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1.
Talanta ; 237: 122922, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736659

RESUMO

Distribution of Se and Hg in sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar and alkali-soluble protein fractions extracted from muscle tissue of tuna, swordfish and salmon (wild vs. farmed) is investigated for the first time. SEC-UV-ICP-MS analyses revealed that Se and Hg are mostly bound to proteins of 2-12 kDa and up to 574 kDa, respectively. Moreover, Se and Hg appeared associated to proteins of same molecular weight, evidencing that Se-Hg interaction may occur at the level of the fish tissue evaluated. Important differences were found between farmed and wild salmon, suggesting the effect of the type of feed and growing conditions on Se and Hg content and their distribution through protein fractions. Finally, Se speciation studies performed by HPLC-ICP-MS and confirmed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS showed SeMeSeCys as the only Se specie found in soluble, sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar and alkali-soluble proteins of all fishes analysed, except in soluble proteins extracted from tuna, where SeMet was also identified.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Selênio , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Peixes , Músculos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Atum
2.
Food Chem ; 371: 131094, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583182

RESUMO

Tunas are among the most traded and valued fish species, and good traceability of tuna products in the world market is needed to protect both consumers and tuna stocks. To that purpose, high-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy combined with multivariate data analysis was used to investigate the molecular components of the aqueous extract of white and red muscles in three species of wild tropical tuna species, namely yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) and bigeye tuna (T. obesus). Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) applied to the processed 1H NMR spectra showed significant separation according to the species and size category (i.e., small tunas < 80 cm fork length vs large tunas > 80 cm fork length), the storage conditions on-board the purse-seine vessels (i.e., brine- vs deep-freezing), and the geographical origin (i.e., where the tuna was caught: Mozambique Channel vs western-central Indian Ocean). The major groups of metabolites responsible for differentiation in PLS-DA score plots were the dipeptides (anserine, carnosine) and organic acids (lactate, creatine/phosphocreatine) in the white muscle, and the free amino acids, essential nutrients (choline and its derivatives, phosphatidylethanolamine), dipeptides and organic acids in the red muscle. Our results showed that NMR-based metabolomics is a powerful tool to efficiently discriminate specific profiles among wild tuna species, raw muscle tissues, fish storage conditions and tuna geographical origin.


Assuntos
Peixes , Atum , Animais , Oceano Índico , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metabolômica
3.
Food Chem ; 372: 131337, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818745

RESUMO

The process-related physicochemical, digestive and rheological properties of protein prepared by subcritical dimethyl ether extraction (SDEE) were comprehensively investigated and compared with those obtained by pH-shift, to study the industrial potential of SDEE. Two different materials from tuna (meat and liver) were studied in parallel, and SDEE had similar effects on the proteins in them. The protein component was almost unchanged before and after SDEE, while the content of water-soluble protein and alkali-soluble protein was substantially reduced and increased after pH-shift, respectively. We also found that SDEE had superior ability to pH-shift to conserve light metals, remove lipids and heavy metals, and maintain protein structure. Furthermore, SDEE-produced protein powders were easier for humans to digest, and their gelation and emulsification were also superior to those prepared by pH-shift. The aforementioned results suggest that SDEE can remove more impurities, and the obtained protein has outstanding potential in industrial applications.


Assuntos
Éteres Metílicos , Atum , Animais , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais , Reologia
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770305

RESUMO

Underwater noise has been identified as a relevant pollution affecting marine ecosystems in different ways. Despite the numerous studies performed over the last few decades regarding the adverse effect of underwater noise on marine life, a lack of knowledge and methodological procedures still exists, and results are often tentative or qualitative. A monitoring methodology for the behavioral response of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) when exposed to ship and wind turbine operational noises was implemented and tested in a fixed commercial tuna feeding cage in the Mediterranean sea. Fish behavior was continuously monitored, combining synchronized echosounder and video recording systems. Automatic information extracted from acoustical echograms was used to describe tuna reaction to noise in terms of average depth and vertical dimensions of the school and the indicators of swimming speed and tilt direction. Video recordings allowed us to detect changes in swimming patterns. Different kinds of stimuli were considered during bluefin tuna cage monitoring, such as noise generated by feeding boats, wind farm operational noise, and other synthetic signals projected in the medium using a broadband underwater projector. The monitoring system design was revealed as a successful methodological approach to record and quantify reactions to noise. The obtained results suggested that the observed reactions presented a strong relationship with insonification pressure level and time. Behavioral changes associated with noise are difficult to observe, especially in semi-free conditions; thus, the presented approach offered the opportunity to link anthropogenic activity with possible effects on a given marine species, suggesting the possibility of achieving a more realistic framework to assess the impacts of underwater noise on marine animals.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Atum , Animais , Peixes , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Navios
5.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e254010, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730703

