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1.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 69(5): 104-110, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127763

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer is the gynecological cancer with the highest incident rate in Taiwan. Compared with other types of gynecological cancers, women generally do not have sufficient information about, and thus pay less attention to, endometrial cancer. For endometrial cancer, early diagnosis is important to achieving a high rate of survival. However, endometrial cancer has negative effects due to insufficient information, leading to women having an unrealistic illness representation that influences their coping behaviors and disease outcomes. Leventhal's self-regulation model indicates that the illness representation of patients is based on received external information and past experiences, and that patients undergo the three stages of illness representation, coping, and appraisal when suffering from disease. In this article, the Leventhal self-regulation model was applied to better understand the correlation between illness representation, coping behaviors, and disease outcomes in patients with endometrial cancer at different disease phases. Clinical health providers may utilize this self-regulation model to help patients with endometrial cancer develop positive illness representation and adopt active coping strategies to realize a better adjustment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio , Autocontrole , Adaptação Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Taiwan
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078443

RESUMO

This study aimed to verify the influence of autonomy and self-control as psychological factors on the changes in lifestyles of inactive college students by participating in regular exercise. A total of 188 university students in Seoul, Korea, taking physical fitness classes for 5 weeks held three times a week participated in the surveys. Surveys were conducted in the first session (T1) and 15th session (T2) of the classes. Autonomy in exercise participation and self-control were measured at T1, and healthy lifestyle was measured at both T1 and T2. A paired t-test was used to measure the changes in healthy lifestyle between two time points, and hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to determine the effect of autonomy in exercise participation and self-control measured at T1 on the healthy lifestyle score at T2. According to the analysis, participants' healthy lifestyles were improved with a statistically significant difference between pre- and post-exercise. Furthermore, the levels of autonomy and self-control before the fitness classes positively influenced the participants' healthy lifestyle after the classes even when the influence of healthy lifestyle measured before the classes was controlled. Thus, it was confirmed that autonomy for participation and self-control are important to change one's healthy lifestyle through regular exercise participation.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Autocontrole , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Comportamento Sedentário , Estudantes/psicologia
3.
Elife ; 112022 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074557

RESUMO

What role do regions like the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) play in normative behavior (e.g., generosity, healthy eating)? Some models suggest that dlPFC activation during normative choice reflects controlled inhibition or modulation of default hedonistic preferences. Here, we develop an alternative account, showing that evidence accumulation models predict trial-by-trial variation in dlPFC response across three fMRI paradigms and two self-control contexts (altruistic sacrifice and healthy eating). Using these models to simulate a variety of self-control dilemmas generated a novel prediction: although dlPFC activity might typically increase for norm-consistent choices, deliberate self-regulation focused on normative goals should decrease or even reverse this pattern (i.e., greater dlPFC response for hedonistic, self-interested choices). We confirmed these predictions in both altruistic and dietary choice contexts. Our results suggest that dlPFC response during normative choice may depend more on value-based evidence accumulation than inhibition of our baser instincts.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal Dorsolateral , Inibição Psicológica , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Autocontrole
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36002389

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The current study aimed to use network analysis to investigate medical and health students' readiness for online learning during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic at the University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Hue University. METHODS: A questionnaire survey on the students' readiness for online learning was performed using a Google Form from May 13 to June 22, 2021. In total, 1,377 completed responses were eligible for analysis out of 1,411 participants. The network structure was estimated for readiness scales with 6 factors: computer skills, internet skills, online communication, motivation, self-control, and self-learning. Data were fitted using a Gaussian graphical model with the extended Bayesian information criterion. RESULTS: In 1,377 students, a network structure was identified with 6 nodes and no isolated nodes. The top 3 partial correlations were similar in networks for the overall sample and subgroups of gender and grade levels. The self-control node was the strongest for the connection to others, with the highest nodal strength. The change of nodal strength was greatest in online communication for both gender and grade levels. The correlation stability coefficient for nodal strength was achieved for all networks. CONCLUSION: These findings indicated that self-control was the most important factor in students' readiness network structures for online learning. Therefore, self-control needs to be encouraged during online learning to improve the effectiveness of achieving online learning outcomes for students.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação à Distância , Autocontrole , Estudantes de Medicina , Asiáticos , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Pandemias
5.
Appetite ; 178: 106185, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921863

