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1.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 92(0): e1-e8, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476958

RESUMO

Chemical immobilisation is essential for veterinarians to perform medical procedures in wild African ungulates. Potent opioids combined with neuroleptic drugs are most often used for this purpose. The present study aimed at comparing the quality of immobilisation and effects on physiological variables between a high (high etorphine-azaperone [HE]: 0.09 mg kg-1) and low etorphine dose (low etorphine-azaperone [LE]: 0.05 mg kg-1), both combined with azaperone (0.35 mg kg-1), in 12 adult female boma-acclimatised blesbok. It was hypothesised that a reduction in etorphine's dose in combination with azaperone would result in less cardiorespiratory impairment but likely worsen the quality of immobilisation. Both treatments resulted in rapid induction and recovery times. Overall inter-treatment differences occurred in pulse rate (HE and LE: 52 ± 15 and 44 ± 11 beats minute-1, p 0.0001), respiratory rate (HE and LE: 15 ± 4 and 17 ± 4 breaths minute-1, p 0.006), partial pressure of exhaled carbon dioxide (HE and LE: 62.0 ± 5.0 and 60.0 ± 5.6 millimetre of mercury [mmHg], p 0.028) and arterial carbon dioxide (HE and LE: 58.0 ± 4.5 and 55.0 ± 3.9 mmHg, p 0.002). Both HE and LE led to bradycardia, hypertension and marked hypoxia to a similar extent. Furthermore, quality of induction, immobilisation and recovery were similar in both treatments. The role of azaperone in the development of cardiorespiratory compromise and gas exchange impairment that occurred when these combinations were used is still unclear. Further studies are recommended to elucidate drug- and dose-specific physiological effects in immobilised antelope.


Assuntos
Antílopes , Azaperona/farmacologia , Etorfina/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Imobilização/veterinária , Animais , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Imobilização/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/veterinária
2.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 48(5): 734-744, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391667

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare induction times and physiological effects of etorphine-azaperone with etorphine-midazolam immobilization in African buffaloes. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized crossover study. ANIMALS: A group of 10 adult buffalo bulls (mean body weight 353 kg). METHODS: Etorphine-azaperone (treatment EA; 0.015 and 0.15 mg kg-1, respectively) and etorphine-midazolam (treatment EM; 0.015 and 0.15 mg kg-1, respectively) were administered once to buffaloes, 1 week apart. Once in sternal recumbency, buffaloes were instrumented and physiological variables recorded at 5 minute intervals, from 5 minutes to 20 minutes. Naltrexone (20 mg mg-1 etorphine dose) was administered intravenously at 40 minutes. Induction (dart placement to recumbency) and recovery (naltrexone administration to standing) times were recorded. Arterial blood samples were analysed at 5 and 20 minutes. Physiological data were compared between treatments using a general linear mixed model and reported as mean ± standard deviation. Time data were compared using Mann-Whitney U test and reported as median (interquartile range) with p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: Actual drug doses administered for etorphine, azaperone and midazolam were 0.015 ± 0.001, 0.15 ± 0.01 and 0.16 ± 0.02 mg kg-1, respectively. Induction time for treatment EA was 3.3 (3.6) minutes and not different from 3.2 (3.2) minutes for treatment EM. The overall mean arterial blood pressure was significantly lower for treatment EA (102 ± 25 mmHg) than that for treatment EM (163 ± 18 mmHg) (p < 0.001). The PaO2 for treatment EA (37 ± 12 mmHg; 5.0 ± 1.6 kPa) was not different from that for treatment EM (43 ± 8 mmHg; 5.8 ± 1.1 kPa). Recovery time was 0.8 (0.6) minutes for treatment EA and did not differ from 1.1 (0.6) minutes for treatment EM. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Treatment EA was as effective as treatment EM for immobilization in this study. However, systemic arterial hypertension was a concern with treatment EM, and both combinations produced clinically relevant hypoxaemia. Supplemental oxygen administration is recommended with both drug combinations.


