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1.
Am Surg ; 87(11): 1823-1826, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720793

RESUMO

Carl Florian Toldt was an Austrian anatomist who made meaningful contributions worldwide and defined what is one of the most important surgical landmarks in abdominal surgery. Through his research studies, the embryologic dissection plane known as the "White Line of Toldt" represents an important anatomical landmark that helps to mobilize either the ascending or descending colon. His career spanned over 45 years, beginning in Verona and continuing to Prague and Vienna. He was an author of several innovative books and scientific articles regarding micro- and macroscopic anatomy. In addition, he received numerous recognitions and prizes for his work, making him an essential figure in the medical scientific community. Even a street in Vienna, Karl-Toldt-Weg, is named in his honor. The purpose of this historical article is to celebrate and honor Toldt 100 years following his death, remembering his scientific contributions to the medical and surgical fields and giving thanks for his numerous accomplishments. This article brings light to the man behind the eponym.


Assuntos
Anatomia/história , Peritônio/anatomia & histologia , Áustria-Hungria , Colo/cirurgia , Dissecação , Histologia/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Itália , Mesocolo/anatomia & histologia , Mesocolo/cirurgia , Peritônio/cirurgia , Espaço Retroperitoneal/anatomia & histologia , Espaço Retroperitoneal/cirurgia
2.
Rev. bras. estud. popul ; 38: e0178, 2021. tab, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347238

RESUMO

Este artigo enfoca as circunstâncias que configuraram uma identidade específica a imigrantes identificados como "austríacos". O lócus principal da pesquisa é um núcleo de povoamento no interior do Rio Grande do Sul, reunindo dados que vão do final do século XIX ao final do século XX, período que contempla, em termos internacionais, a existência, ainda que a poucas décadas do seu final, do Império Austro-Húngaro e, em nível local, investimentos recentes no memorialismo étnico. Está sendo dado destaque aos agentes que realizam conexões entre mundos e tempos diferentes e aos modos pelos quais são operacionalizadas as representações do passado.


This article focuses the circumstances which shaped the creation of a specific identity forimmigrants recognized as 'Austrians' in the South of Brazil. The main locus of this research is a small settlement in Rio Grande do Sul's inland, as we collected data from the end of the nineteenth century to the end of the twentiethcentury, comprising the finalyears of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and locally witnessing late investment in ethnic memorialism. We highlight the agents who accomplish connections between distinct worlds and times, as well as the ways in which past representations are put into action.


Este artículo se centra en las circunstancias que dieron forma a una identidad específica para los inmigrantes identificados como austríacos. El lugar principal de la investigación es un asentamiento en el interior de Río Grande del Sur y fueron recolectados datos que van desde finales del siglo XIX hasta finales del siglo XX, un período que contempla, en términos internacionales, la existencia, aunque unas pocas décadas a partir de su fin, del Imperio austrohúngaro y, en lo local, las recientes inversiones en el memorialismo étnico. Se hace hincapié en los agentes que conectan diferentes mundos y tiempos y en las formas en las que las representaciones del pasado se hacen operativas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Brasil , Emigração e Imigração , Áustria-Hungria , Memória , Censos , Fotografia , Antropologia Cultural
3.
Acta Med Acad ; 49(2): 207-216, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189126

