grupos focais com 18 idosos em cuidados paliativos, compreendidos por análise textual no software IRaMuTeQ. Os resultados organizaram-se em quatro classes: "Significações sobre a morte" retrata sua aceitação, "As relações entre vida e morte na velhice" apresenta a ambivalência dessa díade, "Significações sobre a vida na velhice" avalia essa fase da vida, "Atividades diárias e ressignificação da vida" aborda seus novos papeis. Conclui-se que a rede de apoio e a espiritualidade influenciam a significação da morte pelo idoso.


Contemporary society is characterized by an aging process permeated by stereotypes related to the proximity of death, denied by Western society. To unveil this theme, the objective was to identify the meanings that elderly in palliative care attribute to death and life. Two focus groups were held with 18 elderly in palliative care, understood by textual analysis in the IRaMuTeQ software. The results were organized into four classes: "Meanings about death" portrays their acceptance, "The relationships between life and death in old age" presents the ambivalence of this dyad, "Meanings about life in old age" assesses this phase of life, "Daily activities and life resignification" addresses their new roles. It is concluded that the support network and spirituality influence the meaning of death by the elderly.


RESUMEN La sociedad contemporánea es demarcada por proceso de envejecimiento impregnado de estereotipos respecto a la proximidad con la muerte. En este entorno, el objetivo de este estudio fue identificar los significados que las personas mayores, en cuidados paliativos, atribuyen a la muerte y la vida. Así, se realizaron dos grupos focales con 18 personas mayores en cuidados paliativos para la recogida de datos, y luego sometida a análisis textual en el software IRaMuTeQ. Los resultados se organizaron en cuatro clases: "Significados sobre la muerte" retrata su aceptación, "Las relaciones entre la vida y la muerte en la vejez" presenta la ambivalencia de esta díada, "Significados sobre la vida en la vejez" evalúa esta fase de la vida, "Actividades diarias y la resignificación de la vida "aborda sus nuevos roles. Se concluye que la red de apoyo y la espiritualidad influyen en el significado de la muerte de los ancianos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Cuidados Paliativos , Religião , Envelhecimento , Atitude Frente a Morte , Espiritualidade
4.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e52717, jan.-dez. 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224536

RESUMO

Objetivo: compreender a construção dos significados da morte pelos profissionais de saúde frente ao cuidado à pessoa com câncer. Método: estudo qualitativo realizado em ambiente online, com a participação de 34 profissionais de saúde. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas, interpretadas segundo análise temática. Resultados: duas categorias analíticas emergiram dos dados, indicando que os significados atribuídos à morte pelos participantes foram: como um processo inerente ao ciclo da vida humana, passagem para a outra vida, e fim do sofrimento tanto do paciente quanto dos profissionais de saúde. As dificuldades que apontaram em lidar com a morte se referem à falta de suporte psicológico, escassez de conhecimento sobre morte, cuidados paliativos e comunicação de más notícias. Conclusão: os profissionais construíram diferentes significados à morte de seus pacientes, tais como um processo natural da vida, vontade de um ser superior, passagem para uma nova existência e término do sofrimento dessas pessoas.


Objective: to understand the construction of meanings of death by healthcare professionals caring for people with cancer. Method: this qualitative study was carried out in an online environment through semi-structured interviews of 34 health professionals, which were interpreted using thematic analysis. Results: two analytical categories emerged from the data, indicating that the meanings attributed to death by the participants were: a process inherent in the human life cycle, a transition to the next life, and an end to the suffering of both patient and health professionals. The difficulties they pointed to in dealing with death related to lack of psychological support, lack of knowledge about death, palliative care, and communicating bad news. Conclusion: the professionals constructed different meanings to their patients' deaths: a natural process of life, the will of a higher being, a transition to a new existence, and an end to these people's suffering.


