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1.
Clin Podiatr Med Surg ; 39(1): 89-103, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809797

RESUMO

Recreational sports are more popular, with many athletes involved year-round in multiple sports and on multiple teams. Most athletes do not take proper rest, making them more susceptible to stress-related injuries. There are numerous sports-related injuries in the foot and ankle. These issues can be non-traumatic, due to chronic repetitive stresses, or traumatic. Most of these injuries are managed conservatively, and athletes do well and return to play, while some do better with operative management. This article discusses a few of the sports injuries that are common in the leg, foot, and ankle and the recovery process.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Traumatismos do Pé , Esportes , Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/terapia , Criança , Traumatismos do Pé/diagnóstico , Traumatismos do Pé/terapia , Humanos
2.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 207: 114433, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715583

RESUMO

Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are a class of drugs presenting identical anabolic properties to anabolic steroids in addition to marked reduced androgenic effects. These drugs have emerged in the doping area within the early 2000's. Ligandrol, ostarine, RAD-140 and andarine are the most popular agents belonging to this class. According to the world anti-doping agency (WADA) prohibited list, SARMs are prohibited at all times (i.e. in and out-of-competition) and are listed under the section S1.2 (other anabolic agents). The compilation of the WADA testing figures reports from 2015 to 2019 has indicated a regular increase of adverse analytical findings (AAF) due to SARMs, particularly with ostarine and ligandrol. The implementation of highly sensitive chromatographic anti-doping analyses has induced high-profile challenges of anti-doping rules violations as athletes have claimed in numerous occasions that contamination was the reason for their AAF. Since the early 2000's, it has been accepted by the Court of Arbitration for Sports (CAS) in Lausanne (Switzerland) that, under some specific circumstances, unusual explanations can be provided to the Panel to explain an AAF. This was the open door for forensic investigations, as it is done in criminal Courts. A forensic approach can include testing for SARMs in food, drinks, but mostly in dietary supplements. As most anti-doping rules violations are only known several weeks after urine collection, this biological matrix is seldom use for further tests, despite the fact that most SARMs can be detected for several weeks in urine. Luckily, hair or nail testing can be a complement to document the claim of the athlete but of course, it cannot be considered as an alternative to urinalysis. This is because a negative hair or nail result cannot exclude the use of the detected drug and cannot overrule the urine result. To date, all methods for SARMs identification in various matrices involve liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry or high-resolution mass spectrometry. The aim of this paper is to review the scientific literature on the analytical possibilities of testing SARMs in dietary supplements, urine and hair or nail clippings after an AAF to document the claims of an athlete or his/her legal team.


Assuntos
Doping nos Esportes , Receptores Androgênicos , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
3.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1935-1944, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726085

RESUMO

Currently, there is limited research reporting the symptoms of long COVID among athletes, and the recommendations for athletes returning to competition/training who have experienced long COVID symptoms. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to synthesise the recommendations for returning athletes who have experienced long COVID symptoms. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO under CRD42021265939. Two authors searched the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus from August 2019-July 2021. Search terms included words related to "long COVID", "athlete" and "return". Data extraction was completed for each study by two independent investigators for: (1) first author name; (2) year of publication; (3) journal; (4) Definition of athlete (i.e. elite or non-elite) (5) Recommendations reported. A total of 220 records were found. Following title and abstract screening, 61 studies were eligible for full text screening. Overall, no studies, commentaries, editorials or reviews provided specific recommendations for "long COVID" defined as COVID-19 signs and symptoms lasting for over 4 weeks as a result of COVID-19 infection. In addition, we found no studies which reported symptoms of athletes suffering from long COVID. Despite the lack of evidence, we did find eight separate professional recommendations for managing "long-term effects" and "ongoing" or "prolonged" symptoms and COVID-19 complications among athletes. Practitioners should be aware of both mental and physical symptoms of long COVID, and additional considerations may be required for athletes who have undergone intensive care. The present review provides a list of recommendations based on existing literature that may be followed and implemented for returning athletes.Key MessagesFurther research, including longitudinal research of athletes who have tested positive for COVID-19, is required to develop evidenced-based guidelines for athletes with ongoing COVID-19 symptoms.Prior to returning to play after COVID-19 infection, a thorough medical history, physical and psychological examination should be conducted by a medical professional.Athletes should continue to monitor and record their own physical and psychological markers of health.


