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1.
An. psicol ; 40(2): 227-235, May-Sep, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-232717

RESUMO

El objetivo fue examinar, desde una aproximación multi-informante, las medidas del Síndrome de Desconexión Cognitiva (SDC) de padres/madres e hijos/as y su relación con síntomas internalizantes y externalizantes. 279 niños/as (9-13 años), y sus padres/madres completaron las evaluaciones sobre SDC, la inatención del trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) y otras medidas internalizadas y externalizadas. Los ítems de las tres medidas de SDC convergieron razonablemente bien en el factor SDC. Se aportaron pruebas discriminantes de la validez de las relaciones entre las puntuaciones de las pruebas y las medidas de los tres constructos diferentes (SDC, soledad y preferencia por la soledad). La asociación más estrecha estuvo entre la evaluación parental de las medidas de SDC con ansiedad y depresión, y entre inatención con hiperactividad/impulsividad y trastorno negativista desafiante. Se observó capacidad predictiva de la medida de SDC sobre la soledad y preferencia por estar solo autoinformadas. Se encontró una posible asociación entre la medida del SDC evaluado por padres/madres y sexo y edad de los niños. En conclusión, los datos apoyan la inclusión de medidas autoinformadas en la evaluación del SDC. Las medidas del SDC en niños se vinculan con medidas internalizantes y, la inatención con las externalizantes.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Psicologia da Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Ansiedade , Depressão
2.
Elife ; 122024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38954462

RESUMO

Perceiving biological motion (BM) is crucial for human survival and social interaction. Many studies have reported impaired BM perception in autism spectrum disorder, which is characterised by deficits in social interaction. Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often exhibit similar difficulties in social interaction. However, few studies have investigated BM perception in children with ADHD. Here, we compared differences in the ability to process local kinematic and global configurational cues, two fundamental abilities of BM perception, between typically developing and ADHD children. We further investigated the relationship between BM perception and social interaction skills measured using the Social Responsiveness Scale and examined the contributions of latent factors (e.g. sex, age, attention, and intelligence) to BM perception. The results revealed that children with ADHD exhibited atypical BM perception. Local and global BM processing showed distinct features. Local BM processing ability was related to social interaction skills, whereas global BM processing ability significantly improved with age. Critically, general BM perception (i.e. both local and global BM processing) may be affected by sustained attentional ability in children with ADHD. This relationship was primarily mediated by reasoning intelligence. These findings elucidate atypical BM perception in ADHD and the latent factors related to BM perception. Moreover, this study provides new evidence that BM perception is a hallmark of social cognition and advances our understanding of the potential roles of local and global processing in BM perception and social cognitive disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Percepção de Movimento , Humanos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Criança , Masculino , Feminino , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Interação Social , Adolescente , Atenção/fisiologia
3.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 49(4): E233-E241, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38960626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental condition that often persists into adulthood. Underlying alterations in brain connectivity have been identified but some relevant connections, such as the middle, superior, and inferior cerebellar peduncles (MCP, SCP, and ICP, respectively), have remained largely unexplored; thus, we sought to investigate whether the cerebellar peduncles contribute to ADHD pathophysiology among adults. METHODS: We applied diffusion-weighted spherical deconvolution tractography to dissect the cerebellar peduncles of male adults with ADHD (including those who did or did not respond to methylphenidate, based on at least 30% symptom improvement at 2 months) and controls. We investigated differences in tract metrics between controls and the whole ADHD sample and between controls and treatment-response groups using sensitivity analyses. Finally, we analyzed the association between the tract metrics and cliniconeuropsychological profiles. RESULTS: We included 60 participants with ADHD (including 42 treatment responders and 18 nonresponders) and 20 control participants. In the whole ADHD sample, MCP fractional anisotropy (FA; t 78 = 3.24, p = 0.002) and hindrance modulated orientational anisotropy (HMOA; t 78 = 3.01, p = 0.004) were reduced, and radial diffusivity (RD) in the right ICP was increased (t 78 = -2.84, p = 0.006), compared with controls. Although case-control differences in MCP FA and HMOA, which reflect white-matter microstructural organization, were driven by both treatment response groups, only responders significantly differed from controls in right ICP RD, which relates to myelination (t 60 = 3.14, p = 0.003). Hindrance modulated orientational anisotropy of the MCP was significantly positively associated with hyperactivity measures. LIMITATIONS: This study included only male adults with ADHD. Further research needs to investigate potential sex- and development-related differences. CONCLUSION: These results support the role of the cerebellar networks, especially of the MCP, in adult ADHD pathophysiology and should encourage further investigation. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03709940.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Cerebelo , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Metilfenidato , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Anisotropia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo/patologia , Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Metilfenidato/uso terapêutico , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Rede Nervosa/patologia , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/patologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/patologia
4.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 389, 2024 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38970031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual risk-taking and struggles in managing romantic relationships may put young women with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) at risk of sexually transmitted diseases, unplanned pregnancies, and low relational satisfaction. To gain understanding of sexual behaviors and intimate relationships, this study aimed to identify and describe health care professionals' (HCPs) perceptions and experiences of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) in young women with ADHD. METHODS: Qualitative interviews were performed with 16 HCPs. Data was analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Analysis resulted in the themes Struggling to meet expectations, Sexual risk-taking, and Complex romantic relationships. HCPs' perceptions and experiences indicated that some women were afraid to be judged in clinical meetings when not living up to perceived expectations of sexual behaviors. Lack of impulse control was interpreted by HCPs to result in risk-taking behaviors leading to both negative and positive sexual experiences. Difficulties in assessing intentions of sexual partners were further perceived by HCPs to sometimes lead to sexual regrets or sexual victimization. The HCPs had experience of women wishing for romantic relationships but described these as being complicated by previous experiences, low self-esteem and conflict. ADHD medication and self-knowledge were perceived by HCPs to facilitate the women's relationship quality. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights that, from the perspective of HCPs, self-stigmatization and hesitation to raise issues concerning sexuality with HCPs may pose risks for young women with ADHD. It provides insight into sexual risk-taking behaviors, showing the link to regretted sex and sexual victimization. The study concludes that there is a need for HCPs to understand the influence of stigma concerning ADHD and female sexuality as well as how symptoms and outcomes of living with ADHD may impact SRH in order to promote healthy behaviors and relationships in young women.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Saúde Reprodutiva , Comportamento Sexual , Saúde Sexual , Humanos , Feminino , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Adulto , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Assunção de Riscos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais
5.
Transl Psychiatry ; 14(1): 284, 2024 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38997280