RESUMO

This article describes the life and medical activities of Jadwiga Olszewska (1855-1932) in Serbia from 1895-1899, AustroHungarian (AH)-occupied and annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH) from 1899-1918, and the newly founded Kingdom of Yugoslavia, from 1919-1932. In summer 1899, Olszewska replaced Teodora Krajewska as an AH official female physician in Tuzla. Born in Congress Poland, Olszewska had enrolled in 1873 in the medical courses for women in St. Petersburg but had left Russia in 1880 to study medicine in France. She had lived as a student and single parent in Paris since 1883, and she was awarded her Doctorate in Medicine from the University of Paris in 1894. She could not practice medicine in Russian-occupied Poland because of her French diploma, and she could not practice in most Western countries due to her gender. Therefore, she decided to move to Serbia, where she worked as an assistant physician in the district hospitals of Loznica (1895-1897?) and Pozarevac (1897-1899). Driven by the need for a higher income to fund her son's education, she engaged her network of Polish compatriots and procured the position of an AH official female physician of Tuzla in 1899, where she performed her duties in an exemplary manner. After the breakdown of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (AHE) in 1918, Olszewska remained in Tuzla and retired as a Yugoslav official physician in 1923. When she died in Tuzla in 1932, local colleagues had to arrange for a proper funeral because Olszewska did not leave any savings due to her insufficient pension. Olszewska's grave never received a tombstone, and it is untraceable today. CONCLUSION: Jadwiga Olszewska (1855-1932) was a woman pioneer of medicine from Poland, who practiced her profession first as an assistant physician in Serbia (1895-1899) and then as an AH and Yugoslavian official female doctor in Tuzla, BH (1899-1923).


Assuntos
Médicas/história , Áustria-Hungria , Bósnia e Herzegóvina , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Sérvia , Iugoslávia
4.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 75(4): 383-407, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036030

RESUMO

This article seeks to establish what animal experiments Semmelweis conducted, and when and why he conducted them, because the Semmelweis literature contains conflicting claims about these topics or has ignored them altogether. Semmelweis first conducted animal experiments between 22 March and 20 August 1849 with Rokitansky's assistant, Georg Maria Lautner, because his chief, Johann Klein, did not accept that by merely reducing the mortality rate from childbed fever with chlorine hand-disinfection, Semmelweis had proved his theory of the cause of childbed fever. However, Skoda concluded that the Lautner experiments did not resolve the doubts about Semmelweis's theory they were intended to resolve, and, therefore, asked the Academy of Sciences to award Semmelweis a grant to conduct further and more varied experiments with the physiologist, Ernst Ritter von Brücke. These additional experiments were conducted in the spring and summer of 1850, but yielded only ambiguous results, and led Brücke to conclude that questions about Semmelweis's theory could only be resolved by clinical observations, not animal experiments. This article discusses the reasoning behind these animal experiments, and Skoda's and Brücke's responses to them, and argues that their responses to the experiments caused Semmelweis to delay publishing his research until he had collected sufficient clinical evidence to prove his theory.


Assuntos
Experimentação Animal/história , Áustria-Hungria , História do Século XIX , Hungria
6.
Acta Med Acad ; 49(1): 75-83, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738121

RESUMO

The focus of this article is on the biography and medical activity of Gisela Januszewska (née Rosenfeld) in Austro-Hungarian (AH) occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH) between 1899 and 1912. Rosenfeld, later Januszewska and then Kuhn(ová) by marriage, was the fifth of a total of nine official female physicians who were employed by the AH administration to improve the health and hygienic conditions among Bosnian and Bosnian Muslim women. In 1893, Gisela Kuhn moved from Brno, Moravia to Switzerland to pursue her medical studies; she was awarded her Doctorate in Medicine (MD) from the University of Zurich in 1898. In the same year, she took up her first position as a local health insurance doctor for women and children in Remscheid but was prohibited from practising in the German Empire. In 1899, she successfully applied to the AH authorities for the newly established position of a female health officer in Banjaluka and began working there in July 1899. She lost her civil service status upon marrying her colleague, Dr Wladislaw Januszewski, in 1900 but carried out her previously officially assigned tasks as a private physician. In 1903, she was employed as a 'woman doctor for women' at the newly established municipal outpatient clinic in Banjaluka. Upon her husband's retirement in 1912, the couple left BH and settled in Graz, Styria. After, World War I Januszewska ran a general medical practice in Graz until 1935 and worked as a health insurance-gynaecologist until 1933. She received several AH and Austrian awards and medals for her merits as a physician and a volunteer for humanitarian organisations. Upon Austria's annexation to Nazi Germany 1938, however, she was classified a Jew and was deported to Theresienstadt concentration camp (Terezín, Bohemia), where she died in 1943. CONCLUSION: Gisela Januszewska, née Rosenfeld (1867-1943) viewed her medical practice as a social medicine mission which she put into practice as a 'woman doctor for woman' in Banjaluka, BH (1899-1912) and Graz, Austria (1919-1935).


