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1.
Psychol Sci ; 33(3): 433-449, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35213257

RESUMO

Moral framing and reframing strategies persuade people holding moralized attitudes (i.e., attitudes having a moral basis). However, these strategies may have unintended side effects: They have the potential to moralize people's attitudes further and as a consequence lower their willingness to compromise on issues. Across three experimental studies with adult U.S. participants (Study 1: N = 2,151, Study 2: N = 1,590, Study 3: N = 1,015), we used persuasion messages (moral, nonmoral, and control) that opposed new big-data technologies (crime-surveillance technologies and hiring algorithms). We consistently found that moral frames were persuasive and moralized people's attitudes, whereas nonmoral frames were persuasive and de-moralized people's attitudes. Moral frames also lowered people's willingness to compromise and reduced behavioral indicators of compromise. Exploratory analyses suggest that feelings of anger and disgust may drive moralization, whereas perceiving the technologies to be financially costly may drive de-moralization. The findings imply that use of moral frames can increase and entrench moral divides rather than bridge them.


Assuntos
Princípios Morais , Comunicação Persuasiva , Adulto , Ira , Atitude , Emoções , Humanos
2.
BMC Med Ethics ; 23(1): 48, 2022 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following the increased presence of the Right-to-Die Movement, improved end-of-life options, and the political and legal status of aid-in-dying around the globe, suicide tourism has become a promising alternative for individuals who wish to end their lives. Yet, little is known about this from the perspective of those who engage in the phenomenon. METHODS: This study applied the qualitative research approach, following the grounded theory tradition. It includes 11 in-depth semi-structured interviews with Israeli members of the Swiss non-profit Dignitas who contemplated traveling to Switzerland for aid-in-dying. RESULTS: Seven themes emerged from the data analysis, including health and functioning; feelings regarding survivorship and existence; interacting with the health sector; attitudes regarding death and dying; suicide; choosing death; and choosing suicide tourism. A significant portion of the participants had experienced suicidal thoughts and had even previously attempted suicide, some more than once. Most of them referred to chronic illnesses, functional disability, and social isolation. They understand suffering within the subjective dimension, namely only by the person who is actually subjected to the disease, ailments, and disability. Participants regarded aid-in-dying in Switzerland as positive thanks to its guaranteed outcome: "beautiful death", compared to "disadvantaged dying" which places a burden on the participants' loved ones throughout the prolonged dying. Most of them do not necessarily want to have their loved ones beside them when they die, and they see no significant meaning in dying in a foreign country to which they have no emotional or civil attachment. CONCLUSION: The desirable approval or tragic refusal by Dignitas to participants' requests for suicide tourism enhances the paradox between the perception of aid-in-dying as a mechanism for fulfilling controlled death and its bureaucratic and materialistic characteristics specifically reflected in a paid, formalized approach to aid-in-dying that cultivate dependency and collaboration.


Assuntos
Atitude , Morte , Humanos , Israel , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Suíça
3.
BMC Med Ethics ; 23(1): 50, 2022 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524301

RESUMO

Research regarding the drivers of acceptance of clinical decision support systems (CDSS) by physicians is still rather limited. The literature that does exist, however, tends to focus on problems regarding the user-friendliness of CDSS. We have performed a thematic analysis of 24 interviews with physicians concerning specific clinical case vignettes, in order to explore their underlying opinions and attitudes regarding the introduction of CDSS in clinical practice, to allow a more in-depth analysis of factors underlying (non-)acceptance of CDSS. We identified three general themes from the results. First, 'the perceived role of the AI', including items referring to the tasks that may properly be assigned to the CDSS according to the respondents. Second, 'the perceived role of the physician', referring to the aspects of clinical practice that were seen as being fundamentally 'human' or non-automatable. Third, 'concerns regarding AI', including items referring to more general issues that were raised by the respondents regarding the introduction of CDSS in general and/or in clinical medicine in particular. Apart from the overall concerns expressed by the respondents regarding user-friendliness, we will explain how our results indicate that our respondents were primarily occupied by distinguishing between parts of their job that should be automated and aspects that should be kept in human hands. We refer to this distinction as 'the division of clinical labor.' This division is not based on knowledge regarding AI or medicine, but rather on which parts of a physician's job were seen by the respondents as being central to who they are as physicians and as human beings. Often the respondents' view that certain core parts of their job ought to be shielded from automation was closely linked to claims concerning the uniqueness of medicine as a domain. Finally, although almost all respondents claimed that they highly value their final responsibility, a closer investigation of this concept suggests that their view of 'final responsibility' was not that demanding after all.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Médicos , Inteligência Artificial , Atitude , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Cidade de Roma
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7575, 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534489