RESUMO

The impact of fish oil concentration on the oxidative stability of microcapsules through the spray drying process using chitosan and maltodextrin as wall material was studied. Emulsions were prepared with different Tuna fish oil (TFO) content (TFO-10%, TFO20%, TF030% TF0-40%) while wall material concentration was kept constant. Microencapsulated powder resulting from emulsion prepared with high fish oil load have high moisture content, wettability, total oil and low encapsulation efficiency, hygroscopicity and bulk tapped density. Oxidative stability was evaluated periodically by placing microcapsules at room temperature. Microcapsules prepared with TFO-10% presented high oxidative stability in terms of peroxide value (2.94±0.04) and anisidine value (1.54±0.02) after 30 days of storage. It was concluded that optimal amounts of fish oil for microencapsulation are 10% and 20% using chitosan and maltodextrin that extended its shelf life during study period.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Óleos de Peixe , Animais , Estresse Oxidativo , Pós , Atum
6.
Theriogenology ; 173: 56-63, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333168

RESUMO

Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT), Thunnus orientalis, is one of the most important species for aquaculture in Japan. Recently, the reduction in muscle fat content associated with sexual maturation in farmed PBT has become a serious problem. To develop technologies for inducing sterility, detailed and reliable data on gonadal development in PBT are needed. Here, we demonstrated the process of gonadal sex differentiation, and of early ovarian and testicular development during the immature stages in PBT. Gonadal sex differentiation was first characterized by the formation of the ovarian cavity in female and of the efferent ducts in male 57 days post hatching (dph). The gonads then differentiated into ovaries or testes according to the genotypic sex until 83 dph. During this period, primordial germ cells, oogonia, and type-A spermatogonia were solitarily distributed in the gonads, and the number of germ cells did not differ between sexes. After gonadal sex differentiation, gonads of PBTs developed in a sexually dimorphic manner: proliferation and differentiation of germ cells occurred earlier in the ovaries than in the testes. The oogonia in ovaries formed cysts at 185 dph, but the type-A spermatogonia were solitarily distributed in testes at this stage, and cysts of type-A spermatogonia were first observed at 247 dph. Moreover, the oogonia entered meiosis and differentiated into chromatin-nucleolus stage oocytes until 247 dph, and subsequently into peri-nucleolus stage oocytes until 285 dph, whereas the type-A spermatogonia differentiated into type-B spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids, and spermatozoa from 446 dph onwards. We believe the results of this study provide the necessary basis for future studies on sterile PBT production.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Sexual , Testículo , Animais , Feminino , Gônadas , Masculino , Ovário , Espermatogônias , Atum
7.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1956): 20210671, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344182

RESUMO

Animal migrations track predictable seasonal patterns of resource availability and suitable thermal habitat. As climate change alters this 'energy landscape', some migratory species may struggle to adapt. We examined how climate variability influences movements, thermal habitat selection and energy intake by juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) during seasonal foraging migrations in the California Current. We tracked 242 tuna across 15 years (2002-2016) with high-resolution archival tags, estimating their daily energy intake via abdominal warming associated with digestion (the 'heat increment of feeding'). The poleward extent of foraging migrations was flexible in response to climate variability, allowing tuna to track poleward displacements of thermal habitat where their standard metabolic rates were minimized. During a marine heatwave that saw temperature anomalies of up to +2.5°C in the California Current, spatially explicit energy intake by tuna was approximately 15% lower than average. However, by shifting their mean seasonal migration approximately 900 km poleward, tuna remained in waters within their optimal temperature range and increased their energy intake. Our findings illustrate how tradeoffs between physiology and prey availability structure migration in a highly mobile vertebrate, and suggest that flexible migration strategies can buffer animals against energetic costs associated with climate variability and change.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Atum , Animais , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Temperatura
8.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 170: 112679, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218031