Assuntos
Médicas/história , Saúde da Mulher/história , Adulto , Áustria , Áustria-Hungria , Bósnia e Herzegóvina , Criança , Feminino , Alemanha , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Hungria , Islamismo , Suíça
7.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 18(1): 129-148, 2020 06.
Artigo em Servo-Croata (Latino) | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638604

RESUMO

The health of officers (as well as the entire army) is exposed to additional risks due to the performance of various life-threatening tasks for the needs of the state. Therefore, it is not unusual for the state to take care of the health of its officers (as well as the army) through a system of Vojvodina medical care or specialised society through the construction of military or officer health resorts [Militärkurhaus / Offizierskurhaus] with the provision of medical/ health services. The subject of this paper is the relationship between architecture and the provision of military-medical services of officer/military health resorts built by the Society of the White Cross [Gesellschaft vom Weißen Kreuze] in Kvarner at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. The research is based on data collected from Austrian architectural, medical and tourist magazines and yearbooks of Austrian Society of the White Cross. The results of the research contribute to a better understanding of the improvement of the health of officers, the development of the architecture of health buildings [Kurhaus] and the entire history of medicine and health tourism in the Croatian Adriatic.


Assuntos
Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde/história , Estâncias para Tratamento de Saúde/história , Medicina Militar/história , Militares/história , Áustria-Hungria , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Militar/história
8.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 18(1): 3149-164, 2020 06.
Artigo em Servo-Croata (Latino) | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638605

RESUMO

Medicine and physicians in Dubrovnik during the last two centuries, i.e. in the period after the dissolution of the Republic of Dubrovnik by Napoleon's Army, have attracted less interest among medical historians. In this paper, the lives and medical careers of two physicians from Dubrovnik, father and son, Baldo and Ante Bibica, have been reconstructed from the end of the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century by searching through the contemporary medical journals and newspapers as well as private archives of the members of family Bibica. Baldo Bibica graduated medicine in Vienna and spent the whole professional life as a municipal physician, at first, in the places in the vicinity of Dubrovnik and from 1903 in Gruz. Ante Bibica studied medicine in Graz and in Zagreb to become the first person from Dubrovnik promoted at the School of Medicine, Zagreb University. He specialized in dermatovenereology in Vienna and worked, as a specialist, in Dubrovnik. They both were active in the professional medical societies (at local and national levels) and were influential in the social life in Dubrovnik.


Assuntos
Médicos/história , Áustria-Hungria , Croácia , Dermatologia/história , Medicina Geral/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Sociedades Médicas/história , Venereologia/história
9.
Hist Sci ; 58(4): 458-484, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418464

RESUMO

This essay uses the case of the fin-de-siècle Vienna embryologist Samuel Leopold Schenk to analyze the factors at play in allegations of misconduct. In 1898, Schenk published a book titled Theorie Schenk. Einfluss auf das Geschlechtsverhältnis (Schenk's theory. Influence on the sex ratio). The book argued that, by changing their diet, women trying to conceive could influence egg maturation and consequently select the sex of their offspring. This cross between a scientific monograph and a popular advice book received enormous publicity but also spurred first the Vienna Medical Association and then the Senate of the University of Vienna to accuse Schenk of poor science, self-advertisement, quack medical practice, and wrong publisher choice. Formal proceedings against Schenk ended in 1900 with the unusually harsh punishment of early retirement. Schenk died two years later. I examine the elements of the case, from the science of sex determination and selection, to the growth of print media and advertising within the changing demographic and political landscape of Vienna. I argue that the influence of the public, via the growing media, upon science was the main driver of the case against Schenk, but also that the case would have had a more limited impact were it not for the volatile political moment rife with anti-Semitism, nationalism, and xenophobia. I draw the attention to the importance of setting cases of misconduct in the broader political history and against the key social concerns of the moment.


