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1.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105268, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411877

RESUMO

Our folk psychology is built around the ascription of beliefs (and related cognitive states) and desires (and related conative states). How and when children develop a concept of these different kinds of propositional attitudes has been the subject of a long-standing debate. Asymmetry accounts assume that children develop a conception of desires earlier than they develop a concept of beliefs. In contrast, the symmetry account assumes that conceptions of both kinds of attitudes are based on the same underlying capacity to ascribe subjective perspectives. Accordingly, a genuine subjective understanding of desires develops in tandem with subjective belief understanding. So far, existing evidence that tested these two accounts remains inconclusive, with inconsistent findings resulting from diverging methods. Therefore, the current study tested between the two accounts in a more systematic way. First, we used a particularly clear test case-value-incompatible (wicked) desires. Such desires are strongly subjective because they are desirable only from the agent's perspective but not from an objective perspective. Second, we probed children's ascription of such desires in the most direct and simplified ways. Third, we directly compared children's desire understanding with their ascription of subjective beliefs. Results revealed that young children were better in reasoning about subjective desires than about subjective beliefs. Desire reasoning was not correlated with subjective belief reasoning, and children did not have more difficulties in reasoning about strongly subjective wicked desires than about neutral desires. All in all, these findings are not in line with the predictions of the symmetry account but speak in favor of the asymmetry account.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Resolução de Problemas , Atitude , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos
2.
Acta Trop ; 225: 106143, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562430

RESUMO

Many countries exclude pregnant and lactating women from mass drug administration (MDA) programmes with praziquantel against schistosomiasis due to historic safety concerns over drug use during gestation and breast feeding. More than 10 years of empirical evidence from the field and a growing body of dedicated research has prompted the World Health Organisation and schistosomiasis control initiatives to advocate the inclusion of this vulnerable group into MDA. This qualitative descriptive case study explored, over a five-week period, the subjective experiences, perceptions, opinions, and attitudes of pregnant women attending government supported clinics on Unguja island, United Republic of Tanzania, towards praziquantel use during pregnancy in MDA programmes. The aim of the study was to identify and determine how to overcome potential barriers to effective use of MDA medications during pregnancy. Additionally, it was to determine trusted communication channels for future messaging and discover behavioural and community opportunities to increase participation of pregnant women in future MDA efforts. A 60 min, semi-structured qualitative interview was undertaken with 25 pregnant women recruited from 4 health centres on Unguja along with testing for Schistosoma haematobium infection. Using a modified-grounded theory approach, narrative data were transcribed, coded and analysed using a thematic analysis of the emergent themes. Women reported that they rely on traditional home remedies to stay healthy during pregnancy. Influenced by their mothers, husbands and neighbours, women predominately made medication choices during pregnancy and breastfeeding based on what they heard at home. Most women had been excluded from government MDA programmes in the past due to pregnancy. Women valued healthcare services for antenatal education and pregnancy advice. Women reported they would trust and follow direction from healthcare providers about taking praziquantel during pregnancy. Antenatal clinics offer an excellent opportunity to educate and expand praziquantel treatment to this cohort. Efforts should be augmented with training for providers and behavioural education for the community as a whole and family members of pregnant women.


Assuntos
Gestantes , Esquistossomose Urinária , Atitude , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação , Percepção , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Tanzânia
3.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107094, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530207