Assuntos
Azaperona , Etorfina , Animais , Búfalos , Estudos Cross-Over , Etorfina/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Imobilização/veterinária , Midazolam
3.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 92(0): e1-e3, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212736

RESUMO

Etorphine-azaperone is the most commonly used drug combination for chemical immobilisation of free-ranging white rhinoceroses, but causes several profound physiological disturbances, including muscle tremors. The addition of benzodiazepine sedatives, such as midazolam, has been proposed to reduce the muscular rigidity and tremors in immobilised rhinoceroses. Twenty-three free-ranging, sub-adult white rhinoceros bulls were darted and captured using a combination of etorphine plus either azaperone or midazolam. Skeletal muscle tremors were visually evaluated and scored by an experienced veterinarian, and tremor scores and distance run were compared between groups using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. No statistical differences were observed in tremor scores (p = 0.435) or distance run (p = 0.711) between the two groups, and no correlation between these variables was detected (r = -0.628; p = 0.807). Etorphine-midazolam was as effective as etorphine-azaperone at immobilising rhinoceroses, with animals running similar distances. Although the addition of midazolam to the etorphine did not reduce tremor scores compared to azaperone, it might have other beneficial immobilising effects in rhinoceroses, and further investigation is necessary to elucidate possible methods of reducing muscle tremoring during chemical immobilisation of rhinoceroses.


Assuntos
Azaperona/farmacologia , Etorfina/farmacologia , Midazolam/farmacologia , Perissodáctilos , Tremor/veterinária , Animais , Azaperona/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/veterinária , Etorfina/efeitos adversos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Imobilização , Midazolam/efeitos adversos , Tremor/induzido quimicamente
4.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(2): 715-720, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130416

RESUMO

Fifty-three free-ranging moose (Alces americanus) cows were darted from a helicopter with 3-4 ml of a premix combination of butorphanol (27.3 mg/ml), azaperone (9.1 mg/ml), and medetomidine (10.9 mg/ml; BAM), equivalent to estimated dosages of: butorphanol 0.26 ± 0.08 (mean ± SD) mg/kg, azaperone 0.09 ± 0.03 mg/kg, and medetomidine 0.11 ± 0.03 mg/kg. After a mean chase time (from sighting to darting) of 6.1 ± 5.5 min, the mean induction time (from darting to recumbency) was 8.3 ± 2.6 min. This combination provided a safe and reliable sedation for minor procedures that lasted 30-60 min. Heart rate (50.4 ± 7.0 beats/min), respiratory rate (21.3 ± 11.1 breaths/minute), ETCO2 via nasal canula (43.2 ± 7.0 mmHg), and rectal temperature (38.5°C ± 0.7°C) mostly remained at expected values for wild cervid and bovid species anesthetized with this drug combination. SpO2 (90.0% ± 3.7%) was suggestive of moderate hypoxemia despite intranasal oxygen supplementation (1 L per 100 kg/min). The recovery time to standing was 6.7 ± 3.8 min after reversal with IM naltrexone (3 mg/mg butorphanol) and atipamezole (5 mg/mg medetomidine). Despite a larger volume to inject, this protocol offers an alternative to highly potent opioids, and should be considered for practical or staff safety reasons. On the basis of the results of this study, the use of 4 ml of BAM is considered a safe and effective protocol for immobilization of cow moose under comparable settings.


Assuntos
Azaperona/farmacologia , Butorfanol/farmacologia , Cervos , Medetomidina/farmacologia , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Anestesia/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Azaperona/administração & dosagem , Butorfanol/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Imobilização/veterinária , Medetomidina/administração & dosagem
5.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 48(3): 380-387, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827780

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine (BAM) and butorphanol-midazolam-medetomidine (BMM) protocols for immobilization of wild common palm civets (Paradoxurus musangus) with subsequent antagonization with atipamezole. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, blinded clinical trial. ANIMALS: A total of 40 adult wild common palm civets, 24 female and 16 male, weighing 1.5-3.4 kg. METHODS: The civets were randomly assigned for anesthesia with butorphanol, azaperone and medetomidine (0.6, 0.6 and 0.2 mg kg-1, respectively; group BAM) or with butorphanol, midazolam and medetomidine (0.3, 0.4 and 0.1 mg kg-1, respectively; group BMM) intramuscularly (IM) in a squeeze cage. When adequately relaxed, the trachea was intubated for oxygen administration. Physiological variables were recorded every 5 minutes after intubation. Following morphometric measurements, sampling, microchipping and parasite treatment, medetomidine was reversed with atipamezole at 1.0 or 0.5 mg kg-1 IM to groups BAM and BMM, respectively. Physiological variables and times to reach the different stages of anesthesia were compared between groups. RESULTS: Onset time of sedation and recumbency was similar in both groups; time to achieve complete relaxation and tracheal intubation was longer in group BAM. Supplementation with isoflurane was required to enable intubation in five civets in group BAM and one civet in group BMM. All civets in group BAM required topical lidocaine to facilitate intubation. End-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure was lower in group BAM, but heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, peripheral hemoglobin oxygen saturation and mean arterial blood pressure were not different. All civets in both groups recovered well following administration of atipamezole. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Both BAM and BMM combinations were effective for immobilizing wild common palm civets. The BMM combination had the advantage of producing complete relaxation that allowed intubation more rapidly.


