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1.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 164(1): 25-34, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983737

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide occurring zoonosis caused by the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). All warm-blooded species, including humans, serve as intermediate hosts. Definitive hosts are exclusively cats. Farm poultry can become infected with oocysts from contaminated feed or directly from the ground, or by pecking of e.g. infected rodents. Outdoor or free-range housing of poultry increases the risk of infection with length of time. Poulty meat must be seen as a potential source of infection for humans with the increasing popularity of humane animal husbandry practices in poultry farming. This short literature review attempts to assess the current epidemiological situation in farmed poultry and to assess the possible relevance of toxoplasmosis of poultry meat and poultry meat products for human consumption.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Fazendas , Oocistos , Aves Domésticas , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/prevenção & controle
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1354: 145-159, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807441

RESUMO

The chicken gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has a complex, biodiverse microbial community of ~ 9 million bacterial genes plus archaea and fungi that links the host diet to its health. This microbial population contributes to host physiology through metabolite signaling while also providing local and systemic nutrients to multiple organ systems. In a homeostatic state, the host-microbial interaction is symbiotic; however, physiological issues are associated with dysregulated microbiota. Manipulating the microbiota is a therapeutic option, and the concept of adding beneficial bacteria to the intestine has led to probiotic and prebiotic development. The gut microbiome is readily changeable by diet, antibiotics, pathogenic infections, and host- and environmental-dependent events. The intestine performs key roles of nutrient absorption, tolerance of beneficial microbiota, yet responding to undesirable microbes or microbial products and preventing translocation to sterile body compartments. During homeostasis, the immune system is actively preventing or modulating the response to known or innocuous antigens. Manipulating the microbiota through nutrition, modulating host immunity, preventing pathogen colonization, or improving intestinal barrier function has led to novel methods to prevent disease, but also resulted in improved body weight, feed conversion, and carcass yield in poultry. This review highlights the importance of adding different feed additives to the diets of poultry in order to manipulate and enhance health and productivity of flocks.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Trato Gastrointestinal , Aves Domésticas , Prebióticos/análise
3.
Food Microbiol ; 102: 103932, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809927

RESUMO

Campylobacter jejuni-related foodborne diseases are mainly attributed to the consumption of undercooked chicken meat and cross-contaminated produce. This study aimed to develop a survival kinetics model, based on the Weibull model, for predicting foodborne C. jejuni survival during gastric digestion in a model stomach. We previously confirmed that C. jejuni can survive temperatures up to 62 °C; therefore, certain types of grilled chicken skewers (yakitori) were examined for C. jejuni survival during simulated gastric digestion. C. jejuni survival on a chicken thigh following grilling was examined to confirm the foods for digestion experiments. Further, C. jejuni survival during model digestion was investigated through simultaneous digestion of raw chicken and cross-contaminated iceberg lettuce. The model stomach pH increased from 1.5 to 6.0 immediately after yakitori ingestion and did not decrease below 4.0 within 3 h of digestion. Gastric digestion did not significantly contribute to C. jejuni inactivation (<1.5 log reduction after 3 h digestion). Our model could predict C. jejuni survival kinetics in simulated gastric fluid under varying pH during model digestion. This approach can be used to predict C. jejuni survival rates following digestion to improve food safety and reduce Campylobacter-related disease outbreaks.


Assuntos
Campylobacter jejuni , Digestão , Produtos da Carne , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Galinhas , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Cinética , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Estômago
4.
Food Microbiol ; 102: 103901, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809933

RESUMO

Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) is a zoonotic microorganism and rarely reported in duck production chain. This study aimed to investigate prevalence, serotype distribution, antibiotic resistance and genetic diversity of C. perfringens at different stages of a duck production chain. In total, 319 samples were collected from a large-scale rearing and slaughter one-stop enterprise in Weifang, China, of which 42.95% of samples were positive for C. perfringens. All isolates were genotype A. Cpe and cpb2 genes were found in 2.54% and 24.87% of the isolates, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that 55.47% of the isolates resistant to at least 5 classes of commonly used antibiotics. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) results showed that 65 representative isolates were divided into 47 sequences types (STs), 33.85% of them were included into four clonal complexes (CC). Some of isolates from breeding and slaughtering stages were distributed in the same CC or ST, indicating duck products may be contaminated by C. perfringens originated from the breeding stage. Part of duck isolates were distributed in the same CC as human isolates and systemically close with human isolates. The high contamination rates of duck products, the isolates with multi-drug antibiotic resistance or the cpe gene, and the close relationship between strains from human and ducks, indicated potential public health risks, not only control measures at slaughtering stage but also at rearing stage should be considered to reduce this risks.