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) describes how attitudes, norms and perceived behavioural control guide health behaviour, including alcohol consumption. Dual Process Theories (DPT) suggest that alongside these reasoned pathways, behaviour is influenced by automatic processes that are determined by the frequency of engagement in the health behaviour in the past. We present a computational model integrating TPB and DPT to determine drinking decisions for simulated individuals. We explore whether this model can reproduce historical patterns in US population alcohol use and simulate a hypothetical scenario, "Dry January", to demonstrate the utility of the model for appraising the impact of policy interventions on population alcohol use. METHOD: Constructs from the TPB pathway were computed using equations from an existing individual-level dynamic simulation model of alcohol use. The DPT pathway was initialised by simulating individuals' past drinking using data from a large US survey. Individuals in the model were from a US population microsimulation that accounts for births, deaths and migration (1984-2015). On each modelled day, for each individual, we calculated standard drinks consumed using the TPB or DPT pathway. In each year we computed total population alcohol use prevalence, frequency and quantity. The model was calibrated to alcohol use data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1984-2004). RESULTS: The model was a good fit to prevalence and frequency but a poorer fit to quantity of alcohol consumption, particularly in males. Simulating Dry January in each year led to a small to moderate reduction in annual population drinking. CONCLUSION: This study provides further evidence, at the whole population level, that a combination of reasoned and implicit processes are important for alcohol use. Alcohol misuse interventions should target both processes. The integrated TPB-DPT simulation model is a useful tool for estimating changes in alcohol consumption following hypothetical population interventions.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Intenção , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Atitude , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Teoria Psicológica
4.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107091, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol- and cannabis-related risk perceptions are strong predictors of use behavior. Studies suggest that attitudes toward cannabis are becoming increasingly permissive, however studies have yet to comprehensively a) compare time trends in cannabis-related attitudes to those of other commonly used substances, such as alcohol, and b) test whether trends significantly differ by age. METHOD: Public access data from the National Study on Drug Use and Health from 2002 to 2019 were used (N = 1,005,421). Structural Equation Models tested whether study year (linear trend), was associated with alcohol- and cannabis-related risk perceptions (correlated outcomes), and whether age (adolescence [12-17], emerging adulthood [18-25], adulthood [26-35], middle adulthood [36-49], and older adulthood [50+]) moderated time trends. Sex, race/ethnicity, and use frequency were covaried. RESULTS: The linear trend of study year was associated with decreased cannabis-related risk perceptions (p < .001). There was also a significant interaction of age by study year for cannabis-related risk perceptions, such that adults, emerging adults, and middle adults had the largest decrease in attitudes over time. For alcohol-related risk perceptions, the linear trend of study year was significantly associated with increased risk perceptions (p = .001), but the interaction of time by age was non-significant; alcohol-related effects were extremely small (b < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that cannabis-related risk perceptions are becoming more permissive with time across ages, but particularly in adults, emerging adults, and middle adults. In contrast, alcohol-related risk perceptions have stayed relatively stable over time, with only negligible increases. Findings underscore the importance of targeting permissive cannabis-related attitudes via prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Percepção
5.
Ann Anat ; 239: 151832, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536539

RESUMO

The attitudes of medical students towards the clinical importance of neuroanatomy have been little studied. Because it has been reported that medical students find neuroanatomy difficult and can have 'neurophobia', here we test the hypothesis that early-stage medical students across Europe have a low regard for neuroanatomy's clinical relevance. The work was conducted under the auspices of the Trans-European Pedagogic Research Group (TEPARG), with just over 1500 students from 12 European medical schools providing responses to a survey (52% response rate) that assessed their attitudes using Thurstone and Chave methodologies. Regardless of the university surveyed, and of the teaching methods employed for neuroanatomy, our findings were not consistent with our hypothesis. However, the students had a less favourable opinion of neuroanatomy's importance compared to gross anatomy; although their attitudes were more positive than previously reported for histology and embryology. The extent to which neuroanatomy plays a significant role in the early years of medical education is moot. Nevertheless, we conclude that in addition to newly recruited medical students being informed of the subject's role in a healthcare profession, we advocate the use of modern imaging technologies to enhance student understanding and motivation and cognisance of the core syllabus for the subject being developed by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA).


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Atitude , Currículo , Humanos , Neuroanatomia/educação , Faculdades de Medicina , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e214270, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1254738

RESUMO

There are various instruments to measure attitudes toward persons with disabilities (PwD). The Multidimensional Attitudes Scale (MAS) toward PwD is a three-dimension scale with good psychometric properties; the Spanish version has been validated with a four-factor structure. Aim: To examine the factor structure of a cross-cultural adapted version of the Spanish MAS towards deaf persons in a sample of Chilean dental students. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved five Chilean public health experts that reviewed the scale for obtaining a preliminary version of a 30-item modified MAS towards deaf persons; a pilot with 15 dental students was performed, and a final sample composed of 311 students was included. For the exploratory factor analysis (EFA), maximum likelihood estimation (ML) for determining the number of factors and parallel analysis (PA) was used, with Oblimin for the rotation method. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess reliability. The root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), comparative fit index (CFI), incremental fit index (IFI), goodness of fit index (GFI), Tucker-Lewis fit index (TLI-NNF) and root mean square of residuals (RMSR) were used to assess model fit. Results: All items had a normal distribution with the exception of items 7 and 10. The four-factor structure without item 10 in this EFA presented an adequate Cronbach's alpha (>0.83), suggesting acceptable reliability. RMSEA, TLI-NNFI, RMSR, GFI and CFI indices suggested a good fit of the model and were consistent with the literature. Conclusion: The Spanish modified version of the MAS towards deaf persons has a four-factor structure, which in consistent with a previous version of the MAS