RESUMO

Here, characteristics of marine litter ingested by Pacific bluefin tuna (PBF, Thunnus orientalis) juveniles under captive conditions were investigated. Swimming speeds of PBF juveniles with pseud-ingested polystyrene chips were compared, and mortality due to polystyrene chip ingestion in cultured teleosts (red sea bream, greater amberjack, and white trevally) was examined in the laboratory. Marine litter ingested by the PBF juveniles included mainly microplastics. The body size of dead specimens with ingested marine litter was significantly smaller than that of other dead fish. We suggest that when the PBF juveniles ingested the marine litter, they died due to energy exhaustion within a few days. All the examined species ingested polystyrene chips, but no related mortality was confirmed. These results suggest that only the PBF could not vomit or excrete the ingested marine litter. This study indicates that the marine litter problem significantly affects the aquaculture industry, especially tuna aquaculture.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Atum , Animais , Aquicultura , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Natação
9.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254617, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324529

RESUMO

The Maldives tuna fishery landings in 2018 were 148, 000 t and accounted for nearly a quarter of the global pole-and-line tuna catch. This fishery partially relies on a network of 55 anchored fish aggregating devices (AFADs) deployed around the archipelago. About one-third of the total pole-and-line tuna catch is harvested at AFADs. Although the AFAD fishery has existed for 35 years, knowledge on the behaviour of tuna in the AFAD array is still limited, precluding the development of science-based fishery management. In this study, local ecological knowledge (LEK) of fishers was used to improve our understanding of tuna behaviour, through personal interviews of 54 pole-and-line fishers from different parts of the archipelago. Interview results suggest that during the northeast monsoon tuna are more abundant on the eastern side of the Maldives, while during the southwest monsoon they are more abundant on the western side of the Maldives. Most fishers believed that tuna tend to stay at the AFADs for 3 to 6 days and remain within 2 miles from the AFADs when they are associated. Fishers believe that strong currents is the main factor for tuna departure from AFADs, though high sea surface temperatures and stormy conditions were also thought to contribute to departures. Moderate currents are believed to be a favourable condition to form aggregations at the AFADs while other factors such as suitable temperature, prey and attractants enhance this aggregation. Fishers also believe that there are multiple schools segregated according to size and species at AFADs and that catchability is higher at dawn and in the late afternoon when the tuna occur shallower in the water column. This study is an important step towards engaging the Maldivian tuna fishers into a science-based fishery management.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Atum , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
10.
Chemosphere ; 284: 131402, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323802

RESUMO

This study examined total mercury (THg) and selenium (Se) levels in archive samples (white and red muscles, liver, gills) of the wild Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT) (Thunnus thynnus) (n = 18) captured in the central Adriatic Sea. The influence of fish size, age, and tissue type on element distribution was examined. There were significant differences in THg and Se levels, and Se:THg molar ratios among tissues. THg levels were highest in liver and lowest in gills (liver > red muscle > white muscle > gills), while Se levels were also highest in liver but lowest in white muscle (liver > red muscle > gills > white muscle). Se:THg molar ratios were highest in gills (22-82), intermediate in liver (11-29) and red muscle (7-36), and lowest in white muscle (1.7-7.6). Concentrations of THg in all tissues and Se in liver and caudal muscle were positively correlated with tuna age and size, while the Se:THg molar ratio in gills and all white muscles was negatively correlated with tuna age and size, indicating that the protective role of Se against THg is reduced in older specimens. The selenium health benefit values (HBVSe) were above zero in all tissues, indicating a small excess of Se after Hg sequestration. However, since the obtained HBVSe for edible tissues were near zero (0.01-0.04), and more than 70% of white muscle samples and all red muscle samples exceeded the EU regulatory limit for THg in fish muscle, it would be advisable to limit their intake in adults to one meal per month.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Selênio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Peixes , Mar Mediterrâneo , Mercúrio/análise , Selênio/análise , Atum , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
J Fish Biol ; 99(5): 1761-1764, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328217

RESUMO

Bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus, Lowe, 1839) is one of the eight recognized species of the genus Thunnus. It is considered a tropical species distributed in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. To date, no validated presence of this species has been reported inside the Mediterranean Sea. This study, however, confirms, for the first time, the presence of three young individuals of this species within the Mediterranean Sea.