Assuntos
Infecções por Clostridium , Clostridium perfringens , Patos/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , China , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Clostridium perfringens/classificação , Clostridium perfringens/isolamento & purificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Prevalência
5.
Food Microbiol ; 102: 103906, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809938

RESUMO

The risk of salmonellosis is expected to increase with the rise in the consumption of poultry meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the combination treatment of peroxyacetic acid (PAA) or lactic acid (LA) with UV-C against Salmonella Enteritidis biofilms formed on food contact surface (stainless steel [SS], silicone rubber [SR], and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene [UHMWPE]) and chicken skin. The biofilm on food contact surface and chicken skin was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) by combination treatment of PAA or LA with UV-C. Combination treatment of PAA (50-500 µg/mL) with UV-C (5 and 10 min) reduced 3.10-6.41 log CFU/cm2 and LA (0.5-2.0%) with UV-C (5 and 10 min) reduced 3.35-6.41 log CFU/cm2 of S. Enteritidis biofilms on food contact surface. Salmonella Enteritidis biofilms on chicken skin was reduced around 2 log CFU/g with minor quality changes in color and texture by combination treatment of PAA (500 µg/mL) or LA (2.0%) with UV-C (10 min). Additional reduction occurred on SS and UHMWPE by PAA or LA with UV-C, while only LA with UV-C caused additional reduction on chicken skin. Also, it was visualized that the biofilm on food contact surface and chicken skin was removed through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and death of cells constituting the biofilm was confirmed through confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). These results indicating that the combination treatment of PAA or LA with UV-C could be used for S. Enteritidis biofilm control strategy in poultry industry.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos , Ácido Láctico , Ácido Peracético , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonella enteritidis , Animais , Biofilmes , Galinhas/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Ácido Láctico/farmacologia , Ácido Peracético/farmacologia , Aço Inoxidável
6.
Food Microbiol ; 102: 103920, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809946

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the biogenic amines (BAs) formed in chicken breast meat packaged using different techniques (AP, Hi-O2-MAP or VP) during the storage under different conditions (cold room or display case), to correlate the microbiological quality (TPC, LAB, Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae) of chicken meat with BAs formation and to assess the suitability of selected biogenic amines as indicators of chicken meat spoilage. The initial TPC of chicken fillets was 2.57-3.04 log cfu/g. Over time a systematic significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in TPC was observed to >7.5 log cfu/g (AP and VP; display case) determined on day 9. It was found that cadaverine and tyramine dominated in quantitative terms in chicken fillets, regardless of packaging technique and storage conditions (166.00 mg/kg in AP meat in cold room on day 9 and 175.03 mg/kg on day 9 in MAP meat in display case, respectively). Taking into account the BAI, high and significant (p ≤ 0.05) correlation coefficients (from 0.51 to 0.95) were obtained with all analyzed indicators of microbiological quality. The concentration of cadaverine, putrescine contents or BAI can potentially serve as chemical quality indicator for freshness of chicken meat.


