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1.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 225, 2022 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35698121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organisation's efforts to eliminate cervical cancer by 2030 with a target of 70% screening coverage using a high-performance test demand that women increase participation in screening. Factors that impact uptake of screening must therefore be identified and bottlenecks addressed, especially in lower- and middle-income countries where cervical cancer incidence remains high. This study investigated Muslim women, participation in, intention to engage in and self-efficacy about cervical cancer screening. METHODS: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among Muslim women aged 18 years and above in the Cape Coast Metropolis of Ghana using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data were analysed using appropriate descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, point biserial correlation and binary logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was approximately 31 years (M = 30.9, SD = 10.4). Out of the 431 women, 21 (4.9%) had ever participated in cervical cancer screening. Participants demonstrated very low knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, with a mean knowledge score of 3.68 out of 15. Knowledge about cervical cancer was associated with increased odds of participating in cervical cancer screening (aOR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11, 1.56). Concerns about similarity with health provider in terms of gender and faith was associated with decreased odds of cervical cancer screening self-efficacy (aOR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.67). Islamic modesty (aOR = 0.88, 95%CI 0.81, 0.96) was associated with decreased self-efficacy about seeking cervical cancer screening, whereas attitude (aOR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.14, 1.53) was significantly associated with increased self-efficacy about seeking cervical cancer screening. Again, Islamic modesty (aOR = 0.88, 95%CI 0.80, 0.97) was associated with decreased intention to participate in screening, whereas attitude (aOR = 1.42, 95%CI 1.20, 1.68) was associated with increased intention to participate in screening. CONCLUSIONS: There are gaps in knowledge of cervical cancer among Muslim women in this study as less than 5% had participated in screening. A positive attitude was found to influence intention to screen and actual participation in screening programmes. Islamic modesty and commitment to the Islamic faith decreased intention and self-efficacy regarding screening. Therefore, comprehensive and appropriate socio-cultural and religion-specific interventions aimed at addressing the barriers to screening are important in improving uptake among Muslim women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Gana , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Intenção , Islamismo , Programas de Rastreamento , Autoeficácia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle
2.
J Med Life ; 15(4): 499-503, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35646181

RESUMO

Amblyopia is an acquired defect due to a lack of visual stimulation. Self-efficacy is one of the factors affecting the quality of life (QoL) of individuals. Low self-efficacy can decrease cognitive and behavioral functioning, whereas increased self-efficacy leads to a change in treatment acceptance behavior and, subsequently, physical and mental health. This study aimed to determine the QoL and self-efficacy in adolescents with amblyopia. This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on 300 patients referred to hospitals affiliated with Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran, between 2015 and 2016. Data collection tools included: 1) demographic questionnaire, 2) general self-efficacy scale, and 3) WHO QoL questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software 24 using descriptive statistics. The results showed that the mean percentage in QoL was 45.43% (weak), and the mean score in self-efficacy was 21.66%, with a standard deviation of 8.10. There was also a positive and significant relationship between patients' self-efficacy and QoL on each dimension. This study showed that demographic characteristics had no significant relationship with any of the variables of QoL and self-efficacy. However, data analysis showed a significant and positive relationship between self-efficacy and QoL.


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
J Contin Educ Nurs ; 53(6): 273-278, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35647623

RESUMO

An RN refresher program can be a valuable tool to mobilize nurses back into practice, but there are limited data regarding how much it increases students' confidence. Bandura's (1997) theory defines self-efficacy as a construct of one's belief in obtaining control over behavior and environment to achieve a goal. In this study, the validated Clinical Skills Self-Efficacy Scale (CSES) was used to measure the difference in a student's reported perception of self-efficacy after completing a refresher program. The CSES survey was distributed to two groups of RN students: 59 accelerated students who finished the course in 3 months and 57 traditional students who had 9 months to complete the course. The accelerated students had recent nursing experience, but were responding to the COVID-19 pandemic. A mixed model was used to analyze the CSES scores between the accelerated students and the traditional students. A pretest-posttest design was used for each item of the scale. Both groups of students had a statistically significant difference in their CSES scores from pretest to posttest (p < .05). [J Contin Educ Nurs. 2022;53(6):273-278.].


