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1.
Appl Ergon ; 98: 103598, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607162

RESUMO

Data-linked Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) images can be delayed up to 20 min in the cockpit. Pilots' underappreciating or ignoring the time delay may be the major cause of two fatal accidents. No studies have connected spatial awareness with accidents. This study evaluated how delayed radar information affects the spatial awareness of pilots at three levels of analysis. Thirty-one student pilots and flight instructors completed three sequential estimation tasks (i.e., the current location of storms, the current relative distance to storms, and the future relative distance to storms). Fifty-four weather scenarios were developed for three factors (storm speeds, delays, displays) and presented to pilots. The results indicated that delays and the storm speed significantly affected the three levels of spatial awareness. Participants' estimation accuracy was the lowest under long delay and fast speed in the current location estimation, under medium delay and speed in the current distance estimation, and under short delay and slow speed in the future distance estimation. Spatial awareness could be high under the long delay and fast speed conditions if pilots had no time limits. Thus, pilots can process 20-min delayed radar information. However, there were no differences in estimation accuracy between the static and animation displays in any of the conditions. Well-designed features on displays, such as scale or distance measuring tools, can aid pilots' spatial estimation and support all levels of spatial awareness.


Assuntos
Aviação , Pilotos , Conscientização , Humanos , Radar , Tempo (Meteorologia)
2.
Appl Ergon ; 98: 103599, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656892

RESUMO

A large component of Neville Stanton's work has focused on situation awareness in domains such as defence, transport, and process control. A significant contribution has been to initiate a shift from considering individual human operator situation awareness to considering the situation awareness of human and non-human teams, organisations, and even sociotechnical systems. Though controversial when introduced, the distributed situation awareness model has become increasingly relevant for modern day systems and problems. In this article we reflect on Stanton's contribution and point to a pressing need to consider a. The situation awareness of advanced technologies, and b. situation awareness at a sociotechnical system, societal and even global level. This is demonstrated via discussion on two contemporaneous issues: automated vehicles and the COVID-19 pandemic. It is concluded that, given advances such as artificial intelligence, the increased connectedness of society, emerging issues such as disinformation, and an increasing set of global threats, Stanton's distributed situation awareness model and associated analysis framework provide a useful toolkit for future Human Factors and Ergonomics applications.


Assuntos
Conscientização , COVID-19 , Inteligência Artificial , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Appl Ergon ; 99: 103633, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740074

RESUMO

This study aims to explore the effects of noise and music types on nurses' anxiety, mental workload and situation awareness during an operation. Participants included 20 circulating nurses (CNs) and 16 nurse anesthetists (NAs) who completed a total of 70 operations in which each operation required one CN and one NA. The experiment was separated into a control group (operating noise only) vs. an experimental group (3 different music types-between subjects and 2 music volume levels-within-subjects). Results showed that all participants had excellent situation awareness performance despite their mental workload showing significant differences in various phases of the surgery. Music at 55-60 dB caused lower mental workloads and anxiousness for nurses than those exposed to levels of 75-80 dB. When Mozart's music was played, the participants' mental workload and situation anxiety were lower than when exposed to other music types. Music played at 60 dB during an operation may be a feasible solution to mitigate the negative effects of extra noise and thus improve the nurses' performance.


Assuntos
Música , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Ansiedade/etiologia , Conscientização , Humanos , Carga de Trabalho
4.
Appl Ergon ; 99: 103643, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781180

RESUMO

Ecological Interface Design (EID) is a framework for developing dynamic interfaces that support operators to understand and take appropriate actions within highly-complex systems. This two-part study involved the development and evaluation of a novel EID-based static aviation risk management display. A within-subjects survey-based experiment employed measures of decision accuracy, situation awareness, user workload, usability, and user perceptions. Results from 23 participants showed that when compared to a risk interface utilised by a large aviation company, the EID display achieved higher usability and lower workload ratings with large effect sizes, with no differences in decision accuracy and situation awareness. The findings provide evidence that the EID framework can improve upon static traditional displays. Research contributions also include a novel model of an aviation ground operations system and an example application of EID to the development of a static display. Further research is necessary to identify the extent of the applications and benefits to static displays.