Assuntos
Aminas Biogênicas , Embalagem de Alimentos , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Cadaverina/análise , Galinhas , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos , Carne/análise , Tiramina/análise
7.
Food Microbiol ; 102: 103923, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809949

RESUMO

Scientific advances in pathogen decontamination offer great potential to reduce Campylobacter spp. during primary processing. The aim of this study was to collate data from eligible studies using systematic review, meta-analysis followed by meta-regression. Random effect meta-analysis revealed heterogenous (τ2 = 0.6, I2 = 98 %) pooled reduction in Campylobacter concentration of 0.6 log10 CFU/carcass and a decrease in relative risk of Campylobacter spp. prevalence in broiler carcasses by 57.2 %. Decontamination interventions during Inside-Outside-Carcass-Wash were most effective on concentration (0.8 log10 CFU/carcass) while those during evisceration were most effective on prevalence (78.0 % decrease in relative risk). Physical decontamination was more effective on Campylobacter prevalence (68.7 % decrease in relative risk) compared chemical treatment (30.3 %). Application through immersion was superior on Campylobacter concentration (0.9 log10 CFU/carcass odds reduction) to spraying (0.5 log10 CFU/carcass odds reduction). Publication bias and small study effect were observed in trials on Campylobacter prevalence but not for concentration. The meta-regression revealed four and seven potential modifier variables for concentration and prevalence respectively. This meta-analysis provides an overview of the expected magnitude in Campylobacter spp. concentration and prevalence with application of decontamination interventions on broiler carcasses along the slaughter process and forms a basis of quantitative microbial risk assessment and derivation of intervention measures. Even though modest microbial concentration reduction is reported there was a large decrease in contamination prevalence during processing interventions.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Campylobacter , Galinhas , Manipulação de Alimentos , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Descontaminação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Prevalência
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2411: 77-92, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816399

RESUMO

Vaccines are the most effective and economic way of combating poultry viruses. However, the use of traditional live-attenuated poultry vaccines has problems such as antigenic differences with the currently circulating strains of viruses and the risk of reversion to virulence. In veterinary medicine, reverse genetics is applied to solve these problems by developing genotype-matched vaccines, better attenuated and effective live vaccines, broad-spectrum vaccine vectors, bivalent vaccines, and genetically tagged recombinant vaccines that facilitate the serological differentiation of vaccinated animals from infected animals. In this chapter, we discuss reverse genetics as a tool for the development of recombinant vaccines against economically devastating poultry viruses.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Genética Reversa/métodos , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Vacinas Virais/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Galinhas/imunologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
9.
Food Microbiol ; 101: 103878, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579846

RESUMO

Microbes play key roles in animal welfare and food safety but there is little understanding of whether microbiomes associated with livestock vary in space and time. Here we analysed the bacteria associated with the carcasses of the same breed of 28 poultry broiler flocks at different stages of processing across two climatically similar UK regions over two seasons with 16S metabarcode DNA sequencing. Numbers of taxa types did not differ by region, but did by season (P = 1.2 × 10-19), and numbers increased with factory processing, especially in summer. There was also a significant (P < 1 × 10-4) difference in the presences and abundances of taxa types by season, region and factory processing stage, and the signal for seasonal and regional differences remained highly significant on final retail products. This study therefore revealed that both season and region influence the types and abundances of taxa on retail poultry products. That poultry microbiomes differ in space and time should be considered when testing the efficacy of microbial management interventions designed to increase animal welfare and food safety: these may have differential effects on livestock depending on location and timing.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Aves Domésticas , Estações do Ano , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Gado/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Reino Unido
10.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 25(1): 163-180, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823690

RESUMO

The popularity of backyard poultry (chickens, turkey, guinea fowl) and waterfowl (ducks and geese) is increasing in the United States, and these animals frequently present for veterinary care. Like other birds, these species have unique anatomy that should be clinically considered before anesthesia. A balanced approach to an injectable, inhalational, or combination anesthesia protocol must be taken to ensure a safe outcome for the patient and to achieve the procedural needs. A well-informed clinician may use both sedation and general anesthesia to care for backyard bird patients in practice.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Anestesia/veterinária , Animais , Galinhas , Patos , Aves Domésticas , Estados Unidos
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt A): 127328, 2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597935