Assuntos
Azaperona , Combinação de Medicamentos , Medetomidina , Viverridae , Animais , Azaperona/farmacologia , Butorfanol/farmacologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Imobilização/veterinária , Masculino , Medetomidina/farmacologia , Midazolam/farmacologia , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(1): 287-294, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827187

RESUMO

This study investigated the use of a fixed-dose combination of 30 mg/ml butorphanol, 12 mg/ml azaperone, and 12 mg/ml medetomidine for the standing sedation of captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana). In total, seven females (mean age 19.6 yr; range 6-31 yr) and six males (mean age 33.5 yr; range 9-35 yr) were sedated. The estimated dose was 0.0005 ± 0.0001 ml/kg and 0.006 ± 0.001 ml/cm shoulder height, which resulted in a dose of 0.016 ± 0.002 mg/kg or 0.19 ± 0.04 mg/cm shoulder height butorphanol, 0.006 ± 0.0008 mg/ kg or 0.076 ± 0.015 mg/cm shoulder height azaperone, and 0.006 ± 0.0008 mg/kg or 0.076 ± 0.015 mg/cm medetomidine. First signs of sedation were observed within 3-10 min (mean 6 ± 2 min) after darting, and monitoring of the animals started on average at 24 ± 9 min after darting. No bradycardia was observed in any of the elephants (mean heart rate 40.0 ± 6.55 beats/min), although all the animals were mildly hypotensive (mean blood pressure 118.5/86 [94.5]). Rectal temperatures fell within acceptable ranges, and respiratory parameters were stable in all the animals throughout sedation and fell within the standard ranges reported for conscious, standing elephants. Only one elephant had clinically significant hypoxemia characterized by a partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) < 60 mm Hg. This elephant was also hypercapnic (PaCO2 > 50 mm Hg), although pH and peripheral capillary oxygen saturation fell within acceptable ranges. None of the elephants reacted to moderately painful stimuli while sedated. The combination was reversed with intramuscular injections of naltrexone (1 mg for every 1 mg butorphanol) and atipamezole (5 mg for every 1 mg medetomidine). Recovery was smooth and calm in all the animals. Time from injection of the reversals until the first signs of recovery was 4.6 ± 2.01 min (range 1-8 min).


Assuntos
Azaperona/administração & dosagem , Butorfanol/administração & dosagem , Fármacos do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Sedação Consciente/veterinária , Elefantes/fisiologia , Medetomidina/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Animais , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Naltrexona/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem
7.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(4): 825-833, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480562

RESUMO

Alfaxalone has been successfully used intramuscularly (im) combined with medetomidine and azaperone for immobilization of small ungulates. An experimental 40 mg/ml alfaxalone solution (RD0387) was recently formulated for reduced injection volume. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and cardiopulmonary effects of high-concentration alfaxalone combined with medetomidine and azaperone for the intramuscular immobilization of captive Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). Seven adult female elk were used in a crossover design in which they were administered alfaxalone 1 mg/kg, medetomidine 0.05 mg/kg, and azaperone 0.1 mg/kg or alfaxalone 0.5 mg/kg, medetomidine 0.1 mg/kg, and azaperone 0.1 mg/kg im approximately 3 wk apart. Drugs were delivered to each elk in a chute by hand injection. Once recumbent, elk were placed in sternal recumbency for a period of 30 min, during which time level of sedation, response to minor procedures, heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, oxygen saturation, and direct arterial blood pressures were recorded every 5 min. Arterial blood gases were performed every 15 min. At 30 min, elk were administered atipamezole 0.25 or 0.5 mg/kg im and recovery quality and times were recorded. Statistical comparisons were made by t test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, and repeated measures analysis (significance level P < 0.05). Both drug combinations provided effective immobilization for 30 min, with induction and recovery time and quality similar to other medetomidine-based combinations used in elk. Cardiopulmonary effects included bradycardia, hypertension, and hypoxemia that resolved with oxygen supplementation. The average injection volume in the low-dose alfaxalone combination was approximately 5 ml. These combinations provided deep sedation and the ability to perform minor procedures in captive elk, with acceptable cardiopulmonary parameters as long as supplemental oxygen was provided.