Objetivo: comprender la construcción de los significados de la muerte desde el punto de vista de los profesionales de la salud ante el cuidado a la persona con cáncer. Metodología: estudio cualitativo realizado en un entorno online, con la participación de 34 profesionales de la salud. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas, interpretadas según análisis temático. Resultados: de los datos surgieron dos categorías analíticas que indicaron que los significados atribuidos a la muerte por los participantes fueron: como u proceso inherente al ciclo de vida humano, transición a otra vida y fin al sufrimiento tanto del paciente como de los profesionales de la salud. Las dificultades que señalaron para afrontar la muerte se refieren a la falta de apoyo psicológico, escasez de conocimiento sobre la muerte, cuidados paliativos y comunicación de malas noticias. Conclusión: los profesionales han construido diferentes significados para la muerte de sus pacientes: un proceso natural de la vida, la voluntad de un ser superior, un paso a una nueva existencia y el fin del sufrimiento de estas personas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prática Profissional , Atitude Frente a Morte , Pessoal de Saúde , Morte , Oncologistas , Neoplasias , Cuidados Paliativos , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Oncologistas/psicologia , Hospitais , Neoplasias/psicologia
6.
N Engl J Med ; 385(16): 1448-1449, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623785
8.
Int J Palliat Nurs ; 27(8): 402-409, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health science students in Spain should be trained to manage the process of death and dying. AIM: To compare the perceptions, attitudes and fears of death from a sample of these students. METHODS: This descriptive, cross-sectional and multi-centre study comprised 411 students studying degrees in medicine, nursing and physiotherapy. The variables used were the hospice-related death self-efficacy scale by Robbins and the Collet-Lester fear of death scale. FINDINGS: The total score obtained on the death self-efficacy scale was 74.43/110, which is considered moderate to high self-efficacy for facing death. Facing the death of a friend at a young age obtained the lowest score (3.85±2.809). Regarding the Collet-Lester scale, the lowest score was 'fear of one's own death' (3.58±0.983) with a value of p=0.81. CONCLUSION: The health science students who participated in this study displayed high levels of fear and anxiety towards death.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Atitude Frente a Morte , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697285

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The wish to hasten death has been little researched in the area of Mediterranean countries and we are not aware of specific studies on its particularities in home care in our setting. The aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence and evolution of wish to hasten death in home care, analysing its relationship with physical, emotional, spiritual, ethical and social-family unrest. METHODS: Longitudinal observational study in palliative home care in Catalonia. 43 teams agreed on the level of complexity after the first visit and after the discharge of the patient with the HexCom model, which classifies the desire to anticipate death into Low complexity (no or sporadic manifestation); Medium (persistent desire that requires specific treatment); or High (persistent desire that is considered potentially refractory). For the comparison of proportions, Pearson's Chi-squared test was used and a multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed, in which the dependent variable corresponded to the desire to hasten initial death. The level of significance was p≤0.05. RESULTS: The total number of patients included in this study was 1,677, of whom 1,169 (69.7%) were oncologic. The prevalence of desire to hasten death was 6.67%. It was related to spiritual distress, especially lack of meaning (OR 3.25) and lack of connection (OR 3.81), to psychoemotional distress (OR 2.34) and to ethical distress. Protective factors were spiritual distress in relation to transcendence (OR 0.50), the caregiver being a partner (OR 0.50) and being cared for by a team that included psychology and social work (OR 0.34). The desire to anticipate death is stable in 71.6% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The desire to anticipate death is a changing and complex phenomenon that can emerge at any time. The presence of psycho-emotional, spiritual-existential and ethical discomfort, especially in patients without a partner, should make us take a proactive attitude to identify it early.


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos , Doente Terminal , Atitude Frente a Morte , Humanos , Espanha/epidemiologia
11.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003790, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The death of a child is an extreme life event with potentially long-term health consequences. Knowledge about its association with ischemic heart diseases (IHDs) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI), however, is very limited. We investigated whether the death of an offspring is associated with the risk of IHD and AMI. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied parents of live-born children recorded in the Danish (1973 to 2016) and the Swedish (1973 to 2014) Medical Birth Registers (n = 6,711,952; mean age at baseline 31 years, 53% women). We retrieved information on exposure, outcomes, and covariates by linking individual-level information from several nationwide registers. We analyzed the abovementioned associations using Poisson regression. A total of 126,522 (1.9%) parents lost at least 1 child during the study period. Bereaved parents had a higher risk of IHD and AMI than the nonbereaved [incidence rate ratios (IRRs) (95% confidence intervals (CIs)): 1.20 (1.18 to 1.23), P < 0.001 and 1.21 (1.17 to 1.25), P < 0.001, respectively]. The association was present not only in case of losses due to CVD or other natural causes, but also in case of unnatural deaths. The AMI risk was highest in the first week after the loss [IRR (95% CI): 3.67 (2.08 to 6.46), P < 0.001], but a 20% to 40% increased risk was observed throughout the whole follow-up period. Study limitations include the possibility of residual confounding by socioeconomic, lifestyle, or health-related factors and the potentially limited generalizability of our findings outside Scandinavia. CONCLUSIONS: The death of an offspring was associated with an increased risk of IHD and AMI. The finding that the association was present also in case of losses due to unnatural causes, which are less likely to be confounded by cardiovascular risk factors clustering in families, suggests that stress-related mechanisms may also contribute to the observed associations.