RESUMO

Slaughterhouse waste and dead animals are mainly disposed of by incineration, which generates greenhouse gases and NOx. These wastes are a source of nutrients that can be recovered by circular economy techniques if material recycling is given a priority over energy recovery. To valorize high-protein animal waste (containing bones, meat, feather) for fertilizer purposes, the waste was processed by acid solubilization and neutralized with potassium hydroxide solution, which yielded a liquid fertilizer with plant growth biostimulating properties (due to the amino acids presence). The composition analysis showed that new fertilizers met all quality requirements set by the law, contain ~0.5% m/m amino acids and are microbiologically pure. The fertilizer was enriched with microelements to the level of 0.2% m/m and tested for biological effectiveness in germination tests and field studies. Compared with the commercial formulation, the fertilizer increased stem length and chlorophyll content (by 8.2% and 27.0%, respectively), wheat crop yield and grain micronutrients density (Cu by 31.2%, Mn by 10.5%, Zn by 33.9%) and improved the wheat flour baking properties. The described solution propose a safe way to utilize hazardous waste via technological mobile installation, enabling no transportation of waste, which is an important aspect of sanitary-epidemiological risk minimization.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Fertilizantes , Animais , Farinha , Aves Domésticas , Triticum
13.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(1): 22, 2021 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34905106

RESUMO

The intestinal tract of animals is a complex ecosystem in which nutrients, microbiota and host cells interact extensively. Probiotics can be considered as part of the natural microbiota of the gut and are involved in improving homeostasis. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is a general term for a class of non-spore forming, gram-positive bacteria whose main product of fermented sugar is lactic acid. LAB are considered to be a type of probiotic due to their health-promoting effects on the host, and are very effective in the treatment of human and animal diseases. LAB have been widely used as a class of microbial agents in the field of livestock and poultry breeding. They are also considered to be the best substitutes for antibiotics to improve animal health. Here, we review the biological functions, probiotic characteristics and applications of LAB in livestock and poultry breeding. This review is designed to provide a theoretical base for the in-depth exploration and promotion of LAB use in animal diets.


Assuntos
Lactobacillales , Microbiota , Probióticos , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Humanos , Aves Domésticas
14.
New Microbiol ; 44(4): 210-216, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34942014

RESUMO

Enterococcus cecorum and Enterococcus hirae can cause locomotor problems, septicaemia, and endocarditis in broiler chickens. Understanding transmission routes and resistance patterns are essential for effective treatment. The aim of this study was to follow the same animals from the breeder flock to the hatchery and up to 14-day-old broiler chickens on the farm to find the source of E. cecorum and E. hirae. During the production cycle, only faeces and organs of broilers were E. hirae positive in all three sampled farms in which recurrent enterococcal infections were previously confirmed. None of the isolates possessed virulence genes. Based on resistance profiles, a variety of different strains were present in faeces and organs of different broilers' ages. Samples from the breeder flock and hatchery were negative. Faecal shedding on the farm and tolerance of enterococci to the environmental conditions enable persistence of pathogenic enterococci in farm dust; therefore, adequate cleaning and disinfection after depopulation of the farms could prevent disease recurrence in the new cycle. Susceptibility testing of E. hirae isolates showed no resistance to the drugs of choice for the treatment of enterococcal infections in poultry.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Antibacterianos , Galinhas , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Enterococcus , Streptococcus faecium ATCC 9790 , Aves Domésticas , Eslovênia
15.
Arch Razi Inst ; 76(3): 499-506, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824743

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is a well-known commensal and pathogen agent of many wild and domestic animals. A wide variety of infections can be caused by S. aureus, from suppurative skin infections to life-threatening septicemia. This study was conducted to determine the prophage typing and the pattern of antibiotic resistance of S. aureus isolated from broiler poultry before they have been slaughtered. In this study, 200 nasal and cloacal swab samples from 20 different flocks were collected for bacterial isolation. Staphylococci were identified using biochemical and molecular methods before being examined for mecA gene detections in all samples resistant to oxacillin and cefotaxime. The highest value of antibiotic resistance was observed against ciprofloxacin (94%), and the maximum value of susceptibility was to gentamicin (85%). Twenty-eight (27%) samples were resistant to oxacillin. In methicillin-resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates, 5 prophage types were observed, where the SGB prophage with a frequency of 75% was identified as a dominant prophage; in isolates of S. aureus susceptible to methicillin, 8 prophage types were observed, where SGFa prophage with a frequency about 82% was the dominant prophage. The high prevalence of MRSA isolates can indicate the risk of transmission of these bacteria to the food cycle. Furthermore, existence of various prophages in these isolates can be considered a threat to public health in producing pathogenicity factors in this bacterium while also empowering other bacterial pathogenicity, even other bacterial genera.