Assuntos
Aviação , Interface Usuário-Computador , Conscientização , Humanos , Gestão de Riscos
5.
Accid Anal Prev ; 164: 106470, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768116

RESUMO

Most research concerned with cyclists' safety has been focused on the crash risk (i.e. their objective safety). However, there has been a growing interest in the perceived level of this risk (i.e. the subjective safety of cyclists). Crash risk and subjective risk perception in urban cycling appear to be mostly well aligned. For example, reduced speed limits have been found to reduce both objective and subjective risks (although there is also evidence for some incongruences). This absolute number of incidents could be misleading, as it does not account for potential differences in cycling volume (i.e. cyclists are likely to prefer streets with reduced speed limits). Thus, it may be important to adjust the absolute number of incidents relative number to the local cycling volume. In this research, we investigate the relation of cycling crashes and subjective risk perception (operationalized through reports from a crowd-sourcing project) for different types of cycling infrastructure and different speed limits, while accounting for the local cycling volume. We find that the absolute number of VGI reports and crashes can be misleading: whereas the absolute incident numbers, for example, suggest few benefits of cycling lanes and tracks, adjusting for the cycling volume reveals an increase of both objective and subjective safety as compared to streets without cycling infrastructure. We also identify situations where cyclists apparently underestimate the crash risk (i.e. on cycleways opposing the cars' traveling direction, and at streets with a speed limit of 30 km/h intersecting streets with higher speed limits). Additional research is required to understand the sources of these discrepancies, and how to make cyclists aware of them.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Ciclismo , Automóveis , Conscientização , Humanos , Percepção
6.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 7122437, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34899896

RESUMO

To maintain situation awareness (SA) when exposed to emergencies during pilotage, a pilot needs to selectively allocate attentional resources to perceive critical status information about ships and environments. Although it is important to continuously monitor a pilot's SA, its relationship with attention is still not fully understood in ship pilotage. This study performs bridge simulation experiments that include vessel departure, navigation in the fairway, encounters, poor visibility, and anchoring scenes with 13 pilots (mean = 11.3 and standard deviation = 1.4 of experience). Individuals were divided into two SA group levels based on the Situation Awareness Rating Technology (SART-2) score (mean = 20.13 and standard deviation = 5.83) after the experiments. The visual patterns using different SA groups were examined using heat maps and scan paths based on pilots' fixations and saccade data. The preliminary visual analyses of the heat maps and scan paths indicate that the pilots' attentional distribution is modulated by the SA level. That is, the most concerning areas of interest (AOIs) for pilots in the high and low SA groups are outside the window (AOI-2) and electronic charts (AOI-1), respectively. Subsequently, permutation simulations were utilized to identify statistical differences between the pilots' eye-tracking metrics and SA. The results of the statistical analyses show that the fixation and saccade metrics are affected by the SA level in different AOIs across the five scenes, which confirms the findings of previous studies. In encounter scenes, the pilots' SA level is correlated with the fixation and saccade metrics: fixation count (p = 0.034 < 0.05 in AOI-1 and p = 0.032 < 0.05 in AOI-2), fixation duration (p = 0.043 < 0.05 in AOI-1 and p = 0.014 < 0.05 in AOI-2), and saccade count (p = 0.086 < 0.1 in AOI-1 and p = 0.054 < 0.1 in AOI-2). This was determined by the fixation count (p = 0.024 < 0.05 in AOI-1 and p = 0.034 < 0.05 in AOI-2), fixation duration (p = 0.036 < 0.05 in AOI-1 and p = 0.047 < 0.05 in AOI-2), and saccade duration (p = 0.05 ≤ 0.05 in AOI-1 and p = 0.042 < 0.05 in AOI-2) in poor-visibility scenes. In the remaining scenes, the SA could not be measured using eye movements alone. This study lays a foundation for the cognitive mechanism recognition of pilots based on SA via eye-tracking technology, which provides a reference to establish cognitive competency standards in preliminary pilot screenings.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Pilotos , Conscientização , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
7.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0258598, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34962916