Assuntos
Azaperona/farmacologia , Cervos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Imobilização/veterinária , Medetomidina/farmacologia , Pregnanodionas/farmacologia , Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Azaperona/administração & dosagem , Estudos Cross-Over , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Medetomidina/administração & dosagem , Pregnanodionas/administração & dosagem
8.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 48(1): 65-73, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279394

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In ungulates, α2-adrenergic agonists can decrease oxygenation possibly through alteration of pulmonary perfusion. Sodium nitroprusside can decrease pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and increase cardiac output (Q˙t) through vasodilation. The objective was to determine if sodium nitroprusside would improve pulmonary perfusion and attenuate the increased alveolar-arterial (a-a) gradient resulting from medetomidine-azaperone-alfaxalone (MAA) administration. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, crossover study with a 2 week rest period. ANIMALS: A group of eight adult female captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). METHODS: Deer were administered MAA intramuscularly (IM), and auricular artery and pulmonary artery balloon catheters were placed. Deer spontaneously breathed air. Saline or sodium nitroprusside (0.07 mg kg-1) were administered IM 40 minutes after MAA injection. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP), pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP), right atrial pressure (RAP), Q˙t, arterial pH, PaCO2 and PaO2 were obtained immediately before nitroprusside injection (baseline) and 5, 10 and 15 minutes afterwards. Mixed venous blood samples were obtained at baseline and at 5 minutes. Systemic vascular resistance (SVR), PVR, intrapulmonary shunt fraction (Q˙s/Q˙t), a-a gradient, oxygen delivery (D˙O2) and oxygen extraction ratio (O2ER) were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated measures analysis of variance with correction factors. A p value < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: With nitroprusside, MAP, MPAP, PAOP, RAP, SVR and O2ER significantly decreased and HR, Q˙t and D˙O2 increased compared with baseline and between treatments. There was a significant decrease in PVR and a-a gradient and increase in PaO2 compared with baseline and saline treatment. Changes were not sustained. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Nitroprusside temporarily changed hemodynamic variables, increased PaO2 and decreased a-a gradient. Nitroprusside possibly led to better pulmonary perfusion of ventilated alveoli. However, IM nitroprusside at this dose is not recommended because of severe systemic hypotension and short action.


Assuntos
Azaperona , Cervos , Medetomidina/farmacologia , Nitroprussiato/farmacologia , Animais , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Hipnóticos e Sedativos , Pregnanodionas , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 47(4): 528-536, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507718

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immobilization quality and cardiopulmonary effects of etorphine alone compared with etorphine-azaperone in blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi). STUDY DESIGN: Blinded, randomized, crossover design. ANIMALS: A total of 12 boma-habituated female blesbok weighing [mean ± standard deviation (SD)] 57.5 ± 2.5 kg. METHODS: Each animal was administered etorphine (0.09 mg kg-1) or etorphine-azaperone (0.09 mg kg-1; 0.35 mg kg-1) intramuscularly with 1-week intertreatment washout period. Time to first sign of altered state of consciousness and immobilization time were recorded. Physiological variables were recorded, arterial blood samples were taken during a 40-minute immobilization period, and naltrexone (mean ± SD: 1.83 ± 0.06 mg kg-1) was intravenously administered. Recovery times were documented, and induction, immobilization and recovery were subjectively scored. Statistical analyses were performed; p < 0.05 was significant. RESULTS: No difference was observed in time to first sign, immobilization time and recovery times between treatments. Time to head up was longer with etorphine-azaperone (0.5 ± 0.2 versus 0.4 ± 0.2 minutes; p = 0.015). Etorphine caused higher arterial blood pressures (mean: 131 ± 17 versus 110 ± 11 mmHg, p < 0.0001), pH, rectal temperature and arterial oxygen partial pressure (59.2 ± 7.7 versus 42.2 ± 9.8 mmHg), but lower heart (p = 0.002) and respiratory rates (p = 0.01). Etorphine-azaperone combination led to greater impairment of ventilatory function, with higher end-tidal carbon dioxide (p < 0.0001) and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (58.0 ± 4.5 versus 48.1 ± 5.1 mmHg). Immobilization quality was greater with etorphine-azaperone than with etorphine alone (median scores: 4 versus 3; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Both treatments provided satisfactory immobilization of blesbok; however, in addition to a deeper level of immobilization, etorphine-azaperone caused greater ventilatory impairment. Oxygen supplementation is recommended with both treatments.