Assuntos
Prófagos , Staphylococcus aureus , Animais , Galinhas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Aves Domésticas , Prófagos/genética
16.
Arch Razi Inst ; 76(3): 507-519, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824744

RESUMO

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella serovars are considered a significant threat to veterinary and public health. Developing new antimicrobial compounds that can treat the infection caused by these notorious pathogens is a big challenge. Bacteriophages can be adsorbed on and inhibit the growth of bacteria, providing optimal and promising alternatives to chemical antimicrobial compounds against foodborne pathogens due to their abundance in nature and high host specificity. The objective of the current study was to isolate and characterize new phages from poultry farms and sewage and to evaluate their efficacy against S. Enteritidis isolates. The study reports three lytic phages designated as ϕSET1, ϕSET2, and ϕSET3 isolated from poultry carcasses and sewage samples in Qalubiya governorate Egypt. The effectiveness of phages was evaluated against multidrug-resistant S. Enteritidis strains. Electron microscopy showed that these phages belong to the Siphoviridae family. Phages were tested against 13 bacterial strains to determine their host range. They could infect four S. Enteritidis and one S. Typhimurium; however, they did not infect other tested bacterial species, indicating their narrow infectivity. The bacteriophage's single-step growth curves revealed a latent period of 20 min for ϕSET1 and 30 min for ϕSET2 and ϕSET3. The isolated Salmonella phages prevented the growth of S. Enteritidis for up to 18 hrs. The findings revealed that Salmonella phages could be used as alternative natural antibacterial compounds to combat infection with MDR S. Enteritidis in the poultry industry and represent a step forward to using large panels of phages for eliminating Salmonella from the food chain.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Egito , Fazendas , Salmonella enteritidis , Sorogrupo
17.
Water Sci Technol ; 84(9): 2406-2421, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810320

RESUMO

This article focuses on the phycoremediation of pollutants from secondary treated coke-oven effluent through a green and economical route. A microalgal sample was collected and identified as a consortium of Chlorella sp. and Synechococcus sp. The culture cost was reduced by using poultry litter extract as supplementary material to BG-11 medium. Since the major pollutants present in real secondary treated coke-oven wastewater are phenol, ammoniacal-N (NH4+) and cyanide, several matrices were designed with these three major pollutants by varying their initial concentrations such as phenol (2-10 mg/L), cyanide (0.3-1 mg/L) and NH4+ (100-200 mg/L), termed as simulated secondary treated coke-oven wastewater. Maximum removal was observed with individual solutions of phenol (4 mg/L), cyanide (0.6 mg/L) and NH4+ (175 mg/L), while maximum removal in simulated secondary treated coke-oven wastewater was observed at higher concentrations of phenol (8 mg/L) and cyanide (0.8 mg/L) and the same concentration of NH4+ (175 mg/L). A consortium was found effective to meet statutory limits of pollutants. Kinetic model was developed for predicting growth of consortium and observed that the poultry litter extract-enriched BG-11 medium showed higher values of maximum specific growth rate (0.56 per day) and carrying capacity (1,330 mg/L) than that in BG-11 medium only.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Coque , Poluentes Ambientais , Animais , Coque/análise , Análise Custo-Benefício , Nutrientes , Aves Domésticas , Águas Residuárias/análise
18.
J Vis Exp ; (175)2021 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605822