RESUMO

Vietnam is one the most vulnerable region to climate change and extreme climatic events, such as flash floods and droughts. This present research aims to explore the farm households' beliefs, risk perception, adaptive attitude and climate change adaptation measures that they currently utilize in their farms to cope with climatic risks. Further, this study analyzed effect of climate change belief, awareness and adaptive attitudes on farmers' adaptive behavior. By using structured questionnaire, the data from 816 respondents were collected from seven provinces of Vietnam. We used ordinary least squares regression and logistic regression approach to analyze farmers' belief, perception of climatic change, and risk attitude towards climatic hazards. Results revealed that farmers in the study area are using the most common climatic risk management strategies including applying new technologies, adjustment of the seasonal calendar, and diversification. Findings further revealed that that farm households were mostly concerned about the risk in soil erosion and washout, followed by the stress of prolonging dry season and droughts. The study participants also reported a decrease in precipitation and increase in temperature and frequency and incidence of other extreme climatic events. A positive significant relationship was found between farm management practices and ecological communities. Risk perceptions and attitude toward climate change are essential factors among farm households of northern mountains of Vietnam. Thus, the climate strain linked with the institutional stress and socio-economic has serious insinuations for farm households' livelihood bases, a universal climate change adaptation scheme is required to endure farmers' livelihood.


Assuntos
Atitude , Mudança Climática , Características da Família , Fazendeiros , Percepção , População Rural , Adaptação Fisiológica , Conscientização , Cultura , Humanos , Risco , Gestão de Riscos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vietnã , Tempo (Meteorologia)
8.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0252972, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972117

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 has clearly shown that efficient management of infectious diseases requires a top-down approach which must be complemented with a bottom-up response to be effective. Here we investigate a novel approach to surveillance for transboundary animal diseases using African Swine (ASF) fever as a model. We collected data both at a population level and at the local level on information-seeking behavior respectively through digital data and targeted questionnaire-based surveys to relevant stakeholders such as pig farmers and veterinary authorities. Our study shows how information-seeking behavior and resulting public attention during an epidemic, can be identified through novel data streams from digital platforms such as Wikipedia. Leveraging attention in a critical moment can be key to providing the correct information at the right moment, especially to an interested cohort of people. We also bring evidence on how field surveys aimed at local workers and veterinary authorities remain a crucial tool to assess more in-depth preparedness and awareness among front-line actors. We conclude that these two tools should be used in combination to maximize the outcome of surveillance and prevention activities for selected transboundary animal diseases such as ASF.


Assuntos
Febre Suína Africana/epidemiologia , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Gado/virologia , Animais , Conscientização , Estônia/epidemiologia , Fazendeiros , Internet , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suínos
9.
Vertex ; XXXII(151): 71-78, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783779

RESUMO

Treatment of schizophrenia remains a huge challenge. Despite advances in recent decades in pathophysiology, genetics, and therapeutics, overall outcomes in the evolution of patients do not appear to have undergone such significant changes. Cognition is particularly important, bearing in mind that it is a determining factor in functionality, and this, in turn, in social, family, academic and work performance. Cognitive variables may include the ability to Insight as a form of self-recognition that goes beyond disease awareness. Like all cognitive functions, it is also impaired in patients and hinders, perhaps like no other, adherence to treatment, with the possibility of poor evolution, relapses and worse prognosis. The objective of this paper is to investigate, through a literature review, the characteristics of Insight and what is its importance in the clinical and prognostic of schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Conscientização , Cognição , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
10.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(11)2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833386