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudantes de Odontologia , Atitude , Hispano-Americanos , Chile , Surdez , Estudos de Validação como Assunto
7.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 259(10): 1140-1147, 2021 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To gather and evaluate veterinarians' perspectives about the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the use of veterinary telehealth and on cat owners' versus dog owners' attitudes toward transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus from their pets. SAMPLE: 93 respondent veterinarians (47 in primary care practice and 46 in specialty practice). PROCEDURES: An online survey was conducted between June 15 and July 15, 2020, and included 21 questions concerning demographics, use of telehealth before and after the onset of the pandemic (before March 15, 2020, and between March 15 and June 15, 2020, respectively), changes in caseloads, and perception of clients' concerns about potential for transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus from pets. Reported zip codes informed the collection of census data. RESULTS: The level of poverty was significantly lower in zip code areas for respondents who reported telehealth services were (vs were not) offered before the pandemic. The percentage of respondents who reported their practice offered telehealth services increased from 12% (11/93) before the pandemic to 38% (35/93) between March 15 and June 15, 2020. Although most respondents reported owner-expressed concerns over SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission from their pets, most also reported increased caseloads, seeing newly adopted pets, and few discussions of surrender of pets for reasons related to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Findings indicated that caseloads increased and telehealth services expanded during the pandemic but that there was no evidence of differences in respondent-reported owner concern for SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission from cats versus dogs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Telemedicina , Médicos Veterinários , Animais , Atitude , COVID-19/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Humanos , Propriedade , Pandemias , Percepção , Animais de Estimação , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
J Prof Nurs ; 37(5): 923-927, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has spread widely among healthcare workers. Recently, new effective vaccines against COVID-19 have begun to be administered to healthcare workers in several countries, including Italy. PURPOSE: Our aim was to evaluate the intentions to be vaccinated against COVID-19 in a population of nursing students, identifying factors associated with the intentions. METHOD: We conducted an anonymous online survey among 728 nursing students. The questionnaire collected data on demographic and academic characteristics, health status, vaccine attitudes, and specific reasons regarding the intention to get or not get the COVID-19 vaccination. RESULTS: A total of 422 nursing students completed the survey. Almost 81% of participants wanted to take the vaccine against coronavirus. The intention to adhere to the vaccination program was associated with male gender, a previous flu vaccine uptake, and high school education. The main reason in favor of taking the vaccine was to protect family and friends. The main reason for opposition was the fear of adverse events. CONCLUSION: It is fundamental to consider vaccine hesitancy in healthcare students and face it properly, since these are the healthcare workers of the future who will have to provide recommendations to patients and promote adherence to vaccination programs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Atitude , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
9.
Neuropsychopharmacol Hung ; 23(3): 308-318, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751023

RESUMO

Background: Patients' attitude towards drug treatment is of prognostic value regarding adherence. However, few detailed analyses have been performed regarding the influencing factors of the treatment attitude of psychiatric patients. Methods: We enrolled in the study 295 psychiatric inpatients and analyzed the data obtained using the recently developed Patient's Health Belief Questionnaire on Psychiatric Treatment (PHBQPT), the Behavioural Inhibition/ Activation System (BIS/BAS) Scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. We created a 'dominant treatment attitude' (DTA) variable from the 5 subscales of the PHBQPT. Results: The most common DTA was the Doctor HLOC and the rarest proved to be the Psychological Reactance. The double DTA carriers were the most frequently occurring multiple DTAs. We found that the Doctor-HLOC coupled most frequently with the Positive Aspect and the DoctorHLOC with the Internal-HLOC. The Doctor-HLOC score was higher while the BAS Fun seeking score lower in the case of patients treated for affective disorders compared to patients who belonged to the psychosis and personality disorder subgroups. Conclusions: Screening of DTAs in psychiatric patients can provide useful information for the planning of a more effective therapeutic strategy. (Neuropsychopharmacol Hung 2021; 23(2): 308-318).