RESUMO

The prevalence of childhood obesity remains high, even among young children under 5 years of age. As parents are usually the key providers of food within the home for young children, it is important to understand influences on parental snack and beverage provision. Previous research in this domain is yet to investigate the role of both rational and automatic processes in parents' provision of unhealthy snacks and beverages to their children. Subsequently, the aim of this study was to explore the influence of both habit and self-regulation on parents' behaviours related to providing unhealthy snacks to their child. Two-hundred and forty-nine parents of a child between two and three years of age were recruited via CloudResearch for this prospective study. Parents completed self-report measures of their intention, habit, and self-control related to snack and beverage provision to their child at time-one. One week later, parents self-reported their unhealthy snack and beverage provision over the previous week. Two hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the role of parents' intention, habit, and self-control in predicting their unhealthy snack and beverage provision. Results suggest that both habit and self-control influence parents' unhealthy snack and beverage provision. However, self-control plays an important role in strengthening the intention-behaviour relationship, and in limiting the impact of opposing habits on behaviour. Interventions that focus on modifying self-control would be useful for improving unhealthy snack and beverage provision among parents with young children.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Autocontrole , Bebidas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento Alimentar , Hábitos , Humanos , Intenção , Pais , Estudos Prospectivos , Lanches
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011963

RESUMO

This study examined bedtime procrastination predictors and the development process concerning health behavior. Based on temporal self-regulation theory and the self-regulatory framework of time perspective, we examined the effects of future time perspective, dual-model of self-control, and problematic smartphone use on bedtime procrastination. Further, including the mediating role of dual-mode self-control and problematic smartphone use in the effects of future time perspective on bedtime procrastination among 3687 participants (38.73% male; Mage = 16.17 years, SD = 2.42, range = 11-23) Chinese students. The results showed that the future time perspective, dual-mode self-control, and problematic smartphone use had significant predictive effects on bedtime procrastination. Importantly, the negative effect of future time perspective on bedtime procrastination is mediated by the impulse system, control system, and problematic smartphone use separately and serially mediated by the impulse system and problematic smartphone use, rather than the control system and problematic smartphone use; these findings extend previous research on the contributing factors of bedtime procrastination and provide an empirical basis for promoting people to form healthy sleep habits.


Assuntos
Procrastinação , Autocontrole , Percepção do Tempo , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sono , Smartphone
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36012072

RESUMO

The present study analyzed the relationship between gaming disorder (GD), motives for gaming, and psychological problems in daily life (i.e., depression, loneliness, and self-control deficits) among Polish gamers. More specifically, the purpose of the present study was to analyze the indirect effects between GD and psychological problems in daily life via motives for gaming among male and female gamers. Additionally, the present study examined gender differences in motives for gaming and the relationship between the analyzed variables. The sample comprised 652 gamers (233 females; M = 28.77 years; SD = 7.18; age range: 18-48 years). The nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Version (IGDS9-SF) was used to assess GD. The motives for gaming were assessed using the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire (MOGQ). The nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess depressive symptoms, and the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS) was used to assess self-control. Loneliness was assessed using the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale. In order to examine the relationship between the study variables, path analysis and indirect effects analysis were performed among both male and female gamers. The present study showed that depressive symptoms and self-control exerted a significant indirect effect on GD via escape and fantasy motives for gaming. Additionally, there was an indirect effect between depressive symptoms and GD via social motives for gaming. However, these indirect effects were found among male gamers only. The present study also showed gender differences in all analyzed gaming motives except escape (males scoring higher on all of them) and in the relationship between depressive symptoms and escape. These findings contribute to a better understanding of GD development mechanisms, which are associated with psychological problems in daily life.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Autocontrole , Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Solidão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273376, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36040991

RESUMO

In this study, we merged methods from engineering control theory, machine learning, and human neuroimaging to critically test the putative role of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) in goal-directed performance monitoring during an emotion regulation task. Healthy adult participants (n = 94) underwent cued-recall and re-experiencing of their responses to affective image stimuli with concurrent functional magnetic resonance imaging and psychophysiological response recording. During cued-recall/re-experiencing trials, participants engaged in explicit self-regulation of their momentary affective state to match a pre-defined affective goal state. Within these trials, neural decoding methods measured affect processing from fMRI BOLD signals across the orthogonal affective dimensions of valence and arousal. Participants' affective brain states were independently validated via facial electromyography (valence) and electrodermal activity (arousal) responses. The decoded affective states were then used to contrast four computational models of performance monitoring (i.e., error, predicted response outcome, action-value, and conflict) by their relative abilities to explain emotion regulation task-related dACC activation. We found that the dACC most plausibly encodes action-value for both valence and arousal processing. We also confirmed that dACC activation directly encodes affective arousal and also likely encodes recruitment of attention and regulation resources. Beyond its contribution to improving our understanding of the roles that the dACC plays in emotion regulation, this study introduced a novel analytical framework through which affect processing and regulation may be functionally dissociated, thereby permitting mechanistic analysis of real-world emotion regulation strategies, e.g., distraction and reappraisal, which are widely employed in cognitive behavioral therapy to address clinical deficits in emotion regulation.