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Individuals with cancer, especially advanced cancer, are faced with numerous difficulties associated with the disease, including an earlier death than expected. Those who are able to confront and accept the hardships associated with the disease in a way that aligns with their beliefs benefit from more positive psychological outcomes compared to those who are aware of their diagnosis but are unable to accept it. To date, there is limited research exploring factors contributing to illness and death acceptance in the context of advanced cancer in group therapy settings. Materials and Methods: The current study used a Directed Content Analysis approach on transcripts of online advanced cancer support groups to investigate if and how Yalom's existential factors played a role in the emergence of acceptance. Results: The online support group platform, combined with the help of facilitators, offered supportive environments for individuals seeking help with cancer-related distress by helping patients move towards acceptance. Some participants had already begun the process of accepting their diagnosis before joining the group, others developed acceptance during the group process, while a few continued to be distressed. Our analysis revealed the emergence of four themes related to illness acceptance: (1) Facilitator-Initiated Discussion, including sub-themes of Mindfulness, Relaxation and Imagery, Changing Ways of Thinking, and Spirituality; (2) Personal attitudes, including sub-themes of Optimism and Letting Go of Control; (3) Supportive Environment, including the sub-themes of Providing Support to Others and Receiving Support from Others; and (4) Existential Experience, which included sub-themes of Living with the Diagnosis for an Extended Amount of Time, Legacy and Death Preparations, and Appreciating life. Conclusions: With a paradigm shift to online delivery of psychological services, recognizing factors that contribute to acceptance when dealing with advanced cancer may help inform clinical practices. Future studies should explore patient acceptance longitudinally to inform whether it emerges progressively, which has been suggested by Kübler-Ross.


Assuntos
Atenção Plena , Neoplasias , Conscientização , Emoções , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Grupos de Autoajuda
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770351

RESUMO

The purpose of the current study was to test sound localization of a spoken word, rarely studied in the context of localization, compared to pink noise and a gunshot, while taking into account the source position and the effect of different hearing protection devices (HPDs) used by the listener. Ninety participants were divided into three groups using different HPDs. Participants were tested twice, under with- and no-HPD conditions, and were requested to localize the different stimuli that were delivered from one of eight speakers evenly distributed around them (starting from 22.5°). Localization of the word stimulus was more difficult than that of the other stimuli. HPD usage resulted in a larger mean root-mean-square error (RMSE) and increased mirror image reversal errors for all stimuli. In addition, HPD usage increased the mean RMSE and mirror image reversal errors for stimuli delivered from the front and back, more than for stimuli delivered from the left and right. HPDs affect localization, both due to attenuation and to limitation of pinnae cues when using earmuffs. Difficulty localizing the spoken word should be considered when assessing auditory functionality and should be further investigated to include HPDs with different attenuation spectra and levels, and to further types of speech stimuli.


Assuntos
Localização de Som , Conscientização , Dispositivos de Proteção das Orelhas , Audição , Humanos , Ruído
12.
Accid Anal Prev ; 163: 106465, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758412

RESUMO

Efforts to reduce road crash rates depend on a clear understanding of the factors that contribute to driver risk. Not all drivers are at equivalent risk. It is critical to identify the factors that contribute to the development of expertise in the driving environment. The rapid development of a driver's situation awareness (SA) is central to the safe performance of the driving task. Therefore, SA must be clearly operationalised in order to better assess its role in the development of expertise. This study employs an existing scheme based on the Perceptual Cycle Model (PCM) used for post hoc incident analysis and adapts it to the driving context. We attempted to correlate performance on coded verbalisations indicative of SA with non-invasive objective gaze metrics. Gaze metrics and the verbal counts were shown to differentiate between both expert and experienced (non-expert) drivers, but these measures failed to correlate with one another. Findings indicate differences in the way expert and experienced drivers update their schema of the driving task, with equivalent effort required to do so. The novel adaptation demonstrated in this paper allows for a domain-specific assessment of SA which reliably differentiates between drivers of varying expertise levels. Although selected gaze metrics were shown to be inadequate predictors of SA, additional analysis demonstrated key differences in gaze content. Combined, these findings enhance an understanding of expert SA development contributing to reduced crash risk.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Conscientização , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Humanos
13.
Brain Nerve ; 73(11): 1243-1248, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759062

RESUMO

Visual illusion is a psychological phenomenon characterized by perception that appears to differ from physical reality. Illusory perception persists even though the sufferers are aware of the physical properties of what they are observing. Thus, studying visual illusions has led to an improved understanding of the neural mechanism underlying visual information processing. Visual illusions are important tools in neuroscience. Some brightness illusions, such as the Hermann grid illusion or Chevreul illusion, can be explained by the function of the center-surround antagonistic receptive field of retinal ganglion cells. Additionally, color aftereffects were found to be produced in the retina. In addition, neurons in the primary visual cortex are responsible for the orientation-contingent color aftereffect, known as the McCollough effect. ISI reversal, a visual motion illusion, is known to be caused by a biphasic temporal mechanism located in the retinal or lower visual areas. Higher visual areas are responsible for the production of visual illusions such as the Ponzo illusion, size constancy illusion, or tabletop illusion. These illusions are perceived through the process of achieving size constancy from a two-dimensional retinal image. Thus, both low-level and high-level vision are involved in the perception of visual illusions.