RESUMO

Within the past three decades, red meat and poultry scientists focused on developing strategies and technologies to manipulate muscle development during embryonic and fetal development. This area continues to be an area of focus because muscle fiber number is established during this time and determines the basis for all future growth. In poultry, numerous studies demonstrated in ovo feeding of growth factors, vitamins, or other nutrients improved chick embryonic muscle and intestinal development. Improving in ovo muscle development could benefit the poultry industry by possibly influencing meat yield, growth rate, or myopathy conditions. During the past five years, the Gonzalez Laboratory at the University of Georgia developed a nicotinamide riboside in ovo feeding methodology for broiler-chicken embryos, which altered muscle development. When injected into a developing embryo's yolk sac, nicotinamide riboside increased pectoralis major muscle weight and muscle fiber density at hatch. This protocol will demonstrate a methodology to accurately and reproducibly conduct in ovo feeding studies utilizing commercial standard- and high-yielding broiler embryos. These data and methods will allow other research groups to perform in ovo feeding studies with much success and reproducibility.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas , Óvulo , Aves Domésticas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Poult Sci ; 100(11): 101471, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607155

RESUMO

Temperature stress (TS) is a significant issue in poultry production, which has implications for animal health and welfare, productivity, and industry profitability. Temperature stress, including both hot (heat stress) and cold conditions (cold stress), is associated with increased incidence of meat quality defects such as pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) and dark, firm, and dry (DFD) meat costing poultry industries millions of dollars annually. A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effect of ambient TS on meat quality parameters of poultry. Forty-eight publications which met specific criteria for inclusion were identified through a systematic literature review. Temperature stress was defined by extracting 2 descriptors for each treatment mean from the chosen studies: (1) temperature imposed for the experimental treatments (°C) and duration of temperature exposure. Treatment duration was categorized for analysis into acute (≤24 h) or chronic (>24 h) treatments. Meat quality parameters considered were color (L*-a*-b* scheme), pH (initial and ultimate), drip loss, cooking loss, and shear force. Linear mixed model analysis, including study as a random effect, was used to determine the effect of treatment temperature and duration on meat quality. Model evaluation was conducted by performing a k-fold cross-validation to estimate test error, and via assessment of the root mean square prediction error (RMSPE), and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). Across both acute and chronic durations, treatment temperature was found to have a significant effect on all studied meat quality parameters. As treatment temperature increased, meat demonstrated characteristics of PSE meat and, as temperature decreased, meat demonstrated characteristics of DFD meat. The interaction between treatment temperature and duration was significant for most traits, however, the relative impact of treatment duration on the studied traits was inconsistent. Acute TS had a larger effect than chronic TS on ultimate pH, and chronic stress had a more considerable impact on color traits (L* and a*). This meta-analysis quantifies the effect of ambient TS on poultry meat quality. However, quantitative effects were generally small, and therefore may or may not be of practical significance from a processing perspective.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Culinária , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Carne/análise , Temperatura
20.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 105 Suppl 1: 65-75, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622486

RESUMO

The strong odour of faeces and excessive production of gases in some dog breeds have long been a concern of owners. The pet food industry uses nutritional alternatives, such as high-quality ingredients and additives, to improve the odour of faeces. However, there are still some dog breeds, such as the French Bulldog, that present this problem due to the presence into the large intestine of indigested protein. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the volatile compounds that influence the odour of dog faeces is important. This study aimed to identify changes of faecal odour compounds that are most prevalent in French Bulldogs based on food containing different high-quality protein sources and their effect in sensory analysis. Four maintenance foods with different protein sources were formulated: P, poultry meal food; W, wheat gluten food; PW, poultry meal and wheat gluten food; and PWH, poultry meal, wheat gluten, and hydrolysed protein food. Eight adult French Bulldogs were arranged in a 4x4 Latin square design and adapted to foods for 28 days. Fresh faeces were collected for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and sensory analysis. The means were compared by SAS, and statistical significance was indicated by p ≤ 0.05. No adverse effects were observed in the animals regarding VOCs, and a significant difference was observed in two of the 68 compounds identified. The animals fed a P food had higher concentrations of phenol in the faeces, whereas the indole compound was present at higher concentrations in animals fed the W food. P food was associated with higher odour perception during sensory evaluation. In summary, the source of protein in the foods had little impact on the composition of VOCs, and a greater perception of the odour was determined by sensory analysis when foods containing animal protein were administered.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta , Cães , Fezes , Odorantes , Aves Domésticas
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