Assuntos
Antílopes , Azaperona/farmacologia , Etorfina/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Imobilização/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Naltrexona/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Oxigênio/sangue , Respiração/efeitos dos fármacos , Taxa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Método Simples-Cego
10.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(2): 290-296, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549557

RESUMO

Fourteen lowland nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) in managed care were successfully anesthetized for a total of 17 anesthetic events using either a combination of butorphanol (0.75 ± 0.15 mg/kg), azaperone (0.25 ± 0.05 mg/kg), and medetomidine (0.30 ± 0.06 mg/kg) (BAM) or medetomidine (0.17 ± 0.01 mg/kg), azaperone (0.22 ± 0.02 mg/kg), and alfaxalone (0.52 ± 0.08 mg/kg) (MAA) delivered intramuscularly via dart. Mean time to initial effect, sternal recumbency, lateral recumbency, handling, and intubation were recorded. The nyala were maintained in sternal recumbency with supplemental oxygenation until 60 min after initial injection. Cardiopulmonary effects were recorded every 5 min after handling until reversal. Arterial blood samples were collected every 15 min for analysis. Level of sedation and quality of recovery were scored. Anesthesia was antagonized with atipamezole (at 5 mg per mg of medetomidine) for both protocols and naltrexone (at 2 mg per mg of butorphanol) for the BAM protocol delivered intramuscularly via hand injection. Mean time to extubation, head control, and standing post reversal were recorded. No hyperthermia, acidemia, apnea, or tachycardia occurred; however, animals did display hypoxemia. Two animals in the BAM cohort required supplementation to facilitate handling. These drug combinations provided satisfactory levels of sedation in most cases for safe handling and minor procedures in lowland nyala under managed care.


Assuntos
Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Animais de Zoológico/fisiologia , Antílopes/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares/efeitos dos fármacos , Anestésicos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Azaperona/administração & dosagem , Azaperona/efeitos adversos , Butorfanol/administração & dosagem , Butorfanol/efeitos adversos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Masculino , Medetomidina/administração & dosagem , Medetomidina/efeitos adversos , Pregnanodionas/administração & dosagem , Pregnanodionas/efeitos adversos
11.
J Wildl Dis ; 56(4): 933-936, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348204

RESUMO

The tranquilizer combination of butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine (BAM) has shown good efficacy for immobilization of wildlife, including black bears (Ursus americanus). BAM is antagonized with a combination of naltrexone and atipamezole. We immobilized 19 adult captive wild caught black bears and, except for three bears that were euthanized immediately, bears were recovered with naltrexone and atipamezole. Tissue residues (≥0.01 ppm) for the tranquilizers butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine were detected in liver and muscle of all three bears euthanized on day 0 postinjection (PI). Azaperone was not detected after 1 d PI. Residue for medetomidine was detected in two bears: in the liver 3 d PI and in the kidney 6 d PI. Butorphanol was reported in three bears: in fat 5 d PI, in kidney 6 d PI, and, surprisingly, in kidney, muscle, and fat 7 d PI. No tissue residues were detected in the three bears euthanized at 8 d PI. Tissue residues for the antagonists, naltrexone and atipamezole, were detected in bears euthanized 2 and 6 d PI, but not in tissues from animals euthanized at 7 or 8 d PI.


Assuntos
Azaperona/farmacocinética , Butorfanol/farmacocinética , Imidazóis/farmacocinética , Medetomidina/farmacocinética , Naltrexona/farmacocinética , Tolazolina/farmacocinética , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/farmacocinética , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacocinética , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacocinética , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Azaperona/administração & dosagem , Azaperona/farmacologia , Butorfanol/administração & dosagem , Butorfanol/farmacologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Resíduos de Drogas , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacocinética , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Imobilização/veterinária , Medetomidina/administração & dosagem , Medetomidina/farmacologia , Naltrexona/administração & dosagem , Naltrexona/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/farmacocinética , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/farmacologia , Tolazolina/farmacologia , Ursidae
12.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 988-992, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926533

RESUMO

Five free-ranging male (subadults, n = 3; adults, n = 2) plains zebras (Equus quagga) were immobilized using a combination of etorphine (0.017 mg/kg), medetomidine (0.017 mg/kg), and azaperone (0.24 mg/kg) by means of a blank cartridge-fired projector. Time to recumbency was recorded and a descriptive score used to assess the quality of immobilization, manipulation, maintenance, and recovery. Physiological parameters were recorded at 5-min intervals for 20 min. At the end of the procedure, naltrexone (0.23 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly and time to standing documented. The combination evaluated in this study allowed for successful immobilization and safe recovery of all animals, including during the subsequent 15 days. Despite the good outcome in this pilot study, as a result of the periodic apneic events and hypercapnia documented in the zebras, the authors suggest that physiological parameters be thoroughly monitored when using this protocol. Further studies are needed to improve upon chemical immobilization protocols in free-ranging plains zebras.