Assuntos
Ilusões , Ilusões Ópticas , Córtex Visual , Conscientização , Humanos , Percepção Visual
14.
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) ; 19(73): 102-106, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812167

RESUMO

Background Diabetes is a silent disease and many people with diabetes may become aware of it only after life-threatening complications. The presence of knowledge of diabetes could contribute in early diagnosis and minimize the occurrence of complications. Hence, healthcare and public policy makers are putting extensive efforts to aware them on diabetes. Objective To assess the level of diabetes knowledge and its risk among the general public of Banepa municipality. Method A Cross sectional study was conducted to assess the awareness about diabetes among the general public of Banepa municipality. During the period of November 2019 to January 2020, 273 respondents of Banepa municipality were included with informed consent. Data was collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire through one-to-one interviews. Indian Diabetes risk score (IDRS) was used to identify the risk of diabetes among them that consists of four elements i.e. age, abdominal obesity, physical activity, and family history. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS version 20. Result It was found that 61.9% had a higher level of knowledge of diabetes. IDRS score shows more than half percent (53.5%) of respondents were in high risk, 39.2% were in medium risk and 7.3% were in low risk. Conclusion This study implies that there was good knowledge about diabetes among people. However, the majority of them are at risk for developing diabetes in future which may be due to lack of practical implication of knowledge. It reflects the necessity to educate and reinforce the public regarding prevention of diabetes which further postpones its complications.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Conscientização , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Mil Med ; 186(Suppl 3): 35-41, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724057

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Military healthcare providers working in military interprofessional healthcare teams (MIHTs) require situational awareness (SA) to ensure safe and efficacious patient care. This study aimed to explore SA in MIHTs to understand how SA can be reinforced and maintained in MIHTs. The research team set out to answer two questions: "What aspects of individual and team SA are particularly important for MIHTs?" and "How can we enable military healthcare providers to be effective MIHTs members with robust SA?". METHODS: This study used Grounded Theory methodology collecting perspectives from 30 study participants from various backgrounds, including 11 different healthcare professions from the U.S. Army, Air Force, and Navy. Each study participant had experiences participating in, leading one, or leading many MIHTs. Data were collected in three cycles and analyzed within each cycle until saturation was reached. RESULTS: Five themes were robustly represented in the data set regarding SA: (1) contextually informed adaptability, (2) readiness, (3) trust, (4) communication, and (5) mission focus. CONCLUSIONS: The urgency often faced by MIHTs brings SA and the principles that underpin SA into sharper focus. The SA themes identified in this research may provide insight into training effectiveness, team strengths and weaknesses, and team performance.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Militares , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Assistência ao Paciente , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente
16.
Pediatrics ; 148(5)2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Referrals of transgender and gender-diverse (trans) youth to medical clinics for gender-affirming care have increased. We described characteristics of trans youth in Canada at first referral visit. METHODS: Baseline clinical and survey data (2017-2019) were collected for Trans Youth CAN!, a 10-clinic prospective cohort of n = 174 pubertal and postpubertal youth <16 years with gender dysphoria, referred for hormonal suppression or hormone therapy, and 160 linked parent-participants. Measures assessed health, demographics, and visit outcome. RESULTS: Of youth, 137 were transmasculine (assigned female) and 37 transfeminine (assigned male); 69.0% were aged 14 to 15, 18.8% Indigenous, 6.6% visible minorities, 25.7% from immigrant families, and 27.1% low income. Most (66.0%) were gender-aware before age 12. Only 58.1% of transfeminine youth lived in their gender full-time versus 90.1% of transmasculine (P < .001). Although transmasculine youth were more likely than transfeminine youth to report depressive symptoms (21.2% vs 10.8%; P = .03) and anxiety (66.1% vs 33.3%; P < .001), suicidality was similarly high overall (past-year ideation: 34.5%, attempts: 16.8%). All were in school; 62.0% reported strong parental gender support, with parents the most common support persons (91.9%). Two-thirds of families reported external gender-related stressors. Youth had met with a range of providers (68.5% with a family physician). At clinic visit, 62.4% were prescribed hormonal suppression or hormone therapy, most commonly depot leuprolide acetate. CONCLUSIONS: Trans youth in Canada attending clinics for hormonal suppression or gender-affirming hormones were generally healthy but with depression, anxiety, and support needs.