Assuntos
Giro do Cíngulo , Autocontrole , Adulto , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011685

RESUMO

The current study aimed to compare the possible effects of differential learning strategy, self-controlled feedback, and external focus of attention on kinetic and kinematic risk factors of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in athletes. Forty-eight male athletes from three sports of handball, volleyball and basketball were selected for this study and were randomly divided into four groups: differential learning (n = 12), self-control feedback (n = 12), external focus (n = 12), and control (n = 12) group. All groups followed the intervention for eight weeks with three sessions per week. Data were analyzed by means of 4 × 2 repeated measures ANOVA followed by post hoc comparison (Bonferroni) at the significance level of p ≤ 0.05. A significant group × time interaction and the main effect of time was found for most kinetic and kinematic variables. The main effect of the group was significant only at the knee abduction angle. Differential learning and external focus of attention methods positively reduced the kinetic and kinematic variables that are considered risk factors for ACL injury. However, the effect sizes (Cohen's d) for the changes in most of the variables were larger for the differential learning group. Tailoring the boundary conditions that are based on the manipulations created in the exercise through variability and variety of movements associated with differential learning methods rather than repeating movements could reduce the risk of ACL injury.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Basquetebol , Autocontrole , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/prevenção & controle , Atletas , Atenção , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
10.
Subst Abus ; 43(1): 1333-1340, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36036761

RESUMO

Introduction: Little research has been carried out on the associations between several individual factors and hazardous alcohol use in women. The aim of this study was first, to study the relationship between reward sensitivity (RS) and alcohol use in both women with and without hazardous drinking separately. Second, to explore the potential mediating roles of the impulsivity and self-control traits in this relationship. Method: The study was analytical and cross-sectional and included 645 female participants (mean age = 19.14; standard deviation (SD)=1.60). All women were divided into two groups (286, 44.3%, with hazardous drinking, HDW; and 359, 55.7%, with light drinking, LDW). Correlation analyses were carried out to explore the associations between the variables, and parallel mediation analyses were performed to investigate the potential mediating roles of impulsivity and self-control in the RS-alcohol use associations in each group separately. Results: A significant association was observed between RS and alcohol use in HDW, contrary to that observed in their counterparts. In addition, both higher impulsivity and less self-control mediated the association between RS and alcohol use only in HDW. Conclusions: Impulsivity and self-control differently affect alcohol use under the condition of high reward sensitivity, only in HDW, suggesting alterations of the dual top-down and bottom-up mechanisms and a possible imbalance between the competing reflexive and impulsive brain systems. More research is needed regarding the individual factors that affect women's drinking to develop sensitive measures for the assessment of alcohol use and more efficient interventions for women.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Autocontrole , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Recompensa , Adulto Jovem
11.
Physiol Behav ; 255: 113944, 2022 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35973643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High trait self-control is associated with greater tolerance of unpleasant sensations including effort and pain. Dyspnoea and pain have several commonalities and this study aimed to investigate for the first time whether trait self-control influences responses to a hypercapnic rebreathing challenge designed to induce dyspnoea. As sex also influences tolerance to dyspnoea, we also sought to investigate whether this moderated the role of trait self-control. METHODS: Participants (n = 65, 32 females) scoring high or low for trait self-control, performed a standardised rebreathing challenge, in which inspired carbon dioxide (CO2) gradually increased over a period of 6 min or until an intolerable level of dyspnoea. Air hunger (AH) intensity - a distinctive quality of dyspnoea, was measured every 30 s. The multidimensional dyspnoea profile (MDP) was completed after the rebreathing challenge for a more complete overview of breathing discomfort. RESULTS: Males high in trait self-control (SCHIGH) (302 ± 42 s), tolerated the rebreathing challenge for longer than males low in self-control (SCLOW) (252 ± 66 s, P = 0.021), experienced slower increases in AH intensity during the rebreathing challenge (0.03 ± 0.01 cm.s - 1 vs. 0.04 ± 0.01 cm.s - 1,P = 0.045) and reported lower perceived mental effort on the MDP (4.94 ± 2.46 vs. 7.06 ± 1.60, P = 0.007). There was no difference between SCHIGH and SCLOW females for challenge duration. However, SCHIGH females (9.29 ± 0.66 cm) reported greater air hunger at the end of the challenge than SCLOW females (7.75 ± 1.75 cm, P = 0.003). It is possible that SCLOW females were unwilling to tolerate the same perceptual intensity of AH as the SCHIGH females. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that individuals high in trait self-control are more tolerant of dyspnoea during a CO2 rebreathing challenge than low self-control individuals. Tolerance of the stimulus was moderated by the sex of the participant, presenting an interesting opportunity for future research.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Autocontrole , Dispneia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercapnia , Masculino , Dor , Respiração
12.
Environ Res ; 214(Pt 4): 114107, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35995230