RESUMO

Disturbed sleep comes in many forms. While the key role of sleep in mental health is undisputed, our understanding of the type of sleeping problems that manifest in the early stages of psychiatric disorders is limited. A sample without psychiatric diagnoses (N = 440, 341 women, 97 men, 2 non-binaries; Mage = 32.1, SD = 9.4, range 18-77) underwent a comprehensive assessment, evaluating eight sleep features and 13 questionnaires on common psychiatric complaints. Results revealed that traits of affect disorders, generalized anxiety, and ADHD had the worst sleep profiles, while autism disorder, eating disorder, and impulsivity traits showed milder sleep issues. Mania was the only trait associated with an overall better sleep profile. Across traits, insomnia and fatigue dominated and sleep variability was least prominent. These findings provide support for both transdiagnostic and disorder-specific targets for prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adolescente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Mentais , Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Fadiga/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Mania
6.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 5870, 2024 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38997333

RESUMO

Research demonstrates the important role of genetic factors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). DNA sequencing of families provides a powerful approach for identifying de novo (spontaneous) variants, leading to the discovery of hundreds of clinically informative risk genes for other childhood neurodevelopmental disorders. This approach has yet to be extensively leveraged in ADHD. We conduct whole-exome DNA sequencing in 152 families, comprising a child with ADHD and both biological parents, and demonstrate a significant enrichment of rare and ultra-rare de novo gene-damaging mutations in ADHD cases compared to unaffected controls. Combining these results with a large independent case-control DNA sequencing cohort (3206 ADHD cases and 5002 controls), we identify lysine demethylase 5B (KDM5B) as a high-confidence risk gene for ADHD and estimate that 1057 genes contribute to ADHD risk. Using our list of genes harboring ultra-rare de novo damaging variants, we show that these genes overlap with previously reported risk genes for other neuropsychiatric conditions and are enriched in several canonical biological pathways, suggesting early neurodevelopmental underpinnings of ADHD. This work provides insight into the biology of ADHD and demonstrates the discovery potential of DNA sequencing in larger parent-child trio cohorts.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Sequenciamento do Exoma , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Feminino , Criança , Masculino , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Histona Desmetilases/genética , Mutação , Fatores de Risco
7.
Nutrients ; 16(13)2024 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38999789