Assuntos
Atletas , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/reabilitação , Humanos
4.
Sports Med Arthrosc Rev ; 29(4): 182-184, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730114

RESUMO

In recent years, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and professional organizations have endorsed independent medical teams to promote athletes' wellbeing. In this independent arrangement, the team physician is the head of the medical team and with the assistance from the health care administrator, the team physician provides oversight of team medical personnel, who are delivering health care under the direction of the team physician. The purpose of this chapter is to review the role of the modern-day team physician, highlighting areas of controversy surrounding team medical coverage.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Medicina Esportiva , Atletas , Humanos , Estudantes , Universidades
5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 3): e20201677, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730742

RESUMO

The current study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the high physical capacity of rowing athletes may not reverse the influence of age on cardiac autonomic control decline estimated by heart rate variability (HRV). Forty-four male subjects divided in four groups: 11 young athletes (YA; 18 ±1 year), 11 young non-athletes (YNA; 20 ±1 year), 11 middle age athletes (MAA; 43 ±6 years) and 11 middle age non-athletes (MNA; 44 ±8 years) participated in the study. Heart rate (HR) was recorded beat-by-beat for 10 minutes in supine (SUP) and 10 min in orthostatic (ORT) positions. HRV was analyzed in the frequency domain to obtain the spectral power in the high (HF) and low frequency (LF) bands, and the changes to ORT (%∆HRV) were calculated (ORT - SUP / SUP). During SUP, HF was lower in MNA and MA compared to YA and YNA, while LF was lower in MNA than YA. For %ΔHRV, %ΔHF was higher in YA than YNA, MA and MNA. The %ΔLF was not different among groups. In conclusion, aging seems to overcome the influence of physical fitness on neural regulation of the heart, as highlighted by the HRV response to active standing.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Frequência Cardíaca , Aptidão Física , Esportes Aquáticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Posição Ortostática , Decúbito Dorsal , Adulto Jovem
6.
Sports Med Arthrosc Rev ; 29(4): 185-190, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730116

RESUMO

Athletes are at risk for a variety of injuries not typically sustained in everyday life. The team physician must be capable of not only identifying and treating injuries as they occur, but he or she must be armed with the knowledge to minimize the risk of injuries before they occur. This review serves to provide an overview of the various sport-specific injuries typically encountered by team physicians. Injuries are grouped by body part and/or organ system, when possible. We do not aim to cover in detail the various treatments for these injuries; rather, we hope that this article provides a comprehensive overview of sport-specific injury, and demonstrate the well-roundedness in skills that must be possessed by team physicians.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Esportes , Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/terapia , Feminino , Humanos
7.
Sports Med Arthrosc Rev ; 29(4): e57-e64, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730117

RESUMO

There is a need to improve the quality of rehabilitation in sports medicine to return athletes to optimal function safely and quickly, reducing the risk of reinjury. This paper describes a planning paradigm to guide clinical reasoning during individual treatment sessions and a model for planning the rehabilitation program from acute injury to return to play. The design of a rehabilitation program should be a collaborative, team effort, and accounting for the specific needs of the athlete. As the athlete progresses from acute injury management all the way back to full competition, the rehabilitation professional emphasizes the components of pain management, motion, motor control, and force production in varying degrees based upon phases of tissue healing and the athlete's response. Utilizing high-value, evidence-based treatments maximize both the effectiveness and efficiency of rehabilitation to restore and improve upon preinjury levels of physical performance.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Medicina Esportiva , Atletas , Humanos
8.
Sports Med Arthrosc Rev ; 29(4): 191-199, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730119

RESUMO

Over the last decade, with emphasis on concussion awareness and potential long-term deficits, concussions have become a public health concern. Although common, concussions are complex in nature and often require a collaborative treatment approach across multiple disciplines. In an athletic setting, the Team Physician plays a critical leadership role in the organization, management, and provision of care for concussed athletes. However, leadership strategies for the provision of concussion care utilized by the Team Physician have not been adequately described. This manuscript intends to describe advanced planning for concussion management and highlight best practices for the provision of care for the concussed athlete, to assist the Team Physician in coordinating optimal care. Specific emphasis will be placed on outlining a concussion management protocol aligned with evidence-based best practices.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Concussão Encefálica , Médicos , Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Traumatismos em Atletas/terapia , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Concussão Encefálica/terapia , Humanos , Liderança
9.
Sports Med Arthrosc Rev ; 29(4): e71-e76, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730120

RESUMO

Pain is common among athletes at all levels and the treatment of pain can be a challenging and frustrating task. The team physician needs a fundamental knowledge of analgesic strategies as it relates to athletes. It is important to understand the mechanism of action, side effect profile/associated complications, incidence of and indications for use, as well as the controversies associated with the most common analgesic medications used in sports medicine. Several "in vogue" treatment modalities, including cannabidiol, are also becoming more commonly used and are worth discussion.