RESUMO

Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) and Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus) were compared to remove toxicity under conditions of sludge extract cultivation for 30 days. The toxicity of sludge extract, the growth characteristics, photosynthetic pigment, superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme and catalase (CAT) enzyme activities of the two microalgae were studied by contrast. The results showed that small molecular organic matter (<500 Da) was more easily utilized by microalgae. The toxicity in the toxic group of C. vulgaris and S. obliquus on the 30th day decreased to 56.8 ± 1.2% and 60.7 ± 2.8%, respectively. In the toxic group, the maximal SOD enzyme activity of C. vulgaris and S. obliquus were 2.02 U/mg proteins and 8.21 U/mg proteins, respectively, demonstrating that toxicity caused more oxidative damage to S. obliquus than to C. vulgaris. Proteomics analysis revealed that C. vulgaris mainly regulates energy synthesis and distribution primarily through sugar metabolism, and biomass synthesis primarily through carbon metabolism, whereas S. obliquus mainly regulates energy synthesis and distribution primarily through sugar metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation, resulting in sludge toxicity stress regulation.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris , Microalgas , Scenedesmus , Autocontrole , Chlorella vulgaris/metabolismo , Hidroquinonas , Microalgas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais , Scenedesmus/metabolismo , Esgotos , Açúcares/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
13.
Rehabilitation (Stuttg) ; 61(4): 222-229, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35995052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contextual factors are a central element of the ICF and important factors for therapy planning in psychosomatic rehabilitation. At the same time, little is known about the relationship between contextual factors and patient self-regulation, an important goal of rehabilitation.The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the relationship between contextual factors and illness belies. Illness beliefs are a core element of self-regulation in psychosomatic rehabilitation and part of the common sense model of self-regulation. METHODS: Between April 2019 and January 2020, a cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted in a psychosomatic rehabilitation clinic, in which registered rehabilitation patients were questioned about their illness beliefs using the Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R). Contextual factors were divided into clinically modifiable and non-clinically modifiable and included gender, age, duration of illness, subjective social status, main diagnosis (dichotomised: F3/F4), occupational stress, depressive stress as well as activity and participation (operationalised by the Health-49). Multiple regressions were used for the analysis, in which the scales of the IPQ-R served as dependent variables. RESULTS: N=264 rehabilitants took part in the survey, 50% of them were female. The average age was 50 years. With regard to the non-clinically modifiable contextual factors, it was shown that a younger age was associated with higher control assumptions, but that younger rehabilitation patients simultaneously perceived more symptoms due to their illness (identity). A longer duration of illness showed a connection with the chronic timeline assumptions. A lower social status showed correlations with lower control assumptions and more assumptions about the cyclical timeline. Regarding clinically modifiable contextual factors, an F3 diagnosis was associated with more expected consequence, but also with a higher perceived personal control than an F4 diagnosis. A higher occupational burden was associated with the assumption of a more chronic course of the disease. Reduced activity and participation were associated with more expected consequences and more perceived symptoms (identity). Depressive stress showed associations with six out of eight domains of illness beliefs. CONCLUSION: The study supports the relevance of contextual factors, which in majority can be discussed as person-related factors, for patient self-regulation in psychosomatic rehabilitation. Interventions to increase self-regulation, e. g. by taking illness beliefs into account, have already achieved promising results, also in the context of rehabilitation. The patient-oriented approach of these interventions could be further strengthened by a stronger inclusion of contextual factors.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicofisiológicos , Autocontrole , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 902425, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35910898