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Pandemias , Autoeficácia
4.
J Contin Educ Nurs ; 53(6): 264-272, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35647631

RESUMO

Background The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a 1-day evidence-based pediatric palliative care continuing professional development program on nurses' and advanced practice registered nurses' perceived self-efficacy regarding palliative care. Method The revised Pediatric Palliative Care Questionnaire was administered to participants before and after a 7½-hour program. A multimodal approach was used to teach topics specific to pediatric palliative care. Results Thirty-one participants completed questionnaires. Notably, most of the participants had provided palliative or end-of-life care, but few had previous education specific to pediatrics. The self-efficacy scores of the participants significantly increased after program attendance (Z = 3.53, p < .001). Conclusion Continuing professional development in pediatric palliative care improves nurses' and advanced practice registered nurses' confidence in their skills to provide this care. Findings of this study support the need for pediatric-specific education in nursing training programs and continuing professional development offerings. Continuing education may be the key to improving access to high-quality care for children living with serious illness and their families. [J Contin Educ Nurs. 2022;53(6):264-272.].


Assuntos
Enfermagem de Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Pediatria , Criança , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos , Autoeficácia
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(10): 3771-3786, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35647860

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The two-year long epidemic situation around the world has resulted in an increasing number of people experiencing "pandemic fatigue". The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between a sense of self-efficacy and fatigue experienced in everyday life by nursing students in Poland, Spain and Slovakia during the COVID-19 pandemic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted by the diagnostic survey method on a group of 756 nursing students of the first-cycle degree program, from 20 March to 15 May 2021, in the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin (Poland), as well as in Murcia University (Spain) and in the Catholic University in Ruzomberok (Slovakia). RESULTS: The sense of self-efficacy was significantly lower among the students in Poland than in those in Spain (p < 0.0001) and in Slovakia (p < 0.0001). Students in Slovakia showed symptoms of general, physical, cognitive and psychosocial fatigue much less frequently than those in Poland (p < 0.001) and Spain (p < 0.001). Especially students in Spain acutely felt physical health issues as a result of COVID-19 pandemic-imposed restrictions. CONCLUSIONS: A high level of a generalized sense of self-efficacy among the nursing students participating in the study was identified. However, it was significantly differentiated with respect to the country of residence. The fatigue severity experienced by the students during the COVID-19 pandemic was determined by a sense of self-efficacy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudantes de Enfermagem , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Polônia/epidemiologia , Autoeficácia , Eslováquia/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia
6.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 23(1): 544, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative joint disease leading to significant pain, mobility limitation, economic burden, reduced quality of life, and disability among adults globally. Psychological factors related to pain intensity (PI), kinesiophobia, fall self-efficacy (FSE), and balance may lead to a poor OA prognosis. This study was designed to explore the association between PI, kinesiophobia, FSE, balance, and age, gender, marital status, site of OA, duration, symmetry, comorbidity, and adaptive behaviours among patients with knee or hip OA. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved 70 purposively selected participants aged 59.91 ± 11.12 years. Numeric pain rating scale, Tampa scale for kinesiophobia, fall-efficacy scale, and timed up and go test were used to measure PI, kinesiophobia, FSE, and balance, respectively. Statistical analyses were completed with the Pearson correlation test, independent samples t-test, and multiple linear regression. RESULTS: The participants were mainly women (n = 59, 84.3%). However, there was no gender difference in the reported PI, kinesiophobia, FSE, and balance. There was a significant correlation between FSE and balance (r = 0.422, p<0.001). Kinesiophobia was significantly associated with the presence of comorbidity (ß = 0.240, p = 0.001) and knee OA (ß = 0.208, p<0.042). There was an association between FSE and the use of a walking aid (ß = -0.442, p<0.042), stop-for-rest during walking (ß = -0.292, p = 0.002), presence of comorbidity (ß = 0.209, p = 0.014), and bilateral lower limb OA (ß = 0.167, p = 0.057). Balance was associated with the use of a walking aid (ß = -0.421, p<0.001) and stop-for-rest during walking (ß = - 0.294, p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Osteoarthritis-related psychological distress affects both men and women. This study support integration of psychological outcomes in the assessment, management, and follow-up of people with lower limb osteoarthritis. Moreover, comorbidity worsened psychological distress among people with osteoarthritis. Therefore, the traditional biomedical management of osteoarthritis can be optimised by timely diagnosis and treatment of comorbidities, and the inclusion of psychotherapy.