Assuntos
Atitude , Transtornos da Personalidade , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 174, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Almost two decades of research produced mixed findings on the relationship between celebrity worship and cognitive skills. Several studies demonstrated that cognitive performance slightly decreases with higher levels of celebrity worship, while other studies found no association between these constructs. This study has two aims: (1) to extend previous research on the association between celebrity worship and cognitive skills by applying the two-factor theory of intelligence by Cattell on a relatively large sample of Hungarian adults, and (2) to investigate the explanatory power of celebrity worship and other relevant variables in cognitive performance. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was used. Applying an online survey, a total of 1763 Hungarian adults (66.42% male, Mage = 37.22 years, SD = 11.38) completed two intelligence subtests designed to measure ability in vocabulary (Vocabulary Test) and digit symbol (Short Digit Symbol Test). Participants also completed the Celebrity Attitude Scale and the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. Subjective material wealth, current family income and general sociodemographics were also reported by participants. RESULTS: Linear regression models indicated that celebrity worship was associated with lower performance on the cognitive tests even after controlling for demographic variables, material wealth and self-esteem, although the explanatory power was limited. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that there is a direct association between celebrity worship and poorer performance on the cognitive tests that cannot be accounted for by demographic and socioeconomic factors.


Assuntos
Pessoas Famosas , Adulto , Atitude , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência , Masculino
11.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(758): 1939-1942, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755944

RESUMO

The ambition of personalized medicine now also concerns the prevention of chronic diseases, based on genetic risk profiles. The objective of this project was to describe the perception and attitudes of patients and general practitioners (GP) on this issue, in order to consider the consequences on the health system. The study included two axes, patients (questionnaire survey) and GPs (consensus study using the Delphi method), preceded by a qualitative exploratory phase. The study showed that genetic screening for disease risk factors was not a priority, either for patients or for GPs. On the other hand, the role of the GP in the use of these tests will probably be predominant. This implies the need for training and availability of up-to-date information.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral , Clínicos Gerais , Atitude , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Motivação , Medicina de Precisão
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769767

RESUMO

AIM: This study aims to assess the influence of training on nurses' attitudes toward end-of-life care during the COVID-19 pandemic alarm state in Spain. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Data collection was carried out by means of an ad hoc questionnaire using Google Forms in April and May 2020. The score of attitudes toward end-of-life care was used, to which sociodemographic variables and training in palliative care were added. METHODS: Data were collected from 238 nursing professionals who had cared for COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 adult patients at the end-of-life stage in a hospital or nursing home. RESULTS: Results showed that 51% of the nurses in the sample had training in palliative care. However, the percentage decreased to 38.5% among those who cared for COVID-19 patients and to 44.5% in those who cared for non-COVID-19 patients. In relation to attitudes about end-of-life care, more positive attitudes and a higher mean score were found in the trained group. CONCLUSIONS: Palliative care training is a key element in end-of-life care and is even more important in times of COVID-19. IMPACT: Although end-of-life accompaniment has been studied, few studies have included the influence of training on this during the pandemic. This study identifies key elements of accompaniment and training in a comparison of COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients during the pandemic. In relation to attitudes toward end-of-life care, the results showed a more positive attitude and a higher mean score in the trained group (3.43 ± 0.37 versus 3.21 ± 0.32), the difference being statistically significant (p < 0.001).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Assistência Terminal , Atitude , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770044

RESUMO

Research evidence suggests that athletes' attitudes towards banned substances are among the strongest predictors of intention to use or actual practice of doping. Previous research has found that personal morality was negatively related to doping attitudes. However, less is known about the role of athletes' perceptions of fair play on their attitudes towards doping. First, we examined whether moral identity was associated with athletes' attitudes towards doping and whether their perceptions of fair play mediated this relationship. The second purpose was to determine whether these associations differed among non-athletes. Overall, 365 university students (49.9% males, 55.3% athletes) participated in this study (mean age 22.02, SD = 6.58). They completed questionnaires measuring the aforementioned variables. The results showed that athletes' moral identity and endorsement of fair play were negatively associated with their attitudes towards doping. The mediation analyses showed that the effect of moral identity on attitudes towards doping was partially mediated by perceptions of fair play (indirect effect, ß = -0.10, p < 0.05). Unlike student athletes, non-athletes' moral identity negatively predicted attitudes towards doping only indirectly, via fair play perception (indirect effect, ß = -0.08, p < 0.05). The study provides insights into how a person's morality and perception of moral values in sport may act as factors related to doping in sport. The practical implications for the promotion of anti-doping attitudes for athletes and separately for student non-athletes were provided together with future research perspectives.