RESUMO

Scientists and policymakers seek to choose effective interventions that promote preventative health measures. We evaluated whether academics, behavioral science practitioners, and laypeople (N = 1034) were able to forecast the effectiveness of seven different messages compared to a baseline message for Republicans and Democrats separately. These messages were designed to nudge mask-wearing attitudes, intentions, and behaviors. When examining predictions across political parties, forecasters predicted larger effects than those observed for Democrats compared to Republicans and made more accurate predictions for Republicans compared to Democrats. These results are partly driven by a lack of nudge effects on Democrats, as reported in Gelfand et al. (J Exp Soc Psychol, 2021). Academics and practitioners made more accurate predictions compared to laypeople. Although forecasters' predictions were correlated with the nudge interventions, all groups overestimated the observed results. We discuss potential reasons for why the forecasts did not perform better and how more accurate forecasts of behavioral intervention outcomes could potentially provide insight that can help save resources and increase the efficacy of interventions.


Assuntos
Atitude , Política , Terapia Comportamental
6.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 18(1): 37, 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The persistence of threatened and protected wildlife depends not only on habitat suitability but also remarkably on local communities' acceptance. The black-necked crane (Grus nigricollis) is a flagship species for conservation on the plateau in western China. However, the human dimension has been completely ignored in the decision-making process for conservation. METHODS: In this study, a questionnaire survey aiming to assess knowledge of and conservation attitude toward this bird was carried out among 1042 students of 7th and 9th grade from 12 schools in Weining county, Guizhou province, which has a large wintering population in an urban wetland. Logistic regression was used in the generalized linear model to identify the determinants that significantly affect students' knowledge of and conservation attitude toward this species. RESULTS: Most students have positive attitudes toward conservation, which is significantly affected by awareness, knowledge of this bird and grade. However, they have somewhat limited knowledge of this bird's biology and ecosystem services (nature's contributions to people). Knowledge was found to link with observation of the bird and grade, while observation related to the experience of visiting the wetland. Social media is the most cited resource to obtain knowledge on this bird. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that local conservation experts could help introduce more information on the black-necked crane in the schools and help conduct outdoor education activities in and around the wetland. Traditional knowledge and culture could also be incorporated into the conservation awareness enhancing program. This study focuses on the human dimension for conserving the black-necked crane in China, showing significant implications in the design and application of effective measurements to improve students' perception and attitude toward its conservation. Future assessments should include other local populations, such as farmers, fishers, and urban citizens.