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Mobile phone addiction among college students has gained considerable research attention because of its adverse effects on their health and academic performance. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the relationship between shyness and mobile phone addiction among college students. Methods: Four questionnaires were used to examine whether mobile phone addiction tendency was predicted by shyness and the mediating roles of social anxiety and self-control among 3,189 Chinese college students. Correlation and mediation analyses were conducted using Hayes PROCESS. Results: The results showed that (1) social anxiety (indirect effect = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.18-0.26) and self-control (indirect effect = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.21-0.25) played a partial mediating role in the relationship between shyness and mobile phone addiction tendency; (2) social anxiety and self-control also mediated the link between shyness and mobile phone addiction tendency sequentially (indirect effect = 0.10, 95% CI = 0.09 to 0.12). Conclusion: These results suggest that mobile phone addiction among shy college students could be eliminated by alleviating social anxiety and strengthening self-control.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Autocontrole , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Timidez , Estudantes , Dependência de Tecnologia
15.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1534, 2022 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35953799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Family-based lifestyle interventions (FBLIs) are an important method for treating childhood weight problems. Despite being recognized as an effective intervention method, the optimal structure of these interventions for children's overweight and obesity has yet to be determined. Our aim was to better understand participants' (a) implementation of behaviour strategies and long-term outcomes, (b) perceptions regarding the optimal structure of FBLIs, and (c) insights into psychological concepts that may explain the success of these programs. METHODS: Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants. We conducted focus groups as well as one-to-one interviews with parents (n = 53) and children (n = 50; aged 7-13, M = 9.4 yr, SD = 3.1) three months following their involvement in a 10-week, multi-component, FBLI involving education and activities relating to healthy nutrition, physical activity, and behavior modification. Using an interpretivist approach, a qualitative study design was employed to examine participant experiences. RESULTS: We identified three higher-order categories: (a) participants' program experiences and perceptions (b) lifestyle changes post-program, and (c) recommendations for optimizing family-based programs. Themes identified within these categories included (a) support and structure & content, (b) diet and physical activity, and (c) in-program recommendations and post-program recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: We identified several challenges that can impair lasting behavior change (e.g., physical activity participation) following involvement in a FBLI. On optimizing these programs, participants emphasized fun, interactive content, interpersonal support, appropriate educational content, and behavior change techniques. Concepts rooted in motivational theory could help address calls for greater theoretical and mechanistic insight in FBLIs. Findings may support research advancement and assist health professionals to more consistently realize the potential of these interventions.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Autocontrole , Criança , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia
16.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 845, 2022 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35986202

RESUMO

The dopaminergic midbrain is associated with reinforcement learning, motivation and decision-making - functions often disturbed in neuropsychiatric disorders. Previous research has shown that dopaminergic midbrain activity can be endogenously modulated via neurofeedback. However, the robustness of endogenous modulation, a requirement for clinical translation, is unclear. Here, we examine whether the activation of particular brain regions associates with successful regulation transfer when feedback is no longer available. Moreover, to elucidate mechanisms underlying effective self-regulation, we study the relation of successful transfer with learning (temporal difference coding) outside the midbrain during neurofeedback training and with individual reward sensitivity in a monetary incentive delay (MID) task. Fifty-nine participants underwent neurofeedback training either in standard (Study 1 N = 15, Study 2 N = 28) or control feedback group (Study 1, N = 16). We find that successful self-regulation is associated with prefrontal reward sensitivity in the MID task (N = 25), with a decreasing relation between prefrontal activity and midbrain learning signals during neurofeedback training and with increased activity within cognitive control areas during transfer. The association between midbrain self-regulation and prefrontal temporal difference and reward sensitivity suggests that reinforcement learning contributes to successful self-regulation. Our findings provide insights in the control of midbrain activity and may facilitate individually tailoring neurofeedback training.


Assuntos
Neurorretroalimentação , Autocontrole , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Individualidade , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Mesencéfalo , Neurorretroalimentação/fisiologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954855