Assuntos
Analgesia , Medicina Esportiva , Atletas , Humanos , Dor , Manejo da Dor
10.
Sports Med Arthrosc Rev ; 29(4): 200-206, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730121

RESUMO

Preparticipation evaluations (PPE) are both a traditional and legal requirement by many governing bodies for sport. The ideal goal of the PPE is safe participation in sport for athletes. This article provides an overview of common PPE elements and current best practice recommendations. Descriptions of every possible examination are published elsewhere and are beyond the intent of this article. Additional considerations for transgender, masters athletes, and Special Olympians are also outside the scope of this review, but are well covered in The Preparticipation Physical Evaluation, fifth edition monograph.


Assuntos
Medicina Esportiva , Esportes , Atletas , Humanos , Exame Físico
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770044

RESUMO

Research evidence suggests that athletes' attitudes towards banned substances are among the strongest predictors of intention to use or actual practice of doping. Previous research has found that personal morality was negatively related to doping attitudes. However, less is known about the role of athletes' perceptions of fair play on their attitudes towards doping. First, we examined whether moral identity was associated with athletes' attitudes towards doping and whether their perceptions of fair play mediated this relationship. The second purpose was to determine whether these associations differed among non-athletes. Overall, 365 university students (49.9% males, 55.3% athletes) participated in this study (mean age 22.02, SD = 6.58). They completed questionnaires measuring the aforementioned variables. The results showed that athletes' moral identity and endorsement of fair play were negatively associated with their attitudes towards doping. The mediation analyses showed that the effect of moral identity on attitudes towards doping was partially mediated by perceptions of fair play (indirect effect, ß = -0.10, p < 0.05). Unlike student athletes, non-athletes' moral identity negatively predicted attitudes towards doping only indirectly, via fair play perception (indirect effect, ß = -0.08, p < 0.05). The study provides insights into how a person's morality and perception of moral values in sport may act as factors related to doping in sport. The practical implications for the promotion of anti-doping attitudes for athletes and separately for student non-athletes were provided together with future research perspectives.


Assuntos
Doping nos Esportes , Esportes , Adulto , Atletas , Atitude , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770051

RESUMO

Various theories in the field of positive youth development (PYD) through sport argue that student athletes' satisfaction with basic psychological needs, life skills development, and well-being are closely related to each other. This study identified the structural relationship among three basic psychological needs, life skills, and subjective well-being. Korean Taekwondo student athletes (N = 302, Mage = 17.67, range = 17-19) completed a survey evaluating basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness), life skills (teamwork, goal setting, social skills, time management, and leadership), and subjective well-being (life satisfaction, positive/negative affect). Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, correlation, and the Structural Equation Model (SEM). The model's goodness of fit was Ï°2/df = 2.78, TLI = 0.90, CFI = 0.90, RMSEA = 0.077 (95% CI = 0.70, 0.80), and SRMR = 0.085. The three basic psychological needs were positively related to life skills and subjective well-being. In addition, life skills had a mediation effect between the three basic psychological needs and subjective well-being. The interpretation of the results indicated that life skills development and well-being depend on basic psychological needs. Thus, coaches should encourage a PYD climate to satisfy their athletes' psychological needs.