Assuntos
Aves , Ecossistema , Animais , Atitude , China , Humanos , Estudantes
7.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 23(1): 423, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social attitudes experienced by people with disabilities can strongly impact upon their health and quality of life. The extent to which social attitude measurement transcends specific cultures is unknown. Thus, the aim of the study was to develop German item banks to assess social attitude barriers and facilitators to participation and compare the construct definition with that developed in the United States. METHODS: The American version of the two item banks assessing social attitudes that act as barriers and facilitators in persons with disabilities was translated into German and culturally adapted. The sample consisted of 410 in- and outpatients treated for spinal diseases at a German University Hospital. The psychometric properties of the resulting 53 items-item pool were evaluated using Rasch analysis. A special focus was placed on the investigation of unidimensionality, local independence, differential item functioning (DIF) and targeting. To evaluate convergent and divergent validity correlations with perceived social support, depression and pain interference were calculated. RESULTS: Unlike the American version, both the barriers and facilitators item banks had to be divided into two subscales assessing attitudes that individuals with disabilities experience as being directed towards them (individual perception) or attitudes that respondents experience as being directed towards people with disabilities as a social group (societal perception). Four unidimensional scales were constructed. Fit to the Rasch model required item deletion and forming testlets to account for extensive local dependence. There was no evidence of DIF with regard to gender or age. Targeting of the subscales was moderate to good. CONCLUSIONS: Results support a distinction between social attitudes at the individual and societal level, allowing a more specific assessment than is possible when this distinction is ignored.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Tradução , Atitude , Humanos , Psicometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 119, 2022 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Racial, ethnic, religious, and cultural diversity in Australia is rapidly increasing. Although Indigenous Australians account for only approximately 3.5% of the country's population, over 50% of Australians were born overseas or have at least one migrant parent. Migration accounts for over 60% of Australia's population growth, with migration from Asia, Sub-Saharan African and the Americas increasing by 500% in the last decade. Little is known about Australian mental health care practitioners' attitudes toward this diversity and their level of cultural competence. AIM: Given the relationship between practitioner cultural competence and the mental health outcomes of non-White clients, this study aimed to identify factors that influence non-White and White practitioners' cultural competence. METHODS: An online questionnaire was completed by 139 Australian mental health practitioners. The measures included: the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR); the Multicultural Counselling Inventory (MCI); and the Color-blind Racial Attitudes Scale (CoBRAS). Descriptive statistics were used to summarise participants' demographic characteristics. One-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests were conducted to identify between-group differences (non-White compared to White practitioners) in cultural competence and racial and ethnic blindness. Correlation analyses were conducted to determine the association between participants' gender or age and cultural competence. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to predict cultural competence. RESULTS: The study demonstrates that non-White mental health practitioners are more culturally aware and have better multicultural counselling relationships with non-White people than their White counterparts. Higher MCI total scores (measuring cultural competence) were associated with older age, greater attendance of cultural competence-related trainings and increased awareness of general and pervasive racial and/or ethnic discrimination. Practitioners with higher MCI total scores were also likely to think more highly of themselves (e.g., have higher self-deceptive positive enhancement scores on the BIDR) than those with lower MCI total scores. CONCLUSION: The findings highlight that the current one-size-fits-all and skills-development approach to cultural competence training ignores the significant role that practitioner diversity and differences play. The recommendations from this study can inform clinical educators and supervisors about the importance of continuing professional development relevant to practitioners' age, racial/ethnic background and practitioner engagement with prior cultural competence training.


Assuntos
Competência Cultural , Saúde Mental , Atitude , Austrália , Competência Cultural/educação , Competência Cultural/psicologia , Diversidade Cultural , Humanos
9.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267799, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507599

RESUMO

Studies covering the social valuation of ecosystem services (ES) are increasingly incorporating people's attitudes, which allows social heterogeneity to be identified. This is especially relevant in mountain areas, where diverse complex interactions occur among the environment, the socioeconomic system, and a wide variety of farming practices. In this context, we aimed to: (i) identify the attitudinal dimensions that build people views about the agrifood system; and (ii) analyse how these attitudinal dimensions influence the value given to ES delivered by mountain agroecosystems of two European countries. We conducted a survey with a sample of 1008 individuals evenly distributed in the Italian Alps and Spanish Mediterranean mountain areas to collect information on people's attitudes toward: (i) the economy and the environment; (ii) rural development and agricultural intensification; (iii) food quality, production, and consumption; and (iv) agricultural and environmental policies. The survey included a choice experiment to assess the value that individuals attach to the most relevant ES provided by mountain agroecosystems in these areas (i.e., landscape, biodiversity, quality local products, wildfires prevention and water quality). The results showed four common attitudinal dimensions, namely Economy over environment, Mass-Market distribution reliability, Agricultural productivism, and Environmentalism and rural lifestyle. These attitudinal dimensions resulted in six groups of respondents. Most groups positively valued an increase in the delivery of all the analysed ES, which suggests that agricultural policies which aim to promote ES are likely to receive social support in the study areas. However, the differing attitudinal dimensions underlying people's preferences may result in disagreements about the steps to be taken to achieve the desired increase in ES delivery.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Atitude , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(19): e2117292119, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503914