Assuntos
Embriologia/história , Pré-Seleção do Sexo/história , Áustria-Hungria , Embriologia/ética , Embriologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Judeus/história , Jornalismo Médico/história , Masculino , Política , Preconceito/história , Publicações/ética , Publicações/história , Charlatanismo/história , Charlatanismo/legislação & jurisprudência , Faculdades de Medicina/história , Processos de Determinação Sexual , Pré-Seleção do Sexo/métodos
10.
Omega (Westport) ; 81(3): 424-435, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29895217

RESUMO

During the 19th century, suicide rates increased in many countries. The press may have contributed to this increase, even though empirical evidence is lacking in this regard. We assessed suicide statistics within five territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire between 1871 and 1910 and combined these data with a content analysis of suicide reporting in five newspapers, each appearing in one of the five territories. The analysis revealed a covariation between the quantity of reporting and the number of suicides within all five regions. Furthermore, the quantity of reporting significantly predicted the following year's suicides. Although the causal order of suicides and the quantity of reporting should be assessed with caution, evidence is consistent with the idea that the press may have contributed to the establishment of suicide as a mass phenomenon. The findings also support contemporary guidelines for journalists, especially the notion of avoiding undue repetition of suicide stories.


Assuntos
Comportamento Imitativo , Jornais como Assunto/história , Jornais como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/história , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Áustria-Hungria , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos
11.
Bull Hist Med ; 94(2): 179-214, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416551

RESUMO

This article examines skin and disease in early modern medicine through the writings of the little-known Bohemian physician Jan Jessen (1566-1621). In 1601, Jessen published De cute, et cutaneis affectibus, a set of twenty-one theses dedicated to the question of whether skin disease existed. In considering Jessen and his relationship to a broader world of writing, this article makes three arguments. First, it suggests that, contrary to existing historiography, the question of skin disease was a common sixteenth-century concern. Second, it posits a professional channel for this concern, which arose from surgery and disease, rather than from anatomy and physiology. Finally, rather than positioning Jessen at the forefront of discovery, I suggest his text functions as a representative case study. It allows us to see material change in medicine within a stable Galenic framework.


Assuntos
Médicos/história , Dermatopatias/história , Livros de Texto como Assunto/história , Áustria-Hungria , República Tcheca , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , Humanos
12.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 18(2): 229-250, 2020 12.
Artigo em Servo-Croata (Latino) | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535761

RESUMO

The article describes the oldest locations and buildings for the treatment of patients in Rijeka. According to historical sources, the first known site for health care and treatment was a hospital founded in the 14th or 15th century in the Old Town, in the St Sebastian Street, in which also existed a little church of the same name. It is not known for sure when the hospital was moved to a new location, to a house opposite the Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The Statute of Rijeka from 1530 mentions it under the name Hospital of St. Mary (hospitali Sanctae Mariae) but later changed its name to St. Spirit Hospital. It was named after the chapel located in the same block of buildings. As in the previous location, there was an orphanage and an almshouse within the hospital. The hospital and the orphanage operated in this building until 1822, when, at the initiative of the Municipality, they moved to Brajda, in an adapted complex of buildings of the former wax factory. The building of the former hospital has been adapted for residential use. At the end of World War II, the building was destroyed under aerial bombardment and later a new building was built in its place.