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite do Joelho , Autoeficácia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Osteoartrite do Joelho/complicações , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico , Osteoartrite do Joelho/epidemiologia , Dor/complicações , Medição da Dor , Equilíbrio Postural , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
7.
Trials ; 23(1): 461, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common medical disorders in pregnancy. Evidence has demonstrated that moderate-intensity physical activity may reduce the risk of gestational diabetes. However, women at risk of GDM spend most of their time performing sedentary behaviors. Although researchers identified self-efficacy as a mediator to overcome physical activity barriers, exercise intervention during pregnancy based on self-efficacy theory has not been discussed so far. Furthermore, there is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of a physical exercise intervention on the incidence of GDM and other maternal or neonatal outcomes in women at higher risk for GDM. METHODS/DESIGN: A single-center, parallel, randomized controlled trial will be conducted in a maternal-child health care center. A total of 244 pregnant women at high risk for GDM will be randomized into a study group receiving a self-efficacy-enhancing physical activity intervention or a control group receiving the usual care. The intervention will consist of four group sessions and everyday reminders by WeChat (Tencent, Shenzhen, China). The program will begin at approximately 13-14+6 gestational weeks and end at 36+6 gestational weeks. The primary outcomes will include the incidence of GDM, blood sugar values, and physical activity. The secondary outcomes will include physical activity self-efficacy, gestational weight gain, maternal outcomes, and neonatal outcomes. DISCUSSION: The findings of this research will contribute toward understanding the effects of a self-efficacy theory-oriented physical activity program on the incidence of GDM, blood sugar values, physical activity level, gestational weight gain, physical activity self-efficacy, maternal outcomes, and neonatal outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (CHiCTR) ChiCTR2200056355 . Registered on February 4, 2022.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Glicemia , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Autoeficácia
8.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 285, 2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the world major cause of death. There is sufficient evidence that patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) experience poor quality of life. Health literacy and self efficacy are modifiable psychosocial factors that could affect quality of life, and these factors should be considered as targets for intervention. As the relationships among health literacy, self efficacy, and quality of life in the CHD population have not been well understood. Thus, we constructed the structure equation model in these valuables. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of a convenience sample among 200 patients with CHD were participated from outpatient clinics in three tertiary general hospitals in Baoding City in mainland China, from December 2018 to June 2019. Data regarding demographic features, health literacy, self efficacy and quality of life were assessed. A structure equation model was used to construct and validate the pathways. RESULTS: The mean age of the study sampled patients was 65.37 years old. The average level of health literacy, self efficacy and quality of life were 9.6 ± 3.5, 28.8 ± 13.9 and 381.8 ± 130.1 respectively. Significant associations were observed from health literacy to quality of life, and self efficacy played a partial mediating role between health literacy and quality of life in the CHD population. Health literacy and self efficacy explained for 59.6% of the variance in quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Health literacy had a direct influence on quality of life, and an indirect influence on quality of life via self efficacy in the patients with CHD.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Letramento em Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Doença das Coronárias/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 5780084, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35720910