RESUMO

SignificanceFor effective pandemic response, policymakers need tools that can assess policy impacts in near real-time. This requires policymakers to monitor changes in public well-being due to policy interventions. Particularly, containment measures affect people's mental well-being, yet changes in public emotions and sentiments are challenging to assess. Our work provides a solution by using social media posts to compute salient concerns and daily public sentiment values as a proxy of mental well-being. We demonstrate how public sentiment and concerns are impacted by various containment policy sub-types. This approach provides key benefits of using a data-driven approach to identify public concerns and provides near real-time assessment of policy impacts by computing daily public sentiment based on postings on social media.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Política de Saúde , Opinião Pública , Mídias Sociais , Atitude , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Emoções , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
11.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 335, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with substance use disorder, and pregnant women especially, are subject to a lot of stigmas, which can prevent optimal accessibility and quality of care. In this survey, we investigated attitudes of final year medical students regarding substance use during pregnancy and identified the factors that influence these attitudes. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2019 and 2020 in Belgium using the short version of the "Substance Abuse Attitude Survey" questionnaire. We focused on two items regarding punishment of substance use during pregnancy. We analysed the concordance between these two, their correlation with other items (e.g. stereotyping, morality, forced withdrawal, low treatment optimism) and the association between respondents' opinion on punishment and their sociodemographic data. RESULTS: The response rate was 65.2% (370/567 online and face-to face questionnaires). 19.2% of respondents were in favour of punishment for alcohol use (n = 353) and 15.1% for drug use (n = 356) during pregnancy. The agreement analysis between the two items showed that 14.3% of students were in favour of punishing both pregnant women who use drugs and those using alcohol. Respondents tended to be more in favour of punishment if they were male students, older, their mothers' had a lower education level or had no personal or family history of substance use. Attitudes appeared to be more punitive among students with limited contact with people with substance use disorder (i.e. none or limited to hospital). Students intending to specialise in internal medicine were more in favour of punishment of women whereas none of those intending to specialise in psychiatry were in favour. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that about 20% of surveyed medical students favoured punishing substance-using pregnant women. Awareness and training work seems to be necessary to ensure adequate care and support for this already vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Atitude , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Reprod Health ; 19(1): 106, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501810

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed to examine the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on women's reproductive health protective attitudes. METHODS: The study sample included 306 women and data were collected through a web-based, online questionnaire. The data were collected using the Personal Information Form, Determination of Married Women's Reproductive Health Protective Attitudes Scale. Descriptive statistics, independent samples t-test, ANOVA test were used to assess the data. RESULTS: The mean scores for Determination of Married Women's Reproductive Health Protective Attitudes Scale significantly differed in terms of education, employment status, income, health insurance and perceived health status (p < 0.05). A total of 69.3% of women had their first pregnancy at the agerange of 21-34 years, 17.6% of the women had four or more pregnancies, 55.6% of the women gave birth 1-3 times, 13.4% of the women gave birth at home and 57.8% of the women did not use modern family planning methods. A total of 23.2% of women experienced a problem with their reproductive organs during the pandemic, 70.6% of them did not present to a health center for their problems and 74.5% of these women did not present to a health center to avoid the risk of COVID-19 transmission. A total of 40.2% of women used the methods they already know at home to relieve their problems and 16.0% of the women used them edications previously prescribed by their doctors. CONCLUSION: The pandemic negatively affects there productive health of women. In the COVID-19 pandemic, health policies should be planned in accordance with the continuation of reproductive health and sexual health services.