Assuntos
Artes Marciais , Autonomia Pessoal , Adolescente , Atletas , Humanos , Satisfação Pessoal , Estudantes
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Probiotic supplements contain different strains of living microorganisms that promote the health of the host. These dietary supplements are increasingly being used by athletes to improve different aspects such as athletic performance, upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), the immune system, oxidative stress, gastrointestinal (GI) problems, etc. This study aimed to identify the current evidence on the management of probiotics in endurance athletes and their relationship with sports performance. METHODS: A systematic review of the last five years was carried out in PubMed, Scopus, Web of science, Sportdiscus and Embase databases. RESULTS: Nine articles met the quality criteria. Of these, three reported direct benefits on sports performance. The remaining six articles found improvements in the reduction of oxidative stress, increased immune response and decreased incidence of URTIs. There is little scientific evidence on the direct relationship between the administration of probiotics in endurance athletes and sports performance. CONCLUSIONS: Benefits were found that probiotics could indirectly influence sports performance by improving other parameters such as the immune system, response to URTIs and decreased oxidative stress, as well as the monitoring of scheduled workouts.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Gastroenteropatias , Probióticos , Atletas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kickboxing is a combat sport with high demands on fitness and coordination skills. Scientific research shows that kickboxing fights induce substantial physiological stress. Therefore, it is important to determine the body composition of athletes before competitions and to analyze the skin temperature and skin pH during the fight. METHODS: This study aimed to determine the body composition, skin temperature, and skin pH in kickboxers during a fight according to K1 rules. A total of 24 kickboxers (age range: 19 to 28 years) competing in a local K1 kickboxing league participated in the present study. RESULTS: Changes in skin temperature and pH were observed and significant correlations were found between body composition and weight category. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in skin temperature and pH were demonstrated after each round of the bout. Level of body fat and muscle tissue significantly correlates with technical-tactical skills of the K1 athletes studied.


Assuntos
Atletas , Esportes , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770638

RESUMO

This study describes a method for extracting the stride parameter ground contact time (GCT) from inertial sensor signals in sprinting. Five elite athletes were equipped with inertial measurement units (IMU) on their ankles and performed 34 maximum 50 and 100-m sprints. The GCT of each step was estimated based on features of the recorded IMU signals. Additionally, a photo-electric measurement system covered a 50-m corridor of the track to generate ground truth data. This corridor was placed interchangeably at the first and the last 50-ms of the track. In total, 863 of 889 steps (97.08%) were detected correctly. On average, ground truth data were underestimated by 3.55 ms. The root mean square error of GCT was 7.97 ms. Error analyses showed that GCT at the beginning and the end of the sprint was classified with smaller errors. For single runs the visualization of step-by-step GCT was demonstrated as a new diagnostic instrument for sprint running. The results show the high potential of IMUs to provide the temporal parameter GCT for elite-level athletes.


Assuntos
Corrida , Atletas , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the reliability of isokinetic measurements of hip strength in flexion and extension in healthy subjects and athletes. METHODS: The databases used were Web of Science, SCOPUS, Medline and PubMed. R was used for all statistical analyses. RESULTS: Hip flexion shows moderate reliability in the supine position (ICC = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.46-0.99) and good reliability in the standing position (ICC = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.54-1.04). Hip extension shows excellent reliability in the supine position (ICC = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.85-0.96) and moderate reliability in the standing position (ICC = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.48-0.96). Flexion of 120°/s and 180°/s showed excellent reliability (ICC = 0.93; 95% CI: 0.85-1.00), (ICC = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.92-1.01). The 60°/s and 120°/s extension showed good reliability (ICC = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.82-0.98), (ICC = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.75-0.99). The 180°/s extension presented excellent reliability (ICC = 0.93; 95% CI: 0.82-1.03). CONCLUSIONS: The standing position shows good reliability for hip flexion and the supine position shows excellent reliability for hip extension, both movements have excellent reliability at velocities between 120°/s to 180°/s.


Assuntos
Atletas , Força Muscular , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Dinamômetro de Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769849

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the efficacy of the Athletics Injury Prevention Programme (AIPP) to reduce the percentage of athletes presenting at least one injury complaint leading to participation restriction (ICPR) over an athletics season. METHODS: During the 2017-2018 athletics season, we included in this cluster randomised controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03307434) 840 athletes randomly assigned (randomisation unit: athletic clubs) to a control group (regular training) or to an intervention group (regular training plus the AIPP 2/week). Using a weekly online questionnaire, athletes reported the ICPR, training and competition exposures, and, for the intervention group, the compliance with the AIPP. The primary outcome was the percentage of athletes presenting at least one ICPR over the study follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 449 and 391 athletes were included in the intervention and control groups, respectively. From them, 68 (15.1%) and 100 (25.6%) athletes, respectively, provided 100% of the requested information during the follow-up (39 weeks). A total of 6 (8.8%) performed the AIPP 2/week or more. The proportion of athletes who had at least one ICPR over the follow-up period was similar in the intervention (64.7%) and control groups (65.0%), with adjusted odds ratios: 0.81 (95% CI 0.36 to 1.85). There were no between-group differences when comparing separately the subgroups corresponding with the different compliance levels. CONCLUSION: This cluster randomised controlled trial reported no efficacy of the AIPP. However, the overall response proportion and the compliance with the AIPP in the intervention group were low. In individual sports especially, efforts should be first made to improve the implementation and adoption of interventions.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Esportes , Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769872