RESUMO

Gaming disorder (GD) is a new health condition still requiring a lot of evidence established around its underlying and related psychological mechanisms. In our study we focused on Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs), a specific very popular and engaging game genre, to determine that benefit, motivation and control aspects could be predictive of a dysfunctional engagement in gaming. In total, 313 participants were recruited from private forums of gamers between May 2009 and March 2010. They filled out a questionnaire on their socio-demographic data and their weekly gaming time. They also completed different psychometric assessments such as the DSM IV-TR criteria for substance dependence adapted to gaming such as the Dependence Adapted Scale (DAS), the external rewards they expected from gaming (External Motives), the expected internal reward they expected from gaming (Internal Motives), the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale (ZSSS), and the Barratt impulsiveness Scale (BIS-10). Results showed that some psychological factors related to online gaming represented risk factors for GD in participants (i.e., competition and advancement motives, reduced anxiety, solace, greater personal satisfaction, and sense of power), whereas some others were found to be protective factors from GD (i.e., recreation, enjoyment and experience seeking) in participants. Additionally, the study found that disinhibition, boredom susceptibility, thrill and adventure seeking, and high impulsivity were correlated to GD in participants. In conclusion, not only motives for gaming and impulsivity could be predictors for GD, but maladaptive coping strategies based on experienced relief in-game from negative feelings (anxiety and boredom) or experienced improvement in-game of self-perception (personal satisfaction, sense of power) could play as well a role of negative reinforcers for GD. Some benefits from gaming, typically entertainment and enjoyment, are shown to be protective factors from GD, playing the role of positive reinforcing factors. They are worthy of being identified and promoted as functional gaming habits. These findings can feed the clinical and health promotion fields, with a more in-depth understanding of diverse psychological factors in gamers, identifying those at risk for GD and those protective from it. The current work can foster a more balanced approach towards gaming activities, taking their opportunities for mankind and controlling for their adverse effects in some individuals.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Autocontrole , Jogos de Vídeo , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Humanos , Internet , Recompensa , Desempenho de Papéis , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia
18.
Soc Sci Med ; 307: 115167, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35849963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity rates have been rising steeply across the globe in recent decades, posing a major threat to global human health. Despite this almost universal increase, differences between countries remain striking, even among equally developed societies. METHODS: We test if two cultural dimensions derived from a revised Hofstede model of culture from Minkov (2018), namely collectivism vs. individualism and monumentalism vs. flexibility, could help explain national variations in prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30) among women and men around the world. We develop a theoretical framework that links these two cultural dimensions with obesity and then test their association empirically in analyses including 51 countries from all regions of the world as well as using imputed data for a total of 155 countries, representing 98% of the global population. RESULTS: In contrast to previous studies, we find that, adjusting for undernourishment and other potential confounds, individualism is associated with higher obesity prevalence in the male population, but not among the female population. We explain these findings by pointing to the different mechanisms through which individualism relates to health behavior, some of which are more gender-specific than others. A further novel finding is that flexibility, a national cultural trait that emphases humility, self-control, and restraint of desires, is a strong negative predictor of obesity in both genders beyond various potential confounds and is highly robust in specification curve analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that taking national culture into account can enhance our understanding of the obesity pandemic and should thus be considered by policy-makers in their design of interventions.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Autocontrole , Cultura , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886654

RESUMO

Children's experiences during the prekindergarten period are critical for shaping their emerging self-regulation skills. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of teacher-child relationship quality to children's performance on a self-regulation task at the end of prekindergarten. Teachers rated the conflict, closeness, and dependency in their relationships with 104 children in the fall of prekindergarten, and children's self-regulation was independently measured with a visual attention task in the spring of prekindergarten. In addition, teachers and parents rated children's temperamental self-regulation (i.e., effortful control). Results indicate that greater teacher-child dependency predicted children's longer time on the visual attention task, and greater teacher-child closeness predicted children's lower accuracy on the visual attention task. In addition, children who were rated as more self-regulated by parents were more accurate on the visual attention task. The implications of the results are discussed.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Educação , Autocontrole , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Professores Escolares
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886724

RESUMO

The novel COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the coronavirus. In the early stages of the pandemic, Israel struggled to contain its local outbreak through various measures that have virtually halted daily life and placed tens of thousands of people into quarantine. This study explored the role played by self-control and hope for obtaining two desired outcomes: (1) maintaining one's positivity ratio (having more positive than negative affect-an indicator of wellbeing) and (2) increasing one's contagion-preventing behavior (in this study-handwashing habits). Path analysis was conducted using survey data collected from 537 Israeli adults. Our findings suggest that self-control's association with the positivity ratio is mediated through hope and anxiety levels. Self-control positively correlates with hope levels and negatively correlates with anxiety levels. Higher hope levels correlate with a higher positivity ratio, while lower anxiety levels correlate with a higher positivity ratio. The relationship between self-control and handwashing habits was mediated by hope, anxiety, and existing handwashing habits. This study brings research a step forward in demonstrating the vital role of positive components in achieving desired psychological and behavioral outcomes during an anxiety-provoking epidemic outbreak. In addition to its theoretical innovation, the importance of this study lies in its practical value: We focus on variables that are influenced by policy, education, and communication.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Autocontrole , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Hábitos , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
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