Impairment of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and inability to use sexual and reproductive rights are an important public health problem during pandemics. Reproductive healthcare services are limited to pregnancy and childbirth-related care during pandemics. This study was conducted to examine the effects of the pandemic on women's protective attitudes towards reproductive health. In women in Turkey, education level, income status, health assurance, health perceptions, obstetric history and contraceptive methods are the factors that affect the reproductive health. The women presenting to health centers with reproductive health problems before a pandemic do not receive healthcare for their genital problems during the pandemic due to the risk of disease transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Reprodutiva , Atitude , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Gravidez
13.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e054310, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365523

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Population ageing, the rise of chronic diseases and the emergence of new viruses are some of the factors that contribute to an increasing share of gross domestic product dedicated to health spending. COVID-19 has shown that nursing staff represents the critical part of hospitalisation. Technological developments in robotics and artificial intelligence can significantly reduce costs and lead to improvements in many hospital processes. The proposed study aims to assess expectations, attitudes and ethical acceptability regarding the integration of socially assistive humanoid robots into hospitalised care workflow from patients' and healthcare professionals' perspectives and to compare them with the results of similar studies. METHODS/DESIGN: The study is designed as a cross-sectional survey, which will include three previously validated questionnaires, the Technology-Specific Expectation Scale (TSES), the Ethical Acceptability Scale (EAS) and the Negative Attitudes towards Robots Scale (NARS). The employees of a regional clinical centre will be asked to participate via an electronic survey and respond to TSES and EAS questionaries. Patients will respond to TSES and NARS questionaries. The survey will be conducted online. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval for the study was obtained by the Medical Ethics Commission of the University Medical Center Maribor. Results will be published in a relevant scientific journal and communicated to participants and relevant institutions through dissemination activities and the ecosystem of the Horizon 2020 funded project HosmartAI (grant no. 101016834). ETHICAL APPROVAL DATE: 06 May 2021. ESTIMATED START OF THE STUDY: December 2021.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Robótica , Inteligência Artificial , Atitude , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Ecossistema , Humanos , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 293, 2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35387619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perinatal mental health (PMH) is a worldwide public health issue crossing cultural boundaries. However, the prevalence of PMH conditions vary considerably. These disparities stem in part from poor understanding and stigma surrounding PMH which hinder pregnant women from seeking mental health care and may exacerbate their conditions. Bangladesh, India and Pakistan are South Asian countries with a higher burden of PMH conditions than in the Global North-West and very different social and cultural norms around gender and mental health. The aim of this systematic review (PROSPERO Ref: CRD42020167903) was to identify, synthesise and appraise the available literature on perceptions and attitudes of perinatal (pregnant and postpartum) women, their families and healthcare providers surrounding PMH in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. METHODS: Five electronic databases, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of science, and grey literature were searched using predefined search terms. Qualitative or quantitative articles with a qualitative component reporting perceptions and attitudes surrounding PMH in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan were eligible for inclusion, if published in English between January 2000 and January 2021. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme Qualitative Research Checklist and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for cross-sectional studies were used to assess study quality. Findings were synthesised using thematic synthesis, as described by Thomas and Harden 2008. RESULTS: Eight studies were included. Five overarching themes comprising 17 sub-categories were identified. These descriptive themes were: perceived causes of PMH, perceived symptoms of PMH, perceptions of motherhood, accessing PMH care and emotional sharing and coping strategies. Sociocultural expectations underpin many of the themes identified in this review including the importance of familial and societal causes of PMH, emphasis on physical symptoms, sacredness of motherhood, lack of awareness, stigma, shame, limited resources allocated for mental health and lack of emotional sharing. CONCLUSIONS: There is a complex range of perceptions and attitudes around PMH which influence women's experiences and access to PMH care. These findings will inform policy and practice through targeted interventions to tackle stigmatising attitudes and increasing education and training for healthcare providers.


Assuntos
Atitude , Saúde Mental , Bangladesh , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Paquistão , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409533

RESUMO

Affective-sexual and gender diversity is an increasingly distinctive and extended reality and should be acknowledged and respected. From a psychosocial and educational point of view, it is appropriate to review young people's attitudes and knowledge regarding this, relating them to aspects such as empathy, violence, or bullying, to implement quality education in the early stages of primary education. The main objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between empathy levels, attitudes toward transsexuality, and bullying among Spanish university students. The sample consisted of 247 students. Instruments were administered to evaluate negative attitudes toward transsexual people, gender ideology, transphobia, bullying, and empathy. Inverse relationships were found between transphobia and empathy. Regression analysis demonstrated the predictive ability of empathy on attitudes toward transsexual people. The results of this study are expected to increase awareness in society and encourage appropriate, satisfactory, or tolerable coexistence, in which all individuals can be free to live and express themselves. While the results indicated that the quality of life of transgender people has comparatively improved, there is still a long way to go.