Assuntos
Atum , Animais , Oceano Índico , Mar Mediterrâneo , Atum/genética
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 791: 148249, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118679

RESUMO

The sustainable and continued production of enough food to feed the entire world's population is one of the main concerns in the food industry. Spain, and in particular Galicia, which is an eminently fishing region characterised by the consumption of large quantities of fish, both fresh and processed, must face the challenge of shifting its seafood productive fabric towards a circular economy. To achieve this objective, the first task is to demonstrate that circular economy principles allow to reduce the environmental impacts associated with seafood production. In this sense, this study proposes the environmental evaluation of the skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) value chain within a canning industry located in Galicia through the LCA methodology from an attributional perspective, including the valorisation processes for biowaste (edible and inedible by-products). Results indicate that the main crucial subsystems of the value chain are tuna fishing and the canning process, as it was expected considering other similar studies on seafood products. Moreover, this specific case study demonstrates that the multi-product strategy applied to the canning sector is environmentally viable. Thus, although the environmental impacts of the entire system are increased by including further valorisation operations, the environmental loads assigned to the main product (canned tuna) decrease compared to the one-product system by assigning environmental burdens to other value-added products (tuna pâté, fishmeal, and fish oil).


Assuntos
Indústria Alimentícia , Atum , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Alimentos Marinhos , Espanha
13.
Parasitol Res ; 120(7): 2493-2503, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115215

RESUMO

Recent anecdotal reports from seafood processors in eastern Australia have described an increased occurrence of post-mortem myoliquefaction ('jellymeat') in broadbill swordfish Xiphias gladius, and macroscopic cysts throughout the musculature of yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares. A genus of parasitic cnidarians, Kudoa (Myxosporea, Multivalvulida), species of which are known to occur in economically important wild-caught fish species globally, can cause similar quality-deterioration issues. However, Kudoa sp. epizootiology within commercially harvested, high-value fish caught within Australia is poorly understood, despite the parasite's economic importance. To determine the causative agent responsible for the observed quality deterioration in swordfish and yellowfin tuna, muscle-tissue samples from seafood processors in Mooloolaba, Australia, collected from October 2019-February 2020, were examined for parasitic infection. Kudoid myxospores were identified from both hosts and were subquadrate in shape, with four equal-sized polar capsules. The SSU rDNA sequences from both fish shared > 99% identity to Kudoa species. Kudoa musculoliquefaciens was isolated from 87.1% of swordfish sampled, suggesting that it is a widespread parasite in swordfish from the southwest Pacific Ocean. This study provides the first molecular and morphological characterisation of Kudoa thunni in yellowfin tuna and K. musculoliquefaciens in swordfish harvested from the waters of eastern Australia, expanding the geographical distribution of K. thunni and K. musculoliquefaciens to include the Coral and Tasman Seas. We demonstrate that not all infected swordfish progress to jellymeat, show the usefulness of molecular tools for reliably identifying infection by Kudoa spp., and add to the overall knowledge of kudoid epizootiology in wild-caught fish.


Assuntos
Peixes/parasitologia , Myxozoa/classificação , Atum/parasitologia , Animais , Austrália , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Músculos/parasitologia , Myxozoa/anatomia & histologia , Myxozoa/genética , Oceano Pacífico , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie
14.
Mar Environ Res ; 169: 105385, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119917