Assuntos
Luto , Pai , Mães , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Morte , Causas de Morte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Psychodyn Psychiatry ; 49(3): 384-387, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478325

RESUMO

The author, an experienced psycho-oncologist, offers clinical insights that consider the importance of death anxiety in psychodynamic psychotherapy treatments during the COVID-19 pandemic. He reviews the contributions of Ernst Becker, Wilfred Bion and Sheldon Solomon, and formulates ideas of his own based on decades of experience treating patients with cancer. This short essay focuses on how to help patients during the COVID-19 pandemic work through fear and uncertainty while developing adaptive skills.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Atitude Frente a Morte , COVID-19/psicologia , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica/métodos , Adaptação Psicológica , Medo , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Incerteza
15.
Age Ageing ; 50(6): 2004-2011, 2021 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: end-of-life care is not always in line with end-of-life preferences, so patients do not always die at their preferred place of death (PPD). This study aims to identify factors associated with patients' PPD and changes in PPD. METHODS: we prospectively collected data on PPD at four time points within 6 months from 230 acutely hospitalised older patients who were part of the control group in a stepped-wedge randomised controlled trial. Associations between patient characteristics and preferences were calculated using multivariable (multinomial) logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: the mean age of participants was 80.7 years. 47.8% of the patients had no PPD at hospital admission. Patients previously admitted to hospital preferred to die at home (home versus no preference: odds ratio [OR] 2.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15-4.92; home versus healthcare facility: OR 3.25, 95% CI 1.15-9.16). Patients with more chronic diseases preferred the healthcare facility as their PPD (healthcare facility versus no preference: OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.09-1.61; healthcare facility versus home: OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.00-1.47). 32 of 65 patients changed their preference during follow-up, and most of these had no PPD at hospital admission (home versus no preference: OR 0.005, 95% CI ≤0.001-0.095) and poorer self-rated well-being (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.07-3.08). CONCLUSIONS: almost half of the patients had no PPD at baseline. Previous hospital admission, having more chronic diseases and living alone are associated with having a PPD. Introducing PPD could make older people aware of PPD and facilitate optimal palliative care.


Assuntos
Assistência Terminal , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude Frente a Morte , Morte , Hospitalização , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos , Preferência do Paciente
16.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 282, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Death in intensive care units (ICUs) may increase bereaved family members' risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, posttraumatic stress-related symptoms (hereafter as PTSD symptoms) and their precipitating factors were seldom examined among bereaved family members and primarily focused on associations between PTSD symptoms and patient/family characteristics. We aimed to investigate the course and predictors of clinically significant PTSD symptoms among family members of deceased ICU patients by focusing on modifiable quality indicators for end-of-life ICU care. METHOD: In this longitudinal observational study, 319 family members of deceased ICU patients were consecutively recruited from medical ICUs from two Taiwanese medical centers. PTSD symptoms were assessed at 1, 3, 6, and 13 months post-loss using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Family satisfaction with end-of-life care in ICUs was assessed at 1 month post-loss. End-of-life care received in ICUs was documented over the patient's ICU stay. Predictors for developing clinically significant PTSD symptoms (IES-R score ≥ 33) were identified by multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equation modeling. RESULTS: The prevalence of clinically significant PTSD symptoms decreased significantly over time (from 11.0% at 1 month to 1.6% at 13 months post-loss). Longer ICU stays (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.036 [1.006, 1.066]), financial insufficiency (3.166 [1.159, 8.647]), and reported use of pain medications (3.408 [1.230, 9.441]) by family members were associated with a higher likelihood of clinically significant PTSD symptoms among family members during bereavement. Stronger perceived social support (0.937 [0.911, 0.965]) and having a Do-Not-Resuscitate (DNR) order issued before the patient's death (0.073 [0.011, 0.490]) were associated with a lower likelihood of clinically significant PTSD symptoms. No significant association was observed for family members' satisfaction with end-of-life care (0.988 [0.944, 1.034]) or decision-making in ICUs (0.980 [0.944, 1.018]). CONCLUSIONS: The likelihood of clinically significant PTSD symptoms among family members decreased significantly over the first bereavement year and was lower when a DNR order was issued before death. Enhancing social support and facilitating a DNR order may reduce the trauma of ICU death of a beloved for family members at risk for developing clinically significant PTSD symptoms.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Morte , Família/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , APACHE , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Luto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Apoio Social , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e27016, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449474