Assuntos
Azaperona/farmacologia , Equidae , Etorfina/farmacologia , Imobilização/veterinária , Medetomidina/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Azaperona/administração & dosagem , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Etorfina/administração & dosagem , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Masculino , Medetomidina/administração & dosagem , Projetos Piloto , Taxa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220288, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374096

RESUMO

The care and management of deer in captivity is challenging, especially in the case of red brocket deer (Mazama americana), whose routine management using physical restraint is difficult. Our study evaluated the effects of azaperone and xylazine combination for immobilizing red brocket deer and allow for the standard capture and handling protocols (e.g., biological material, horn cutting, and trimming) to be conducted safely. Six adult, captive, red brocket deer received an intramuscular injection of either 1 mg/kg azaperone and 0.5 mg/kg xylazine (AX0.5) or 1 mg/kg azaperone and 1 mg/kg xylazine (AX1.0). Sedation latency, sternal recumbency, safe handling, and quality of the sedation were evaluated to provide an overview of how the immobilizing drugs affected managing the species in captivity. Additionally, heart rate, respiratory rate, mean arterial pressure, rectal temperature, pH, PaO2, PaCO2, SaO2, HCO3-, BE, Na+, K+ and serum lactate were also measured. The latency period of the animals in the AX0.5 group was greater than that of the animals in the AX1.0 group (7 ± 6.6 min vs. 5 ± 2.0 min), as was the time for them to assume sternal recumbency (12 ± 9.7 min vs. 6 ± 3.1 min). However, the time after the initial dose at which the animals could safely be handled (14 ± 4.5 min vs. 12 ± 5.2 min), and the time until the end of the safe handling period (75 ± 12.3 min vs. 85 ± 6.8 min) were similar for both groups. Animals in both groups showed physiological stability during all evaluations, but hypoxemia was observed in one animal in each group. We conclude that both drug combinations are safe and effective at sedating red brocket deer in captivity and suggest that the procedure be performed with oxygen supplementation to reduce the potential for hypoxia.


Assuntos
Azaperona/farmacologia , Cervos , Imobilização/métodos , Xilazina/farmacologia , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Respiração/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 46(4): 466-475, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176572

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare immobilization efficacy of a nonpotent opioid drug combination, ketamine-butorphanol-medetomidine (KBM) to the preferred etorphine-azaperone (EA) combination in zebras. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized crossover trial. ANIMALS: A group of ten adult zebra (six females and four male). METHODS: KBM and EA were administered once to the zebras in random order by dart, 3 weeks apart. Once a zebra was recumbent and instrumented, physiological parameters were measured and recorded at 5-minute intervals until 20 minutes. Antagonist drugs were administered at 25 minutes. KBM was antagonised using atipamezole (7.5 mg mg-1 medetomidine dose) and naltrexone (2 mg mg-1 butorphanol dose). EA was antagonized using naltrexone (20 mg mg-1 etorphine dose). Induction and recovery (following antagonist administration) times were recorded. Physiological parameters, including invasive blood pressure and blood gas analysis, were compared between combinations using a general linear mixed model. Data are reported as mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range). RESULTS: The doses of KBM and EA administered were 3.30 ± 0.18, 0.40 ± 0.02 and 0.16 ± 0.01 mg kg-1; and 0.02 ± 0.001 and 0.20 ± 0.01 mg kg-1, respectively. KBM and EA induction times were 420 (282-564) and 240 (204-294) seconds, respectively (p = 0.03). Zebras remained recumbent throughout the study procedures. Systolic blood pressure (226 ± 42 and 167 ± 42 mmHg) and oxygen partial pressure (64 ± 12 and 47 ± 13 mmHg) were higher for KBM compared to EA (p < 0.01). Recovery time, after administering antagonists, was 92 (34-1337) and 26 (22-32) seconds for KBM and EA, respectively (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Compared to EA, KBM also immobilized zebras effectively. Systemic hypertension and moderate hypoxaemia are clinical concerns of KBM and severe hypoxaemia is a concern of EA. This occurrence of hypoxaemia highlights the importance of oxygen administration during immobilization.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Anestésicos Dissociativos/farmacologia , Equidae , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Imobilização/veterinária , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Dissociativos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Azaperona/administração & dosagem , Azaperona/efeitos adversos , Azaperona/farmacologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Butorfanol/administração & dosagem , Butorfanol/farmacologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Combinação de Medicamentos , Etorfina/administração & dosagem , Etorfina/efeitos adversos , Etorfina/farmacologia , Feminino , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/veterinária , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Hipóxia/induzido quimicamente , Hipóxia/veterinária , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/efeitos adversos , Ketamina/farmacologia , Masculino , Medetomidina/administração & dosagem , Medetomidina/efeitos adversos , Medetomidina/farmacologia , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória
15.
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci ; 58(3): 346-355, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935442