Assuntos
Disforia de Gênero , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Pessoas Transgênero , Adolescente , Conscientização , Canadá , Criança , Depressão/diagnóstico , Estrogênios/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Disforia de Gênero/tratamento farmacológico , Disforia de Gênero/psicologia , Identidade de Gênero , Nível de Saúde , Antagonistas de Hormônios/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Povos Indígenas/estatística & dados numéricos , Leuprolida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Meio Social , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Testosterona/uso terapêutico , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
J Psychosom Res ; 150: 110634, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Severe hypoglycemia complicates insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes, with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH) being a major risk factor. We explored associations between the personality traits, alexithymia and perfectionism, and cognitive barriers to hypoglycemia avoidance described in IAH, and evaluated their prevalence in people with and without IAH. METHODS: Cross-sectional exploratory study. Ninety adults with type 1 diabetes, 54 hypoglycemia aware and 36 with IAH, completed validated questionnaires exploring alexithymia (Total Alexithymia Scale [TAS-20]) and perfectionism (Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale [FMPS]); and cognitive barriers related to hypoglycemia avoidance (Attitudes to Awareness Questionnaire [A2A]. RESULTS: Alexithymia and perfectionism scores correlated positively with cognitive barriers associated with IAH. Specifically, alexthymia scores correlated with the 'Hyperglycaemia Avoidance Prioritised' factor (r = 0.265; p = .02, n = 77) and the 'Asymptomatic Hypoglycemia Normalised' factor (r = 0.252-0.255; p = .03, n = 77). Perfectionism scores correlated with the 'Hyperglycaemia Avoidance Prioritised' factor (r = 0.525; p < .001, n = 66). Overall, IAH participants were significantly more likely to score at the high end for alexithymia (17.6% vs. 1.9%, p = .008, n = 87) and at the extreme ends (high and low) for perfectionism (69.0% vs. 40.0%, χ2 (1) = 6.24, p = .01, n = 77). CONCLUSION: These novel data showing associations between alexithymia and perfectionism scores and maladaptive health beliefs in IAH suggest the intriguing possibility that personality traits may contribute to the risk of IAH, perhaps through their influence on incentives to avoid hypoglycemia. If confirmed, measuring such traits may help tailor early adjunctive psychological intervention to reduce hypoglycemia burden for people with IAH.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Hipoglicemia , Perfeccionismo , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Conscientização , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Humanos
18.
Arch Osteoporos ; 16(1): 151, 2021 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623530

RESUMO

This study examines factors associated with osteoporosis awareness and knowledge using Osteoporosis Prevention and Awareness Tool (OPAAT). Of 410 patients, majority of patients had a OPAAT score < 24 (n = 362, 88.3%). Lower education level (odds ratio (OR) (primary education): 3.63; OR (no formal education): 111.5; p < 0.001) and diabetic patients (OR: 1.67; p = 0.003) were associated with lower OPAAT scores. INTRODUCTION: Lack of osteoporosis awareness forms a critical barrier to osteoporosis care and has been linked with increased institutionalization, healthcare expenditures, and decreased quality of life. This study aims to identify factors associated with osteoporosis awareness and knowledge among female Singaporeans. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted among adult female patients (aged 40 to 90 years old) who were admitted into Outram Community Hospital from April to October 2020. Osteoporosis awareness and knowledge were assessed using interviewer-administered Osteoporosis Prevention and Awareness Tool (OPAAT). High knowledge was defined as a OPAAT score ≥ 24. Multivariate logistical regression analyses were used to identify predictors of low OPAAT scores. RESULTS: Of 410 patients recruited, their mean age was 71.9 ± 9.5 years old and majority of patients had a OPAAT score < 24 (n = 362, 88.3%). Patients with lower OPAAT scores tended to be older (72.5 ± 9.2 vs 67.5 ± 10.1, p < 0.001), attained lower education level (p < 0.001), and were more likely to live in public housing (92.5% vs 81.5%, p = 0.009). The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was higher in patients with low OPAAT scores (39.2% vs 18.8%, p = 0.006). After adjustment for covariates, lower education level (odds ratio (OR) (primary education): 3.63; OR (no formal education): 11.5; p < 0.05) and patients with diabetes mellitus (OR: 1.67; p = 0.03) were associated with lower OPAAT knowledge scores. CONCLUSION: Elderly female patients in community hospital have inadequate osteoporosis awareness despite being at risk of fractures. There is a need to address the knowledge gap in osteoporosis, especially among diabetic patients or patients with lower education.