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous studies have demonstrated the link between micronutrients and mental health. However, it remains uncertain whether this connection is causal. We aim to investigate the potential causal effects of micronutrients on mental health based on linkage disequilibrium score (LDSC) regression and Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. METHODS: Utilizing publicly available genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary datasets, we performed LDSC and MR analysis to identify candidate micronutrients with potential causal effects on mental health. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly linked with candidate micronutrients with a genome-wide significance level (p < 5 × 10-8) were selected as instrumental variables (IVs). To estimate the causal effect of candidate micronutrients on mental health, we employed inverse variance weighted (IVW) regression. Additionally, two sensitivity analyses, MR-Egger and weighted median, were performed to validate our results. RESULTS: We found evidence supporting significant causal associations between micronutrients and mental health. LDSC detected several candidate micronutrients, including serum iron (genetic correlation = -0.134, p = 0.032) and vitamin C (genetic correlation = -0.335, p < 0.001) for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), iron-binding capacity (genetic correlation = 0.210, p = 0.037) for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and vitamin B12 (genetic correlation = -0.178, p = 0.044) for major depressive disorder (MDD). Further MR analysis suggested a potential causal relationship between vitamin B12 and MDD (b = -0.139, p = 0.009). There was no significant heterogeneity or pleiotropy, indicating the validity of the findings. CONCLUSION: In this study, we identified underlying causal relationships between micronutrients and mental health. Notably, more research is necessary to clarify the underlying biological mechanisms by which micronutrients affect mental health.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Saúde Mental , Micronutrientes , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Humanos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/genética
9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 14(1): 268, 2024 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38951513

RESUMO

The urgency of addressing common mental disorders (bipolar disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and schizophrenia) arises from their significant societal impact. Developing strategies to support psychiatrists is crucial. Previous studies focused on the relationship between these disorders and changes in the resting-state functional connectome's modularity, often using static functional connectivity (sFC) estimation. However, understanding the dynamic reconfiguration of resting-state brain networks with rich temporal structure is essential for comprehending neural activity and addressing mental health disorders. This study proposes an unsupervised approach combining spatial and temporal characterization of brain networks to classify common mental disorders using fMRI timeseries data from two cohorts (N = 408 participants). We employ the weighted stochastic block model to uncover mesoscale community architecture differences, providing insights into network organization. Our approach overcomes sFC limitations and biases in community detection algorithms by modelling the functional connectome's temporal dynamics as a landscape, quantifying temporal stability at whole-brain and network levels. Findings reveal individuals with schizophrenia exhibit less assortative community structure and participate in multiple motif classes, indicating less specialized network organization. Patients with schizophrenia and ADHD demonstrate significantly reduced temporal stability compared to healthy controls. This study offers insights into functional connectivity (FC) patterns' spatiotemporal organization and their alterations in common mental disorders, highlighting the potential of temporal stability as a biomarker.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Encéfalo , Conectoma , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Rede Nervosa , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
14.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 33(6): e5814, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837561