Assuntos
Doping nos Esportes , Esportes , Adulto , Atletas , Atitude , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770072

RESUMO

Oral health concerns in Eritrean refugees have been an overlooked subject. This qualitative study explored the access of Eritrean refugees and asylum-seekers (ERNRAS) to oral health care services in Heidelberg, Germany, as well as their perceptions and attitudes towards oral health care. It involved 25 participants. We employed online semi-structured interviews (n = 15) and focus group discussions (n = 2). The data was recorded, transcribed, and analysed, using thematic analysis. The study found out that most of the participants have a relatively realistic perception and understanding of oral health. However, they have poor dental care practices, whilst a few have certain misconceptions of the conventional oral hygiene tools. Along with the majority's concerns regarding psychosocial attributes of poor oral health, some participants are routinely consuming Berbere (a traditional spice-blended pepper) to prevent bad breath. Structural or supply-side barriers to oral healthcare services included: communication hurdles; difficulty in identifying and navigating the German health system; gaps in transculturally, professionally, and communicationally competent oral health professionals; cost of dental treatment; entitlement issues (asylum-seekers); and appointment mechanisms. Individual or demand-side barriers comprised: lack of self-sufficiency; issue related to dental care beliefs, trust, and expectation from dentists; negligence and lack of adherence to dental treatment follow-up; and fear or apprehension of dental treatment. To address the oral health burdens of ERNRAS, it is advised to consider oral health education, language-specific, inclusive, and culturally and professionally appropriate healthcare services.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Atitude , Alemanha , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 741188, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778175

RESUMO

Introduction: The first year of the COVID-19 pandemic has been highly disruptive for people with cancer. Furthermore, it has been shown that accrual to cancer trials dropped substantially in 2020. Building on findings from a previous pilot survey, the present study used qualitative methods to gain insights into attitudes towards participation in research studies amongst people who have experienced cancer, in the context of the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: We interviewed 13 participants from the UK, who were purposively sampled, including a broad sample of cancer types, and a mixture of individuals who have and have not taken part in research previously. Participants underwent semi-structured interviews (median interview duration: 47 min) and were asked open-ended questions about their attitude towards and experiences with COVID-19, and their attitude towards research participation. In addition to this, prompts were used to ask participants about concerns that were highlighted by our previous quantitative work on this topic, such as concerns about being older or having to travel to participate. Interview transcripts were analysed using a framework analysis approach. Results: Our findings suggest that cancer patient decision-making about research participation during an infectious disease pandemic may be a function of a basic cost-benefit analysis, which considers the benefit of taking part, either personally to themselves or to wider society. The benefit may then be weighed by the patient against the risk of being infected, which may be influenced by trust in the relevant clinicians/researchers; familiarity with the study location; provision of detailed information on safety protocols for infectious disease; and, in particular, the availability of safe transport to and from the study location. Discussion: Some cancer patients say that they would be less likely to participate in a research study in the middle of an infectious disease pandemic due to an increased risk to themselves. Patients' perceived risk to themselves from participating may be ameliorated via the provision of certain practical solutions that can be considered at the study protocol design stage, such as safe travel, information, and the use of staff and study sites familiar to the patient.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias , Atitude , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Am J Occup Ther ; 75(4)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780607

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Discrimination based on disability-ableism-is pervasive and affects the opportunities of people with disabilities to fully engage in society. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the impact of occupational therapy graduate education on students' explicit and implicit disability attitudes throughout their graduate education. DESIGN: Longitudinal observational study, measuring occupational therapy students' attitudes on an annual basis. SETTING: Three Midwestern graduate occupational therapy programs. PARTICIPANTS: Occupational therapy students (N = 67). Outcomes and Measures: Participants completed the Symbolic Ableism Scale (to measure their explicit disability attitudes) and the Disability Attitude Implicit Association Test (to measure their implicit disability attitudes) on an annual basis, from when they entered their occupational therapy program to when they graduated. RESULTS: The students' explicit attitudes decreased (i.e., became more favorable) throughout their education; however, their implicit attitudes did not change. In fact, most students (68%) were implicitly ableist at graduation. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Occupational therapy education programs have an important role to play in terms of intervening with students' beliefs and preconceived assumptions about disability. Our finding suggests that occupational therapy programs may fail to intervene with students' ableist attitudes. What This Article Adds: Little longitudinal research has examined how students' implicit disability bias may be affected by their academic experience. Our findings about ableism among occupational therapy students should open the door for further dialogue on the existence of ableism in program content, its potential impact on future client interactions, and the development of approaches to address it.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Terapia Ocupacional , Atitude , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21844, 2021 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737319