Assuntos
Bullying , Empatia , Adolescente , Atitude , Bullying/psicologia , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409549

RESUMO

During the secondary school stage, students' motivation to study may decrease and affect their future expectations, which are exclusively directed toward the search for employment, with the consequent abandonment of academic training. The main objective of the present paper was to examine the sources of motivation to study and the future expectations of secondary school students, as well as to develop a predictive model of their future expectations based on the variables studied. The sample consisted of a total of 35,943 students from different Spanish high schools, with an average age of 15.83 (SD = 0.28). The instrument used was the placement tests referring to the PISA 2018 report. On the one hand, the results showed that the main source of motivation for secondary school students to study responds to some kind of imposition either from the surrounding environment or internally, which appears to be represented by identified or controlled extrinsic motivation. In terms of future expectations, important factors included the fundamentally expression of their intention to continue studying rather than to stop studying, facts or economic support which they considered as influential to their capacity to study, and the opinions of others such as parents and friends. On the other hand, sex showed some significant differences in terms of future expectations but did not predict them. The regression model explained 20.9% of the variability of future expectations based on variables such as grade repetition, reasons that discourage studying (not being interested in the contents and never studying), and the influences on future expectations (school grades and subject mastery). Finally, the structural equation model revealed that grade repetition predicts the reasons that discourage studying and these in turn impact future expectations which are influenced by school grades, performing well in a specialty, and having talent. Likewise, there was a negative correlation between repeating a course and school grades, performing well in a specialty, and having talent. Based on these results, it would be advisable to improve the intrinsic motivation of secondary school students by means of educational actions that contribute to the adjustment of their future expectations and attend to the students' own interests, desires, and competencies, all with the main purpose of contributing to meaningful learning and facilitating professional orientation, and above all, attending to diversity to reduce school failure.


Assuntos
Atitude , Motivação , Adolescente , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Espanha , Estudantes
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409677

RESUMO

Attitudes of healthcare workers towards the elderly significantly affect the quality of care dedicated to this group of patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the approach of Polish physiotherapists to the elderly and to analyze the factors influencing these attitudes. The study was based on a cross-sectional Internet-based survey that was conducted in the period from May to September 2021. It was completed by 252 subjects: 189 women and 63 men. The study was based on the involvement of physiotherapists with the right to practice their profession in accordance with the law in force in Poland. The tools used in the study were The Kogan Attitudes towards the Elderly (KAOP) score and The Jefferson Empathy Scale (JSE). To model the KOAP score as a function of the predictors, Bayesian linear regression was used. The average KOAP score in the sample was M (SD) = 100.7 (17.46), with the central 50% of the observations ranging from 81 to 113 points. We observed one statistically credible relationship: relevance of contacts with elderly people was positively and moderately related to KOAP. Additionally, we observed that the JSE scale was positively, but very weakly, associated with KOAP. Empathy and own experience of health care providers may protect against negative attitudes towards the elderly, meaning empathy in healthcare professionals is crucial.


Assuntos
Empatia , Fisioterapeutas , Idoso , Atitude , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0265259, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35385499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Along with the rapid development of the Internet, the form of destination marketing is becoming increasingly innovative and diverse. Celebrity endorsement via social media, as an effective marketing strategy, has been widely used by various tourism companies to attract and engage with their customers. Previous studies have investigated the various aspects of such endorsement (e.g. the effect of endorser's attributes) in different contexts (e.g. Hotel, Restaurant, Airline). However, little research has focused on the influence of the tourists' parasocial relationship with endorsers on destination marketing. Accordingly, the current study aims to explore the role of parasocial relationships on tourists' destination attitude and visit intention. METHOD: This study adopted quantitative method and conducted Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) for data analysis. 498 valid questionnaires were collected from Weibo (One of China's most popuar social media platforms). RESULTS: Results suggested that endorser's credibility positively influenced follower's parasocial relationship (p<0.001), which in turn positively influenced destination attitude and visit intention (p<0.001). Additionally, the parasocial relationship significantly mediated the relationship between credibility and destination attitude as well as visit intention (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The emerging trend of celerbity endorsement via live-streaming makes tourism destination marketing more diverse and even effective. Through exploring the underlying mechanism of celebrity endorsement, this study can provide destination marketers with insights about how to build and strengthen the tourist's attitude and visit intention towards destiantion by developing their parasocial relationships with endorsers. This study also adds to the literature of using Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) in tourism and hospiatlity research.