RESUMO

Tropical tunas are largely consumed worldwide, providing major nutritional benefits to humans, but also representing the main exposure to methylmercury, a potent neurotoxin that biomagnifies along food webs. The combination of ecological tracers (nitrogen and carbon stable isotopes, δ15N and δ13C) to mercury concentrations in tunas is scarce yet crucial to better characterize the influence of tuna foraging ecology on mercury exposure and bioaccumulation. Given the difficulties to get modern and historical tuna samples, analyses have to be done on available and unique samples. However, δ13C values are often analysed on lipid-free samples to avoid bias related to lipid content. While lipid extraction with non-polar solvents is known to have no effect on δ15N values, its impact on mercury concentrations is still unclear. We used white muscle tissues of three tropical tuna species to evaluate the efficiency and repeatability of different lipid extraction protocols commonly used in δ13C and δ15N analysis. Dichloromethane was more efficient than cyclohexane in extracting lipids in tuna muscle, while the automated method appeared more efficient but as repeatable as the manual method. Lipid extraction with dichloromethane had no effect on mercury concentrations. This may result from i) the affinity of methylmercury to proteins in tuna flesh, ii) the low lipid content in tropical tuna muscle samples, and iii) the non-polar nature of dichloromethane. Our study suggests that lipid-free samples, usually prepared for tropical tuna foraging ecology research, can be used equivalently to bulk samples to document in parallel mercury concentrations at a global scale.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Compostos de Metilmercúrio , Animais , Humanos , Lipídeos , Músculos , Atum
15.
Adv Mar Biol ; 88: 39-89, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119046

RESUMO

Skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis), yellowfin (Thunnus albacares) and bigeye (Thunnus obesus) tuna are the target species of tropical tuna fisheries in the Indian Ocean, with high commercial value in the international market. High fishing pressure over the past three decades has raised concerns about their sustainability. Understanding life history strategies and stock structure is essential to determine species resilience and how they might respond to exploitation. Here we provide a comprehensive review of available knowledge on the biology, ecology, and stock structure of tropical tuna species in the Indian Ocean. We describe the characteristics of Indian Ocean tropical tuna fisheries and synthesize skipjack, yellowfin, and bigeye tuna key life history attributes such as biogeography, trophic ecology, growth, and reproductive biology. In addition, we evaluate the available literature about their stock structure using different approaches such as analysis of fisheries data, genetic markers, otolith microchemistry and tagging, among others. Based on this review, we conclude that there is a clear lack of ocean basin-scale studies on skipjack, yellowfin and bigeye tuna life history, and that regional stock structure studies indicate that the panmictic population assumption of these stocks should be investigated further. Finally, we identify specific knowledge gaps that should be addressed with priority to ensure a sustainable and effective management of these species.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Atum , Animais , Peixes , Oceano Índico
16.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 353: 109299, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153828

RESUMO

A mild-flavored soup stock made from katsuobushi is an important element of traditional Japanese cuisine and is the basic seasoning responsible for the taste. Fermented and ripened katsuobushi, known as karebushi, is manufactured by simmering skipjack tuna that is then smoke-dried, fermented, and ripened in a repeated molding process by five dominant Aspergillus species. Here, our aim was to characterize and identify the lipolytic enzymes secreted by the dominant Aspergillus species, especially A. chevalieri and A. pseudoglaucus, which are involved in hydrolyzing lipids during the molding process. The crude enzyme preparations from the five Aspergillus spp. cultivated on katsuobushi solid medium hydrolyzed triglycerides in fish oil, and more saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1) were produced than major polyunsaturated fatty acids (C20:5, C22:6). On the basis of ion exchange chromatograms, the composition of the lipolytic enzymes was different in the five species. There was at least one active fraction with high hydrolytic activity toward fish oil in four of the Aspergillus spp., but not A. sydowii; the lipolytic enzyme secreted by A. sydowii had quite high activity toward the artificial substrate p-nitrophenyl butyrate, but low activity toward the natural oil. The lipolytic fractions from A. chevalieri and A. pseudoglaucus were further purified by hydrophobic interaction chromatography then gel-filtration chromatography; LC-MS-MS Mascot analysis identified a variety of lipolytic enzymes, including cutinase, esterase, phospholipase, and carboxyl esterase in the lipolytic fractions from these species. The identified enzymes had 30%-70% identity to previously reported or manually annotated lipases or esterases from taxa other than Aspergillus. The different lipolytic enzymes likely acted on triglycerides in the katsuobushi fish oil. Furthermore, catalase B and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, which limit oxidative damage of lipids, were also identified. These antioxidant enzymes may prevent lipid oxidation and rancidity as the lipolytic enzymes hydrolyze lipids during the long fermentation and ripening process. Umami and richness tastes tended to increase in extracts from culture of protease- and peptidase-producing A. sydowii. Our results will aid in the selection and application of desirable strains of Aspergillus species as starter cultures to improve the storage and quality of fermented and ripened karebushi.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipólise , Atum , Animais , Aspergillus/enzimologia , Atum/metabolismo , Atum/microbiologia
17.
Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill ; 14(3): 206-218, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098855