RESUMO

This study assesses attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination and the predictive value of COVID-VAC, a novel scale, among adults in the four largest US metropolitan areas and nationally. A 36-item survey of 6037 Americans was conducted in mid-April 2021. The study reports factors for COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among: (1) already vaccinated; (2) unvaccinated but willing to accept a vaccine; and (3) unvaccinated and unwilling to vaccinate. More than 20% were unwilling to vaccinate, expressing concerns about vaccine efficacy and safety and questioning the disease's severity. Poverty, working outside of the home and conservative political views are predictors of unwillingness. Conversely, those who either personally tested positive for COVID-19, or had a family member who did so, were more likely to accept vaccination. Majorities of all respondents supported vaccination mandates for employees and university students. Respondents preferred to receive vaccines in their doctor´s office. Lower income and conservative ideology, but not race, were strongly associated with vaccine unwillingness. The predictive value of COVID-VAC was demonstrated. While vaccination mandates are likely to be accepted, additional effective, targeted interventions to increase vaccine uptake are needed urgently.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Recusa de Vacinação/psicologia , Recusa de Vacinação/tendências , Adulto , Atitude , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra COVID-19/provisão & distribuição , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/tendências , Política de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinação/tendências , Vacinas/farmacologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769821

RESUMO

Promoting the intention of farmers to participate in straw recycling is an effective way to alleviate the contradiction between environmental pollution, scarcity of environmental resources, and sustainable development. In this study, social trust and value perception were integrated into the theory of planned behavior to build a theoretical framework of farmers' intention to participate in straw recycling, considering the influences of three different pro-environmental publicity modes. A field investigation was used to collect research data in six sample villages. Finally, 761 valid questionnaires were collected, and partial least squares structural equation modeling was applied to test the research hypotheses. The results showed that the influence of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavior control, value perception, and social trust on farmers' straw recycling intentions was different among different pro-environmental publicity modes. Among the three pro-environmental publicity modes, the concentrated pro-environmental publicity mode has the best effect of promoting straw recycling intentions among farmers. This study introduces some targeted suggestions on the aspects of pro-environmental publicity theory and management practice based on the above research results.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Intenção , Agricultura , Atitude , Controle Comportamental , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769905

RESUMO

School climate is one of the main concerns in terms of research and intervention worldwide. Although it can be directed toward any student, some groups seem to be more vulnerable, as is the case of the LGBTQIA+ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and intersex +) students, among others. Attitudes toward violence are a construct of particular importance for action plans focused on improving school coexistence. The aim of this study is to examine attitudes toward school violence against LGBTQIA+ students and their relationship with violent behaviors. For this purpose, 96 Spanish students of Spanish elementary education (PE) and compulsory secondary education (CSE) participated in this qualitative study through focus groups for its subsequent thematic analysis. The results identify four types of attitudes toward violence, such as the use of violence as a form of fun, to feel better, when it is perceived as legitimate, and as a way of relating to the LGBTQIA+ community. In addition, a greater number of negative attitudes and violent behaviors toward homosexual boys and transgender minors are observed.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Pessoas Transgênero , Atitude , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Violência
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769990

RESUMO

Workplace health management (WHM) in Germany aims at maintaining and increasing the health and well-being of employees. Little is known about company executives' attitudes toward WHM. To gain more insight, we conducted a large-scale survey in companies in the German county of Reutlingen in 2017. We sent a standardized questionnaire to 906 companies, containing inter alia 26 self-constructed declarative statements depicting company executives' opinions on various WHM aspects; 222 questionnaires could be evaluated. By exploratory factor analysis we assigned the 26 items to six factors reflecting different attitudes toward WHM. Factor values were standardized to a scale from 0 to 10. The attitude 'positive view of general health services in the company', for example, achieved by far the lowest mean agreement (3.3 points). For the attitude 'general skepticism toward WHM', agreement and disagreement were balanced (5.0 points). Using multiple regression analyses, we searched for variables that could partially explain respondents' agreement with attitudes. In conclusion, a general WHM skepticism was widespread, but not dominant. The idea that general health services should be offered in companies was predominantly rejected. Older respondents and respondents from smaller companies and craft enterprises were more skeptical than average about WHM and its possible extensions.


Assuntos
Saúde do Trabalhador , Local de Trabalho , Atitude , Estudos Transversais , Alemanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
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