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Methylphenidate (MPH) is a common treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Concern has been raised regarding its cardiovascular safety, partly in relation with its micromolar affinity for the 5-HT2B receptor, whose activation may result in valvular heart disease (VHD). METHODS: To explore the association between the use of MPH and VHD reporting, we performed a disproportionality analysis within the WHO global safety database (VigiBase) using data, since inception until March 6th 2024, from: (i) the full database and (ii) different age groups (children/adolescents 6-17 years; adults 18-64 years). To avoid competition bias, safety reports with amphetamine-like appetite suppressants were excluded. Disproportionality was expressed using reporting odds-ratio (ROR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Of 29 129 spontaneous reports with MPH, 23 VHD cases (7.9 per 10 000 reports) were identified, including 13 adults and 10 children. Most cases concerned injury on the mitral valve. A disproportionate reporting was observed overall (ROR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.4). Analysis according to age group found that disproportionality in VHD reporting was found in adults only (ROR 2.7, 95% CI 1.6-4.7) but not in children/adolescents (ROR 1.7, 95% CI 0.9-3.2). Furthermore, amongst MPH users only, VHD reporting was higher in adults compared to children (ROR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-6.3). CONCLUSION: VHD reporting appears rare with MPH compared to other adverse events and is increased in adults only. Our findings support a potential safety signal of VHD in adults exposed to MPH. A risk in that population cannot be excluded and requires further assessment.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central , Bases de Dados Factuais , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas , Metilfenidato , Farmacovigilância , Humanos , Adolescente , Criança , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Metilfenidato/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários
15.
Mol Autism ; 15(1): 25, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism and different neurodevelopmental conditions frequently co-occur, as do their symptoms at sub-diagnostic threshold levels. Overlapping traits and shared genetic liability are potential explanations. METHODS: In the population-based Norwegian Mother, Father, and Child Cohort study (MoBa), we leverage item-level data to explore the phenotypic factor structure and genetic architecture underlying neurodevelopmental traits at age 3 years (N = 41,708-58,630) using maternal reports on 76 items assessing children's motor and language development, social functioning, communication, attention, activity regulation, and flexibility of behaviors and interests. RESULTS: We identified 11 latent factors at the phenotypic level. These factors showed associations with diagnoses of autism and other neurodevelopmental conditions. Most shared genetic liabilities with autism, ADHD, and/or schizophrenia. Item-level GWAS revealed trait-specific genetic correlations with autism (items rg range = - 0.27-0.78), ADHD (items rg range = - 0.40-1), and schizophrenia (items rg range = - 0.24-0.34). We find little evidence of common genetic liability across all neurodevelopmental traits but more so for several genetic factors across more specific areas of neurodevelopment, particularly social and communication traits. Some of these factors, such as one capturing prosocial behavior, overlap with factors found in the phenotypic analyses. Other areas, such as motor development, seemed to have more heterogenous etiology, with specific traits showing a less consistent pattern of genetic correlations with each other. CONCLUSIONS: These exploratory findings emphasize the etiological complexity of neurodevelopmental traits at this early age. In particular, diverse associations with neurodevelopmental conditions and genetic heterogeneity could inform follow-up work to identify shared and differentiating factors in the early manifestations of neurodevelopmental traits and their relation to autism and other neurodevelopmental conditions. This in turn could have implications for clinical screening tools and programs.


Assuntos
Fenótipo , Humanos , Noruega , Feminino , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Mães , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adulto , Pai , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/genética , Heterogeneidade Genética
16.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1356988, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38841675

RESUMO

Background: As the most commonly used illicit substance, cannabis is gaining global acceptance through increasing legalization efforts. This shift intensifies the need for research to guide policymakers and healthcare providers in harm reduction and treatment strategies. Nonetheless, the relationship between psychopathological symptoms and cannabis use remains inadequately understood. Methods: A sample of regular cannabis consumers completed self-reported assessments for depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), anxiety (General Anxiety Disorder-7), Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale V1.1), and psychosis (Early Recognition Inventory based on IRAOS) as well as previous black-market cannabis use patterns. Cannabis Use Disorder Identification Test Revised (CUDIT-R) was used to identify cannabis use disorder (CUD). To understand psychopathological symptom load related to cannabis consumption as well as cannabis use motives, multiple regression models were performed to identify psychopathological variables predicting cannabis use frequency and quantity. Linear regression and correlation analyses were conducted, adjusting for relevant covariates (age, gender, education, alcohol, other substance use). Results: Three-hundred-sixty regular cannabis users interested in a study on regulated cannabis access in Basel, Switzerland were examined. In bivariate analysis, cannabis use frequency correlated with depressive (r(358) = 0.16, p = 0.003) and anxiety symptom load (r(358) = 0.11, p = 0.034). Cannabis quantity correlated with depressive (r(358) = 0.15, p = 0.005), ADHD (r(358) = 0.14, p = 0.008), and psychosis symptom load (r(358) = 0.16, p = 0.002). However, in the adjusted regression models only depressive and ADHD symptom loads were significantly associated with cannabis use frequency (p = 0.006 and p = 0.034, respectively) and quantity (p = 0.037 and p = 0.019, respectively). No significant correlations between cannabis consumption and anxiety or psychosis remained after adjustment. Conclusion: ADHD and depressive symptoms correlate with increased cannabis use in a cohort of regular users, suggesting potential self-medication in nonclinical populations. With the rising availability of cannabis worldwide, these results highlight the necessity for longitudinal studies to disentangle the complex dynamics between cannabis consumption and mental health symptoms.