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the effects of Incontro, Alleanza, Responsabilita, Autonomia (IARA) combined with Orem self-care model and the use of smart wearable devices on perceived stress and self-efficacy in patients after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Methods: A total of 60 patients after THA in our hospital were enrolled. Patients were randomly divided into control group (IARA intervention model combined with Orem self-care model) and study group (intelligent wearable device combined conference-IARA and Orem self-care model). Harris hip function score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) score, functional independence measure (FIM) score, social support level, perceived stress, and self-efficacy were compared between the two groups. Results: Harris hip function score, WOMAC score, FIM score, and the level of social support of the study group were higher compared with the control group after operation (P < 0.05). Additionally, the perceptual pressure in the study group was lower compared with the control group after intervention (P < 0.05). The self-efficacy of the two groups was compared, and the self-efficacy of the study group was higher than that of the control group at 4, 6, 8, and 12 weeks after the intervention, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Patients after THA utilize an intelligent wearable device combined with IARA model and Orem self-care model, which can effectively reduce awareness pressure, improve self-efficacy, and facilitate the improvement of the hip fracture.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Humanos , Modelos de Enfermagem , Autoeficácia , Estresse Psicológico
10.
Clin J Pain ; 38(7): 476-483, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35686577

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim was to examine the responsiveness, presence of floor or ceiling effects, and minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) for 2 new measures of pain-related catastrophizing and self-efficacy in individuals with chronic low back pain. METHODS: A total of 183 individuals with chronic low back pain recruited from physical therapy clinics in Thailand completed the Thai versions of the 6-item University of Washington Concerns About Pain scale (T-UW-CAP6) and 6-item University of Washington Pain-Related Self-Efficacy scale (T-UW-PRSE6) at baseline and at 4 weeks follow-up. Perceived change in low back symptom was assessed at 4 weeks using a 7-point measure of Global Perceived Effect (GPE). Responsiveness of the T-UW-CAP6 and the T-UW-PRSE6 scale scores were evaluated by computing the effect sizes and standardized response means for change over time, and examining these as a function of the GPE ratings. Floor and ceiling effects were examined by evaluating the score distributions. Scale core MCIDs were estimated by computing a half a SD and SE of measurement statistics for each scale. RESULTS: Responsiveness of the scales to pain treatment was supported by differences found in the mean change scores as a function of the treatment response categories. No significant floor or ceiling effects were found for either measure. Changes of 4.38 and 3.68 appeared to be the smallest change score perceived as clinical meaningful for the T-UW-CAP6 and T-UW-PRSE 6 scale scores, respectively. DISCUSSION: The T-UW-CAP6 and T-UW-PRSE6 demonstrated good ability to detect perceived changes over time in patients with chronic low back pain. The MCIDs values provide a benchmark for assessing individual improvement in this clinical context.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Dor Lombar , Avaliação da Deficiência , Humanos , Medição da Dor , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 73(2): 183-189, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35748538

RESUMO

Background: In research on the subject, the predictive importance of personal resources is indicated for diet quality. Objective: The aim of the study was quantitative assessment of diet depending on the level of generalised self- efficacy among elite Polish basketball players. Material and Methods: Food diaries (2 training days and 1 no training day) of 48 basketball players were analysed. Further assessed were 144 food rations based on the Diet 6.0 program, and the results were compared to the current Polish nutritional standards. The Generalised Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) was also used. Statistical analyses were performed by estimating Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (p<0.05). Results: The share of energy from proteins, fats and carbohydrates was 18.2%, 29.4% and 52.4%, respectively. Of the mineral salts, the average diet contained: 2,107.6 mg sodium, 2,918.3 mg potassium, 736.3 mg calcium, 1,372.2 mg phosphorus, 380.1 mg magnesium, and 11.6 mg iron. Of the vitamins, the average diet contained: 1,100.3 µg of vitamin A, 5.3 µg of vitamin D, vitamin E in the amount of 8.2 mg, 78.1 mg of vitamin C, 1.1 mg vitamin B1, 1.3 mg vitamin B2, 1.9 mg of vitamin B6, 271.7 µg of vitamin B9 and 4.7 µg of vitamin B12. It was also shown that as the sense of self-efficacy developed, the supply of energy, water, protein, digestible carbohydrates, energy from carbohydrates, sucrose and PUFAs also increased in the players' diets. At the same time, along with the increase in self-efficacy, the supply of: Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Cu and iodine as well as vitamins: A, E, B1, B3, B6 and C, also increased in the players' diets. Conclusions: Incomplete diet balance has been demonstrated, as well as significant relationships between the level of self-efficacy and the supply of certain nutrients in the diet of elite Polish basketball players. The obtained results indicate the legitimacy of diet monitoring and nutritional education as well as considering personality traits in activities promoting maintaining a proper diet among athletes.