RESUMO

Maximizing animal wellbeing by minimizing drug-related side effects is a key consideration when choosing pharmaceutical agents for chemical restraint in nonhuman primates. One drug combination that may promote this ideology is butorphanol (27.3 mg/mL), azaperone (9.1 mg/mL), and medetomidine (10.9 mg/mL; BAM). Based on results from a pilot study, 2 doses of BAM (16 and 24 µL/kg IM) were compared in healthy, 3-y-old rhesus macaques. Physiologic parameters and anesthetic quality were assessed and recorded every 5 min. Experimental endpoints were established for hypoxemia (85% or less peripheral oxygen saturation with oxygen supplementation), pulse rate (80 bpm or less for 2 consecutive readings), mean arterial pressure (MAP; 50 mm Hg or less), and hypothermia (97 °F or less); if any endpoint was achieved, medetomidine was reversed by using atipamezole (0.22 mg/kg IM). Both BAM doses resulted in immobilization of all animals with no clinically significant differences between groups. All animals initially exhibited hypoxemia that resolved with oxygen supplementation. Regardless of dose, most macaques (71%) reached established experimental endpoints for bradycardia (62 to 80 bpm) or hypotension (44 to 50 mm Hg MAP). Given the results of this study, our recommendation regarding the use of 16- or 24-µL/kg BAM for immobilizing rhesus macaques is dependent on caution regarding cardiopulmonary parameters and the provision of supplemental oxygen.


Assuntos
Azaperona/farmacologia , Butorfanol/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Imobilização/veterinária , Macaca mulatta/fisiologia , Medetomidina/farmacologia , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Animais , Azaperona/administração & dosagem , Butorfanol/administração & dosagem , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Masculino , Medetomidina/administração & dosagem , Projetos Piloto
16.
J Wildl Dis ; 55(3): 699-703, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702953

RESUMO

Thirty-two American beavers (Castor canadensis) were immobilized with a mixture of nalbuphine, medetomidine, and azaperone (NalMedA) for tail transmitter placement and health assessments prior to translocation. Inductions and reversals were very smooth, but regardless of the dose administered, which ranged from 0.02 to 0.06 mL/kg, many beavers reacted to mild stimuli such as being lifted out of the cage, drawing blood from the tail, expressing anal glands for sex determination, and turning on isoflurane to deepen anesthesia before placement of tail transmitters. On a scale from 1 to 5, a sedation score of 4 was achieved in 8/32 beavers and a sedation score of 5 in 1/32 of beavers given a mean (SD) dosage of 0.04 (0.01) mL/kg NalMedA, which equated to a mean of 1.09 (0.21) mg/kg nalbuphine, 0.43 (0.09) mg/kg medetomidine, and 0.36 (0.07) mg/kg azaperone. All other animals achieved lower sedation scores. Supplementary isoflurane was needed to deepen anesthesia before tail transmitter placement. Although Nal-MedA appeared to be safe for use in American beavers, the level of sedation achieved was quite variable. Supplementary oxygen is recommended to reduce hypoxemia.