RESUMO

In combat sports, competitors are separated into weight divisions, to create equality between the athletes. Consequently, rapid weight loss (RWL) is a common practice in combat sports. Although the methods used to induce RWL are similar among athletes, currently, there are limited data concerning the RWL methodologies used by sambo athletes. Therefore, this study aimed at determining RWL procedures among female sambo athletes. Participants in the study were top-level athletes competing at the World Sambo Championship held in Novi Sad. A total sample of 47 female sambo athletes, of whom 24 were seniors (27.3 ± 4 year/age, 1.61 ± 0.09 m/height, 61.8 ± 8.87 kg/weight) and 23 juniors (18.7 ± 0.8 year/age, 1.66 ± 0.07 m/height, 63.7 ± 12.1 kg/weight), were examined in the study. To determine RWL methods, data were collected through a standardized questionnaire. As a result, 88.7% of the female sambo athletes declared that they intentionally cut their weight before the competition. The most commonly used methods were gradual dieting, followed by sauna, fluid restriction, and skipping meals. The most considerable influence on the RWL strategies of athletes came from coaches and personal trainers, while physicians and dietitians were far less influential. The results obtained from this representative sample highlight the most common practices concerning weight cutting prior to competition among females. Therefore, there is a need to inform and educate both athletes and coaches about the potentially harmful effects of RWL in combat sports.


Assuntos
Artes Marciais , Banho a Vapor , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Perda de Peso
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769884

RESUMO

In elite pool swimmers competing at world class level, mainly athletes from the United States of America and Australia are dominating. Little is known, however, for the nationality of dominating swimmers in elite open-water long-distance swimming races such as the official FINA races over 5 km, 10 km and 25 km-held since 2000. The aim of this study was to investigate the participation and performance trends by nationality of these elite open-water swimmers. Race results from all female and male swimmers competing in 5 km, 10 km and 25 km FINA races between 2000 and 2020 were analyzed. A total of 9819 swimmers competed between 2000 and 2020 in these races. The five countries that figure most times among the top ten in 5 km, 10 km and 25 km races over the years were Italy, Germany, Russia, Brazil and the Netherlands. In 10 km races, considering the all the athletes from each country, male athletes from Germany, Italy, and France presented faster race times than the other countries. In 10 km, female athletes presented no significant difference among the countries. In 5 and 25 km races, there were no differences between countries, for male and female athletes. Moreover, comparing only the 10 best results (top 10) from each country, there were no differences between countries in 5 km, 10 km and 25 km, for male and female athletes. Men were faster than women for all three distances. In summary, male swimmers from Europe (i.e., Germany, Italy, France) are dominating the 10 km FINA races. In the 5 km and 25 km FINA races, there is no dominating nationality, but among the top five countries in the top 10 over the years, three are European countries.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Água , Atletas , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Natação
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769799

RESUMO

Visual skills in sport are considered relevant variables of athletic performance. However, data on the specific contribution of stereopsis-as the ability to perceive depth-in sport performance are still scarce and scattered in the literature. The aim of this review is therefore to take stock of the effects of stereopsis on the athletic performance, also looking at the training tools to improve visual abilities and potential differences in the visuomotor integration processes of professional and non-professional athletes. Dynamic stereopsis is mainly involved in catching or interceptive actions of ball sports, whereas strategic sports use different visual skills (peripheral and spatial vision) due to the sport-specific requirements. As expected, professional athletes show better visual skills as compared to non-professionals. However, both non-professional and professional athletes should train their visual skills by using sensory stations and light boards systems. Non-professional athletes use the visual inputs as the main method for programming motor gestures. In contrast, professional athletes integrate visual information with sport expertise, thus, they encode the match (or the athletic performance) through a more complex visuomotor integration system. Although studies on visual skills and stereopsis in sports still appear to be in their early stages, they show a large potential for both scientific knowledge and technical development.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Percepção de Profundidade , Atletas , Humanos , Visão Ocular
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