Assuntos
Basquetebol , Carboidratos , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Nutrientes , Estado Nutricional , Polônia , Autoeficácia , Vitaminas
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742307

RESUMO

The individual and collective perception of self-efficacy in clown therapists is fundamental in order to be able to be active, restrained, energetic and defocused, if necessary, without being overwhelmed by any problems patients might have. The present study evaluated both the incidence of motivational and dispositional functions on the level of perceived self-efficacy with a sample of 259 Italian clown therapists who were administered The Volunteer Self-Efficacy Scale, the Volunteer Process Model and the Italy Personality Inventory. The significance of a hierarchical linear regression model of perceived self-efficacy was tested. The results showed that the value orientation of the operators mainly influenced the level of perceived self-efficacy, that is, the search for actions with a high social meaning, rather than the orientation towards situations and experiences that allow one to expand one's knowledge and promote one's own person. Profiles with higher perceived self-efficacy were associated with the trait of dynamism and conscientiousness, while a person's vulnerability was found to be a significant negative predictor of self-efficacy. An additional significant predictor was the experience of the clown therapist. The results of the study also showed a positive and functional role of the synergy conferred by teamwork. The group mitigates the emotional difficulties of the individual and supports him/her by orienting him/her technically and compensating for any inexperience in the field of animation in sensitive contexts, such as hospital wards with serious and vulnerable patients, such as children.


Assuntos
Motivação , Autoeficácia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade , Voluntários
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is the most effective method for achieving accelerated weight loss. However, in the short- and medium-term, between 20% and 40% of patients regain a significant percentage of the weight lost. Cognitive and attitudinal psychological variables contribute to explaining weight regain. The aim of this study was to analyze differences in self-efficacy, locus of control, and attributions among bariatric patients, in accordance with weight maintenance or weight regain. METHODS: Participants were classified according to weight regain (≥15% weight regain) and weight maintenance (<15% weight regain). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was employed to assess the diagnostic value of the locus of control for weight loss and to establish a cutoff point to differentiate those who maintained weight loss from those who regained more than 15% of the weight lost. RESULTS: Those who maintained weight loss showed a statistically higher locus of control ratio than those who regained weight. The locus of control ratio was associated with a lower risk of weight regain (odds ratio 0.760, p = 0.018). Using the area under the ROC curve (AUC), the locus of control significantly identified those who maintained weight (AUC = 0.761; p = 0.001). The maximum combination of sensitivity and specificity was shown at the cutoff point of 39. Qualitative results show a difference in the type of attributions and expectations according to current weight maintenance or weight regain status. CONCLUSION: Participants' self-efficacy expectations, locus of control, and attributions change in accordance with the outcome achieved in terms of weight regain or weight maintenance.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Derivação Gástrica , Obesidade Mórbida , Derivação Gástrica/métodos , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Motivação , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autoeficácia , Ganho de Peso , Perda de Peso
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742367