Assuntos
Hospitais Urbanos/história , Áustria-Hungria , Croácia , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Medieval
13.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 18(2): 337-354, 2020 12.
Artigo em Servo-Croata (Latino) | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535766

RESUMO

The founder of the Vienna School of Ophthalmology was Prof. Dr. Georg Joseph Beer, who founded the First University Eye Clinic in the Vienna General Hospital in 1812. Prof. Ferdinand von Arlt led it for 27 years from 1856 to 1883. As the First Eye Clinic became too small, the Second University Eye Clinic was founded in 1883 at the same hospital in Vienna. Since 1885 it had been led for 30 years by Prof. Ernst Fuchs. Many well-known ophthalmologists were leading those Viennese eye clinics. However, Arlt and Fuchs were the main representatives of the Vienna School of Ophthalmology, which was always characterised by the high standards in the diagnosis and therapy of eye diseases. Many Croatian ophthalmologists were educated by them or their students, and later they established eye departments in the major cities in Croatia and transmitted acquired knowledge and experience. The first eye departments in Croatia were formed at the turn of the 19th and 20th century. The First University Eye Clinic in Croatia started to work in Zagreb in 1923. Our ophthalmologists transmitted the organisation of the clinics as they existed in Vienna, and that was the matrix form of all European clinics at that time. Therefore, the tradition of the Vienna School of Ophthalmology was passed on to the next generations. The paper also gives short biographies of Viennese and Croatian ophthalmologists and their mutual relations in education and work.


Assuntos
Oftalmologistas/história , Oftalmologia/história , Áustria , Áustria-Hungria , Croácia , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX
14.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 17(1): 115-132, 2019 06.
Artigo em Servo-Croata (Latino) | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315412

RESUMO

Born in Istria, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Fran Mandic (1851-1924) finished a Croatian grammar school in Rijeka and studied medicine in Graz, Austria and in Prague, Bohemia. After graduation, he settled in Trieste, a major Austrian port, where he spent his entire career. After a period in the State Hospital in Trieste, Mandic ran his own practice and held a position of medical adviser of the Austrian State Railway in Istria. Since his student days, he had championed equal political rights for the Croatian people in Istria. Aware of the importance of education, he donated his time and money for a number of new schools to open throughout Istria. For his merits he received high honours from the Emperor and an honorary Citizenship of Opatija, but the greatest recognition was the respect he earned from his patients and their families.


Assuntos
Médicos/história , Áustria-Hungria , Croácia , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Itália , Iugoslávia
16.
Acta Med Acad ; 48(1): 121-126, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264440

RESUMO

This biographical note details Anna Bayerová's (1853-1924) activities as the first female Austro-Hungarian health officer in 1878 to1918 occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH). Anna Bayerová is known as a heroine of Czech feminism and the 'first Czech female physician', though she only practised in the Czech lands from 1913 to 1916. In 1891, Bayerová was enrolled as the first Austro-Hungarian female health officer and assigned to treat Muslim women in the district of Tuzla, Bosnia. She pursued this mission for the first three months of 1892, had herself transferred to Sarajevo in the summer, and soon thereafter quitted the service. Her biographers point to a series of political and personal motivations to abandon her mission in Bosnia, which, from the viewpoint of Czech feminists, included fulfilling her professional duties in an exemplary way. She spent most of her professional life as a physician in Switzerland and did not request Austrian recognition of her medical degree until 1913. Bayerová died in Prague in 1924. Conclusion. Bayerová, partly for political reasons and partly due to her panic-fuelled fear of catching tuberculosis, quitted her role as the first Austro-Hungarian female health officer in BH soon after her arrival in 1892.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/história , Médicas/história , Áustria-Hungria , Bósnia e Herzegóvina , Tchecoslováquia , Feminino , Feminismo/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Islamismo , Suíça
17.
Acta Med Acad ; 48(3): 332-336, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124634

RESUMO

Carl Ferdinand von Arlt, Ritter von Bergschmidt (1812-1887) was a pioneer in ophthalmology. The purpose of our paper is to highlight his scientific work. He did not only introduce new surgical techniques and invent new instruments in ocular surgery, but also influenced the development of ophthalmology in the 19th century. He was an excellent and reputable professor of ophthalmology, and his students became very respected figures in ophthalmology.