RESUMO

The presence of metals in canned fish has been associated with adverse effects on human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate risk-based fish consumption limits based on the concentrations of eight essential elements and four elements of toxicological concern in sardines and tuna brands commercially available in the Latin American canned goods market. One brand of canned sardines and six of canned tuna were collected and evaluated by ICP-MS and direct mercury analysis. The Hg content was much higher than that previously observed in scientific literature. According to the calculated hazard quotients, all brands may present some risk in terms of this element, especially brand F in which levels up to 3.1 µg/g were measured. Sardine samples surpassed the maximum limits of Mn and As. Stricter quality control in retail chains and industries should be implemented in order to guarantee safe levels in fishery products.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Atum , Animais , Colômbia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
18.
Food Res Int ; 143: 110233, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992346

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the lipid oxidation and distribution in Bigeye tuna stored at 0 °C and 4 °C for 6 days. Tuna were evaluated by determining the peroxide value (POV), acid value (AV), anisidine value (AnV), polyene index, fluorescence ratio (FR), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI) content, and major glycerophospholipid molecular species. The value of lipid oxidation indexes (POV, AV, AnV, FR, PC, PE and PI) increased as the storage time increased. High-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) results indicated that the major types of lipids included diacylglycerol (DAG), monoacylglycerol (MAG), phospholipid (PL), and triacylglycerol (TAG). At least 136 PC and 64 PE molecular species were identified in Bigeye tuna. The results of the confocal laser scanning microscope analysis indicated the distribution of TAG and PL particles. In addition, principal component analysis showed that the contents of PI and TAG were positively correlated with PC, polyene index and lipid content but negatively correlated with PI, POV, FR, AOV, AnV, MAG, and DAG, which might be explained by distinguishing the lipid parameters affecting lipid oxidation. Therefore, this study may provide a novel method to evaluate lipid changes and contribute to the balanced nutritional value of aquatic foods during cold storage.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Atum , Animais , Oxirredução , Fosfatidilcolinas , Análise de Componente Principal
19.
J Fish Biol ; 99(3): 964-969, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991119

RESUMO

The spawning grounds of the Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) are traditionally considered to be the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf of Mexico) and the Mediterranean Sea (Mediterranean Sea). However, for the western Atlantic, unequivocal evidence of bluefin spawning outside the Gulf of Mexico has been shown. In this study we present the first records of genetically confirmed bluefin larvae in the southern Bay of Biscay (eastern Atlantic). These findings provide evidence of bluefin spawning activity outside the Mediterranean Sea, in the north-eastern Atlantic. However, our results suggest that the bluefin spawning in the Bay of Biscay is a sporadic phenomenon.


Assuntos
Baías , Atum , Animais , Golfo do México , Mar Mediterrâneo
20.
J Food Prot ; 84(9): 1610-1628, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984131

RESUMO

Histamine is a biogenic amine and a food safety hazard, and it is the only biogenic amine regulated by statute or hazard analysis and critical control point guidance. This article reviews the regulations for histamine levels in fish in countries around the world, including maximum limits or levels and sampling procedures in different fish preparations. The maximum histamine levels, sampling plans, and fish products are listed. The country-by-country regulations for maximum histamine acceptance levels in some food products vary by a factor of 8, from 50 ppm in some countries to a maximum of 400 ppm in other countries. For similar food products, the maximum histamine levels vary by a factor of 4 (from 50 ppm to 200 ppm) in, for example, fresh tuna. The country-by-country sampling plans vary widely as well, and these, too, are covered in detail.


Assuntos
Aminas Biogênicas , Histamina , Animais , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Peixes , Atum
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