RESUMO

The September 11th World Trade Center (WTC) disaster resulted in an elevated prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among those directly exposed, yet lower than expected rates of mental health treatment seeking and high levels of reported perceived unmet mental healthcare need were observed in this population in the years following. Self-efficacy, an individual's self-perception of their ability to succeed in specific situations or accomplish a task or goal, may in part explain this discrepancy; however, little is known about its interplay with the help-seeking behaviors of disaster-exposed populations. We used WTC Health Registry data (n = 11,851) to describe the relationship between self-efficacy and three outcomes related to help-seeking behavior: (1) seeking mental health treatment, (2) perceived unmet mental health care needs, and (3) satisfaction with mental health treatment. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We found a dose-response relationship between self-efficacy score and mental health help-seeking: for every one unit increase in self-efficacy score, we observed a 6% increase in the odds of having treatment 4 to 12 months ago (OR = 1.06, CI: 1.03-1.09), a 7% increase in the odds of having had treatment 1 to 2 years ago (OR = 1.07, CI: 1.04, 1.09), and a 10% increase in the odds of having sought treatment 2 or more years ago (OR = 1.10, CI: 1.08, 1.12) compared to those who had sought treatment more recently. An understanding of individual self-efficacy may help improve post-disaster mental health treatment in order to provide more tailored and helpful care.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Ataques Terroristas de 11 de Setembro , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Autoeficácia , Ataques Terroristas de 11 de Setembro/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742641

RESUMO

Most of the research literature on cyberbullying (CB) has focused on adolescents, but due to their intensive, unsupervised use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT), higher education students are at high risk of being involved in CB. The current study examined the nature of CB among 1004 higher education students. In addition, we explored the relationships between cyber-victimization, social support, loneliness, and self-efficacy. For that purpose, we applied a path analysis model (PA) to explain the effect of each variable on the cyber-victimization experience, expecting that high levels of loneliness and low levels of self-efficacy will predict cyber-victimization, but might be moderated and reduced by high levels of social support. Results revealed that social support moderated the relationships between these socio-emotional variables and cyber-victimization, and might serve as a protective factor. These findings on young adults may contribute to the understanding of the nature of cyber-victimization throughout the life cycle. Nowadays, academic institutions are facing an uphill effort in trying to restrain online misbehavior. In view of the findings, higher education policy could help facilitate coping with CB through student support and focused intervention programs.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Cyberbullying , Adolescente , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Humanos , Solidão , Autoeficácia , Apoio Social , Estudantes/psicologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742736

RESUMO

This study developed a problem-based learning (PBL) module to improve integrated thinking and problem-solving ability in students of dental hygiene. After applying PBL, the study tested the improvement in the problem-solving ability and self-efficacy of students. The subjects were 31 fourth-year students of the Department of Dental Hygiene at G University. The PBL process was applied to three topics for 15 weeks, and the tools for evaluating problem-solving ability and self-efficacy were reconstructed and used before and after the application to examine the effects of the module. The result indicates that the mean of problem-solving ability (32 detailed items) increased from 3.37 to 3.65 (an increase of 0.28) after classes (p < 0.001). Alternatively, the average for self-efficacy (22 detailed questions) increased from 0.21 to 2.89 (p < 0.05; an increase of 2.67). The study also confirmed the correlation between problem-solving ability and the total posttest score for self-efficacy (p < 0.001). Thus, the problem-solving ability and self-efficacy of learners were improved in the class to which PBL was applied. These improvements exerted a significant effect on the improvement of problem-solving ability. This finding confirmed the effect of the PBL method on dental hygiene education.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Autoeficácia , Humanos , Higiene Bucal , Resolução de Problemas , Estudantes
17.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 445, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Japan, community medicine clerkships facilitate positive attitudes toward rural medical practice and encourage rural recruitment. Rural self-efficacy has been shown to influence rural career intent following a rural clinical placement. However, the impact of subjective difficulties of living in a rural area on future rural career intent is also important. This study aims to explore whether rural self-efficacy influences the relationship between difficulty with living in a rural area and rural career intent.  METHODS: The subjects included 308 male and 255 female participants aged 20-41 [median (interquartile range): 22 (21-22)] years. Rural self-efficacy was based on a validated scale consisting of 15 questions. Difficulty with living in a rural area was measured asking students. A cohort survey was conducted to evaluate the effect of the rural self-efficacy score on the rural career intent of Japanese medical students after they completed their rural clinical training. RESULTS: The following variables were significantly associated with a higher rural self-efficacy score: female sex (p = 0.003), age < 21 years (p = 0.013), having a doctor as a role model (p < 0.001), gaining admission through a school recommendation (p = 0.016), living in a rural or remote area until the age of 18 years (p = 0.018), and orientation towards general medicine (p < 0.001). In addition, baseline difficulty with living in a rural area was significantly associated with a lower self-efficacy score (p < 0.001). Participants with a stronger intent to practice in a rural area before rural clinical training had higher rural self-efficacy and showed a stronger positive rural career intent after rural clinical training (p < 0.001). A multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that difficulty with living in a rural area [odds ratio (OR): 0.61; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.39-0.84] was still associated with lower rural career intent after rural clinical training, independent of all confounders such as gender, age, scholarship for regional duty, rural background, and orientation towards general medicine. However, when rural self-efficacy (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.07-1.16) was added as a factor for rural career intent, difficulty with living in a rural area (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.43-1.06) was no longer observed as an associated factor. CONCLUSION: Subjective difficulty with living in a rural area was shown to reduce future rural career intent, but high rural self-efficacy ameliorated this decline.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Rural , Estudantes de Medicina , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Escolha da Profissão , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Área de Atuação Profissional , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Recursos Humanos
18.
Occup Ther Int ; 2022: 5387795, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35677567