Assuntos
Atitude , Intenção , Humanos
19.
J Dent Hyg ; 96(2): 25-34, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418493

RESUMO

Purpose: Individuals who subscribe to a color-blind racial ideology may not be aware of differences or differential treatment based on race which may be related to racial inequality in the delivery of oral health care. The purpose of this study was to determine color-blind racial attitudes in a convenience sample of clinical dental hygienists.Methods: A convenience sample of practicing dental hygienists recruited through social media via snowball sampling was invited to participate in this cross-sectional survey study. The Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale (CoBRAS), a valid and reliable measuring instrument, was used to determine unawareness of racial attitudes and stereotyping. Three subscales (Racial Privilege, Institutional Discrimination, and Blatant Racial Issues) were measured by the survey. Descriptive statistics and separate one-way between-subjects ANOVA were used to analyze the data.Results: Two-hundred and thirty-three (n = 233) dental hygienists in clinical practice completed the survey. ANOVA revealed statistically significant differences in overall CoBRAS scores when comparing age groups and ethnicities. Participants aged 18-29 had significantly lower overall CoBRAS scores compared to participants aged 60 and over (x = 49.41, x = 59.17, respectively; p = .019). African American participants scored significantly lower on overall CoBRAS scores compared only to those in the Other ethnicity category (x = 42.27, x = 62.08, respectively; p = .029).Conclusion: Participants possessed moderate levels of color-blindness, suggesting unawareness of racism and a need to understand the implications of racism as a means of promoting equity and improve oral health care delivery. Findings emphasize a need for more research examining color-blind ideology and how it affects oral health care delivery to diverse patient populations.


Assuntos
Higienistas Dentários , Racismo , Idoso , Atitude , Cegueira , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 68(3): 337-343, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of anxiety among high-risk pregnant women in the late period of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and to evaluate the relationship between anxiety levels, attitudes-behaviors, coping styles, and other psychometric parameters. METHODS: Pregnant women who were followed up in our gynecology outpatient clinic were evaluated during their admissions between November 15, 2020 and February 15, 2021. This cross-sectional study analyzes prospectively collected data from a university hospital. Inclusion criteria were those being at risk of pregnancy and between the age of 18 and 45 years, while exclusion criteria were mental retardation and the presence of serious psychiatric illness. The study included 140 participants. Sociodemographic and pregnant attitudes-behaviors data form, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Coping Styles Scale Brief Form (Brief-COPE), and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were used to collect data. RESULTS: Participants had high anxiety levels (State-STAI: 40.32±9.88; Trait-STAI: 42.71±7.32) and high prevalence of probable clinical anxiety [State-STAI: 84 (60.0%); Trait-STAI: 92 (65.7%)]. The fact concerning the transmission of the coronavirus disease 2019 to the baby during pregnancy/birth, extent to which coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic prevents regular pregnancy checkups, and family subgroup-Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support predicted state probable clinical anxiety. Use of disinfectants predicted trait probable clinical anxiety. Employment status predicted state/trait probable clinical anxiety. The existence of trait probable clinical anxiety was significantly associated with behavioral disengagement and substance use which are considered ineffective coping styles. Participants without trait probable clinical anxiety had significantly more adopted positive reinterpretation, one of emotion-focused coping styles. CONCLUSION: Based on our results, the concern of the transmission of the coronavirus disease 2019 to the babies during pregnancy/birth may be the main factor influencing anxiety among high-risk pregnant women.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Gestantes , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Atitude , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Gravidez , Gestantes/psicologia , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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