Assuntos
Depressão , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Suíça/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Abuso de Maconha/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , Cannabis , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38928929

RESUMO

This study addressed the harmful effects of artificial colors in pediatric populations, including children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), as well as those without behavioral disorders. There is a consensus that synthetic food colorings have several impacts on consumers, especially pediatrics, due to their influence on sensory appeal, which can encourage preference for certain foods. The results revealed that these color additives are directly linked to a series of health problems, with a greater impact on children, including a predisposition to pathological conditions such as carcinogenic, allergenic, mutagenic, cytotoxic, and clastogenic activities, as well as gastrointestinal and respiratory problems, in addition to behavioral changes in children with and without diagnosed disorders. The harms of synthetic dyes in children with or without comorbidities are worrying and require a careful and proactive approach from parents, caregivers and public authorities.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Corantes de Alimentos , Humanos , Criança , Corantes de Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Pré-Escolar
18.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 47(6): 1204-1208, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38910124

RESUMO

Guanfacine, used as a medication for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), leads to a high incidence of somnolence, in contrast to methylphenidate, which leads to a high incidence of insomnia. The impact of somnolence on continuing guanfacine treatment is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the reasons for discontinuing guanfacine and analyzed the factors associated with discontinuation caused by somnolence. We surveyed 96 patients under guanfacine from July 2017 to December 2021 at the Saga University Hospital. Patients who discontinued guanfacine by the end date of our study were divided into a median early and late group. We compared the reasons for discontinuation in both groups. Of all patients, 47 continued and 49 discontinued guanfacine. A higher percentage of patients discontinued guanfacine caused by somnolence for ≤70 d than for >70 d of treatment (44.0 vs. 8.3%; p = 0.008). When stratified by the concomitant use of other ADHD drugs, somnolence resulted in a higher discontinuation rate for ≤70 d than for >70 d of treatment without concomitant use (55.0 vs. 7.1%; p = 0.009). Nonetheless, concomitant use resulted in no difference. In conclusion, somnolence affects the early discontinuation of guanfacine as an ADHD drug. The combination of methylphenidate or atomoxetine may decrease withdrawal caused by somnolence.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Guanfacina , Guanfacina/efeitos adversos , Guanfacina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Sonolência , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/efeitos adversos , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/uso terapêutico , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/administração & dosagem , Metilfenidato/efeitos adversos
19.
BMJ Open ; 14(6): e081280, 2024 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38925697

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Children with atopic dermatitis (AD) are more at risk for the neurodevelopmental disorders attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with parallel increases in global prevalences. Children afflicted with these conditions appear to share similar problems in sensory modulation but investigational studies on the underlying aetiology are scarce. This scoping review aims to find knowledge gaps, collate hypotheses and to summarise available evidence on the shared pathophysiology of AD, ADHD and ASD in children. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Our study will follow the methodological manual published by the Joanna Briggs Methodology for Scoping Reviews and will be reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews. The following electronic databases will be searched for studies focused on children with AD and symptoms of ADHD and/or ASD: Medline ALL via Ovid, Embase, Web of Science Core Collection and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials via Wiley. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This review does not require ethics approval as it will not be conducted with human participants. We will only use published data. Our dissemination strategy includes peer review publication and conference reports.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Dermatite Atópica , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Humanos , Dermatite Atópica/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Criança , Projetos de Pesquisa
20.
Behav Ther ; 55(4): 680-697, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38937043

RESUMO

Adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience significant academic, behavioral, and social skill difficulties including underachievement, risk for school dropout, poor peer relations, and emotion dysregulation. Although stimulant medication reduces ADHD symptoms, psychosocial and educational interventions are necessary to address functional impairments. We examined the nature and predictors of academic, behavioral, and social skills trajectories in response to multicomponent organizational and interpersonal skills training in 92 high school students with ADHD. Latent trajectory class analyses revealed positive treatment response ranging from 61.5% (report card grades) to 100% (inattention symptoms, organizational skills, social skills). Organizational skill and academic grade treatment response trajectories were predicted by assigned sex, pretreatment anxiety, and treatment dosage, while improvement in behavioral and social functioning was associated with better emotion regulation and family relations prior to treatment along with stronger working alliance with treatment coach at midtreatment. Multicomponent organizational and interpersonal skills training appears effective for most high school students with ADHD and the degree treatment-induced change is associated with multiple malleable factors can be leveraged to enhance intervention response.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Habilidades Sociais , Humanos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Resultado do Tratamento , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia
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