RESUMO

The new generation of employees grows up in the environment of rapid economic development, fierce competition, diversified values, and multiple channels of cultural communication, and their unique growth environment creates characteristics such as their unstable psychological state, poor adjustment ability, and significant self-awareness. The special psychological condition of the new generation employees will affect their own development and that of the organization. How to effectively manage the psychological capital of new generation employees has become an urgent problem for modern human resource management. Based on the social exchange theory and resource conservation theory, this study explores the relationship between the psychological capital of new generation employees and their job performance and propensity to leave and proposes research hypotheses and research models. Based on the survey data of 330 new generation employees, SPSS software was used to analyze the data and test the hypotheses. The psychological capital, job performance, and turnover tendency of new generation employees differed to different degrees in terms of age, education, years of work experience, and position level. The psychological capital of the new generation employees had a significant negative effect on the propensity to leave. Psychological capital had a significant positive effect on the relational performance dimension of job performance, and among the four dimensions of psychological capital, resilience and optimism had a significant positive effect on relational performance, while self-efficacy and hope had no significant effect on relational performance. The psychological capital of new generation employees mainly contributes to task performance through hope, resilience, and optimism and to relational performance through resilience and optimism.


Assuntos
Terapia Ocupacional , Humanos , Japão , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho
19.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 438, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-efficacy is crucial in improving medical students' communication skills. This study aims to clarify where medical students' self-efficacy is greatest following an interview with a simulated patient and subsequent feedback. METHODS: A total of 162 medical students (109 men, 53 women) in their fourth or fifth year at a university in Japan participated in this study. The degree of self-efficacy in medical interviewing was measured before and after a medical interview with a simulated patient, and after the subsequent feedback session. RESULTS: ANOVA analysis revealed that self-efficacy for medical interviews was higher after both the interview and the feedback session than before the interview. Among all three time points, self-efficacy was highest after the feedback session. CONCLUSIONS: Feedback following a simulated interview with a simulated patient is important to improve the self-efficacy of medical students when learning medical interviewing skills.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Competência Clínica , Comunicação , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Autoeficácia
20.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 290: 997-999, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35673174

RESUMO

There is little research on the relationship between digital health technology use and health services, self-efficacy, health status, and health information seeking behavior among older family caregivers. We conducted a secondary analysis of the US Health Information National Data and found that older family caregivers with a regular healthcare provider are more likely to use digital health technology, which increases their confidence in obtaining health information (ß=0.075, z=2.015, p<0.044).


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Tecnologia Biomédica , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Autoeficácia
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