Assuntos
Oftalmologia/história , Áustria-Hungria , Tchecoslováquia , Oftalmopatias/história , Oftalmopatias/cirurgia , História do Século XIX , Humanos
18.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 16(1): 9-18, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Servo-Croata (Latino) | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30198270

RESUMO

Ignaz Phillip Semmelweis's significance for the history of medicine lies in his discovery of the cause of puerperal fever. He discovered it during his work at the First Obstetrics Clinic of the Vienna's Allgemeines Krankenhaus. Since the mentioned Clinic, led by the doctors, had much higher mortality rates of the child-bearing women than the Second Obstetrics Clinic, led by the midwives, he wanted to determine the causes of such a state. He came to the conclusion that puerperal sepsis was transmitted by the doctors and medical students, who after performing the anatomical sections started to perform the births with their hands beforehand washed only with soap. Semmelweis instead proposed a mandatory hand washing in a potassium-hypochlorite solution thus making the mortality at the First equivalent to the mortality at the Second Obstetrics Clinic. Despite this, his discovery was rejected by the established medical circuits.


Assuntos
Obstetrícia/história , Médicos/história , Infecção Puerperal/história , Áustria , Áustria-Hungria , História do Século XIX , Hungria , Infecção Puerperal/prevenção & controle
19.
Acta Med Acad ; 47(1): 94-101, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29957977

RESUMO

This paper presents the medical journals published in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH) in the period from 1878 to 1945. The first medical journal in BIH may be deemed to be Jahrbuch des Bosnisch-Hercegowinischen Landesspittales in Sarajevo (The Yearbook of the National Hospital of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Sarajevo). In a special part of this journal, doctors from Austro-Hungary serving in Sarajevo wrote scholarly articles about their patients' various ailments. Up to 1945 seven more medical journals were published in BIH: Trezvenost - Organ Jugoslavenskog Saveza Trezvenosti (Temperance - the Journal of the Yugoslav Temperance Society), Zdravlje - Lekarske pouke o zdravlju i bolesti (Health, Medical lessons on Health and Disease), Glasnik Lekarske komore za Bosnu, Hercegovinu, Dalmaciju i Crnu Goru (The Journal of the Chamber of Physicians of Bosnia, Herzegovina, Dalmatia and Montenegro), Glasnik Lekarske komore Vrbaske banovine (Journal of the Chamber of Physicians of Vrbaska banovina, Glasnik Lekarske komore Drinske banovine (Journal of the Chamber of Physicians of Drinska banovina), Vjesnik Zavoda za suzbijanje endemijskog sifilisa u Bosni i Hercegovini (Journal of the Institute for Combatting Endemic Syphilis in Bosnia and Herzegovina) and Casopis za medicinu i biologiju (Journal for Medicine and Biology). CONCLUSION: Medical journals published in BIH in the period from 1878 to 1945 were published in times marked by specific political and social circumstances in BIH, in the time when BIH was not independent, and was under the influence of the health culture of the ruling regimes. Most of the authors of the articles published in these journals were citizens of the occupying authorities, although the papers published were mainly the result of research undertaken in BIH.


Assuntos
Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/história , Médicos/história , Editoração/história , Redação/história , Áustria-Hungria , Bibliometria , Bósnia e Herzegóvina , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Política
20.
J Med Biogr ; 26(3): 175-181, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26968511

RESUMO

Maksymilian Rutkowski (1867-1947) was a distinguished graduate of the Jagiellonian University and a pioneer in the early days of surgery in interwar Poland. He was a long-standing leader in both clinical and academic surgery. In addition, he played an important role in the founding of the School for Nurses and Healthcare Workers in Cracow supported by the Rockefeller Foundation. Among his best known surgical techniques, one may list the novel procedure of bladder exstrophy, new techniques of gastroenterostomy and plastic restoration of the oesophagus. Although Rutkowski's reputation as a medical figure is well established within Polish medical history, his achievements are hardly recognized by international scholars. Thus, in the absence of adequate historical information on this eminent surgeon, we have researched the main facts about his life and seminal contribution to Polish and international surgery.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral/história , Cirurgiões/história , Áustria-Hungria , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Polônia
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