Assuntos
Osteoporose , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Conscientização , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hospitais Comunitários , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Pirróis , Fatores de Risco , Singapura/epidemiologia , Compostos de Vinila
19.
Biol Psychol ; 165: 108198, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624402

RESUMO

Standard measures of interoception are typically limited to the conscious perception of heartbeats. However, the fundamental purpose of interoceptive signaling, is to regulate the body. We present a novel biofeedback paradigm to explore the neurobehavioral consequences of three different types of engagement with cardiac interoception (Attend, Feel, Regulate) while participants perform a 'cardiac recognition' task. For both the Feel and Regulate conditions, participants displayed enhanced recognition of their own heartbeat, accompanied by larger heartbeat-evoked potentials (HEPs), suggesting that these approaches could be used interchangeably. Importantly, meta-cognitive interoceptive insight was highest in the Regulate condition, indicative of stronger engagement with interoceptive signals in addition to greater ecological validity. Only in the passive interoception condition (Feel) was a significant association found between accuracy in recognising one's own heartbeat and the amplitude of HEPs. Overall, our results imply that active conditions have an important role to play in future investigation of interoception.


Assuntos
Interocepção , Conscientização , Emoções , Potenciais Evocados , Coração , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos
20.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 124: 104086, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate situation awareness has been identified as a critical component of effective deteriorating patient response systems and an essential patient safety skill for nursing practice. However, situation awareness has been defined and theorised from multiple perspectives to explain how individuals, teams and systems maintain awareness in dynamic task environments. AIM: Our aim was to critically analyse the different approaches taken to the study of situation awareness in healthcare and explore the implications for nursing practice and research as it relates to clinical deterioration in ward contexts. METHODS: We undertook a meta-narrative review of the healthcare literature to capture how situation awareness has been defined, theorised and studied in healthcare. Following an initial scoping review, we conducted an extensive search of ten electronic databases and included any theoretical, empirical or critical papers with a primary focus on situation awareness in an inpatient hospital setting. Included papers were collaboratively categorised in accordance with their theoretical framing, research tradition and paradigm with a narrative review presented. RESULTS: A total of 120 papers were included in this review. Three overarching narratives reflecting philosophical, patient safety and solution focussed framings of situation awareness and seven meta-narratives were identified as follows: individual, team and systems perspectives of situation awareness (meta-narratives 1-3), situation awareness and patient safety (meta-narrative 4), communication tools, technologies and education to support situation awareness (meta-narratives 5-7). We identified a concentration of literature from anaesthesia and operating rooms and a body of research largely located within a cognitive engineering tradition and a positivist research paradigm. Endsley's situation awareness model was applied in over 80% of the papers reviewed. A minority of papers drew on alternative situation awareness theories including constructivist, collaborative and distributed perspectives. CONCLUSIONS: Nurses have a critical role in identifying and escalating the care of deteriorating patients. There is a need to build on prior studies and reflect on the reality of nurse's work and the constraints imposed on situation awareness by the demands of busy inpatient wards. We suggest that this will require an analysis that complements but goes beyond the dominant cognitive engineering tradition to reflect the complex socio-cultural reality of ward-based teams and to explore how situation awareness emerges in increasingly complex, technologically enabled distributed healthcare systems.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos
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