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Nursing students are the main force of future nursing development, and their hope and death anxiety are important aspects of their coping styles and clinical practice.The present study examined the relationships between hope, death anxiety and simplified coping style scores of nursing students during the outbreak of COVID-19.Between February and April 2020, a cross-sectional descriptive study was performed using a Sojump online survey, and 870 nursing students completed the herth hope (HH), death anxiety scale (DAS) and simplified coping style questionnaire. The data were analyzed using t-tests, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and multiple linear regression in SPSS 23.0 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY).The average HH, DAS and active and passive coping scores of the 870 nursing students were 3.07 ±â€Š0.32, 3.01 ±â€Š0.37, 2.84 ±â€Š0.48, and 2.25 ±â€Š0.50, respectively. Participants with contact experience with individuals with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 were more likely to adopt passive coping styles than students without contact experience (t = 5.019, P = .025). Being older and having higher inner positive readiness and expectancy, a lower inner sense of temporality and future, and lower time awareness were predictors of passive coping styles (P < .05). Living in cities (vs towns) and having a higher inner positive readiness and expectancy, a higher inner sense of temporality and future and lower cognition of death were predictors of active coping styles (P < .05).The findings of this study suggest that hope and death anxiety are important aspects of the coping styles of nursing students. Nursing educators should emphasize the role of hope, further deepen the death education mode, and perform scientific and reasonable death education programmes to reduce the death anxiety level of nursing students to promote their coping styles in crisis.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Atitude Frente a Morte , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Esperança , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nurs Philos ; 22(4): e12365, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428347

RESUMO

In this article, we report the outcome of a sociological inquiry into nursing knowledge of death and dying, specifically 'the good death'. A genealogical approach informed by actor-network theory and appreciative inquiry were used to compose a broad socio-material account of how nurses concern themselves with the care of the dying and end-of-life care. Our enquiry revealed similarly to other studies, that there was no shared or overarching model of care. Key themes derived from nurses' translations of 'the good death' were re-presented pictorially as six pillars and two processes to comprise a new diagram of The Personalised Ideal Death.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Assistência Terminal , Atitude Frente a Morte , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos
20.
Exp Clin Psychopharmacol ; 29(3): 219-228, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264734

RESUMO

As fatal overdoses from synthetic opioids continue to rise, we need to understand decision-making processes underlying heroin and synthetic opioid use. This study evaluated the influence of sample impurity and fatal overdose risk on hypothetical heroin use. Individuals who currently use heroin (n = 69) were recruited online. Participants completed two probability-discounting tasks evaluating the likelihood of using a sample of heroin based on the likelihood of sample impurity and likelihood of fatal overdose, where greater discounting represented reduced use likelihood. Prior to completing the probability-discounting tasks, participants were randomized to read one of four prompts varying by the presence of information on heroin effects and active (e.g., fentanyl) or inert impurities. Influence of prompts on discounting processes and associations among probability-discounting measures, opioid use behaviors, and dependence severity were evaluated. Heroin use likelihood decreased with increased impurity or overdose risk and in a generally orderly fashion. Discounting was greater (i.e., reduced heroin use likelihood) when overdose risk, compared to sample impurity, was manipulated. Less discounting was associated with more severe opioid dependence. Discounting did not differ among prompts for either task. Individuals might adjust their heroin-use behavior to reduce harm with risk-related information. Greater discounting elicited by overdose relative to impurity risk suggests that equating adulteration and overdose risk is essential for harm reduction. Expanded access to drug checking services, which inform impurity and overdose risk, can reduce fatal overdoses. Due to fear of legal sanctions for these services, legislation and judicial decisions should explicitly protect these services. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Atitude Frente a Morte , Contaminação de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Overdose de Drogas/psicologia , Fentanila/envenenamento , Dependência de Heroína/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Redução do Dano , Heroína , Humanos , Masculino , Probabilidade , Risco
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