Assuntos
Azaperona/farmacologia , Medetomidina/farmacologia , Nalbufina/farmacologia , Restrição Física/veterinária , Roedores , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Anestesia/veterinária , Anestésicos Inalatórios/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Inalatórios/farmacologia , Animais , Azaperona/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Isoflurano/administração & dosagem , Isoflurano/farmacologia , Masculino , Medetomidina/administração & dosagem , Nalbufina/administração & dosagem
17.
Aust Vet J ; 97(1-2): 33-38, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30693492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studying wild animals in situ is fundamental to collecting baseline information, but generally they need to be immobilised for examination, sampling, marking and/or equipping with tracking apparatus. Capturing wild animals is inherently risky and there is a need for immobilisation methods that are safe for both the animals and researchers. METHODS: A total of 16 free-ranging swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) were chemically captured by dart for the application of satellite tracking collars in tropical northern Australia; 7 animals were anesthetised with a thiafentanil-etorphine-azaperone (TEA) combination and 9 animals with a thiafentanil-azaperone (TA) combination. Anaesthesia was reversed with intravenous naltrexone. Mean dosages of etorphine and thiafentanil for animals in the TEA group were 0.01 mg/kg of each drug and mean dosage of thiafentanil for animals in the TA group was 0.02 mg/kg. Total dose per animal of azaperone and naltrexone was 80 mg and 150 mg, respectively. Anaesthetic monitoring was by physical observation of physiological variables, pulse oximetry and capnography. Blood laboratory parameters including creatine kinase (CK), aspartate transaminase (AST), serum bicarbonate and anion gap were measured. RESULTS: All subject animals recovered well from anaesthesia despite the occurrence of subclinical acidosis in some patients. There was no significant difference between the treatment groups. Conversely, chase time had an adverse effect on body temperature, irrespective of the anaesthetic combination used. CONCLUSIONS: Thiafentanil and azaperone, with or without etorphine, delivered rapid safe, effective, reversible field anaesthesia in healthy swamp buffalo.


Assuntos
Azaperona/uso terapêutico , Búfalos , Etorfina/uso terapêutico , Fentanila/análogos & derivados , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Imobilização/veterinária , Anestesia/métodos , Anestesia/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Austrália , Azaperona/administração & dosagem , Búfalos/sangue , Etorfina/administração & dosagem , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Fentanila/uso terapêutico , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Imobilização/métodos
18.
Neurochem Int ; 123: 59-68, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800604

RESUMO

The catecholamine neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) exerts powerful modulatory control of physiology and behavior across phylogeny. Perturbations of DA signaling in humans are associated with multiple neurodegenerative and behavioral disorders, including Parkinson's disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, addiction and schizophrenia. In the nematode C. elegans, DA signaling regulates mating behavior, learning, food seeking and locomotion. Previously, we demonstrated that loss of function mutations in the dat-1 gene that encodes the presynaptic DA transporter (DAT-1) results in a rapid cessation of movement when animals are placed in water, termed Swimming Induced Paralysis (Swip). Loss of function mutations in genes that support DA biosynthesis, DA vesicular packaging and DA action at the extrasynaptic D2-type DA receptor DOP-3 suppress Swip in dat-1 animals, consistent with paralysis as arising from excessive DA signaling. Although animals grown on the vesicular monoamine transporter antagonist reserpine diminish Swip, the drug must be applied chronically, can impact the signaling of multiple biogenic amines, and has been reported to have penetrant, off-target actions. Here, we demonstrate that the antipsychotic drug azaperone potently and rapidly suppresses Swip behavior in either dat-1 mutants, as well as in wildtype animals treated with the DAT-1 antagonist nisoxetine, with genetic experiments consistent with DOP-3 antagonism as the mechanism of Swip suppression. Reversal of Swip in previously paralyzed dat-1 animals by azaperone application demonstrates an otherwise functionally-intact swimming circuit in these mutants. Finally, whereas azaperone suppresses DA-dependent Swip, the drug fails to attenuate the DA-independent paralysis induced by ßPEA, aldicarb or genetic disruption of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling. We discuss our findings with respect to the use of azaperone as a potent and selective tool in the identification and analysis of presynaptic mechanisms that regulate DA signaling.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Azaperona/farmacologia , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Dopamina/metabolismo , Antagonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/metabolismo , Fluoxetina/análogos & derivados , Fluoxetina/farmacologia , Reserpina/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética
19.
J Wildl Dis ; 55(1): 84-90, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30016210

RESUMO

To assess potential seasonal differences in responses to immobilization, we sedated eight orphaned yearling black bears ( Ursus americanus) being held for rehabilitation at a wildlife facility in Colorado, US, using a premixed combination of nalbuphine (40 mg/mL), azaperone (10 mg/mL), and medetomidine (10 mg/mL; NalMed-A) in October (autumn) prior to hibernation and again after emergence in May (spring) prior to their release. We dosed all bears at 1 mL NalMed-A per estimated 45 kg body mass (1 mL NalMed-A/45 kg), delivered by intramuscular injection using a pole syringe, to facilitate routine examination and ear tagging. Arterial blood gases were measured to assess oxygenation and acid-base status of bears both pre and post oxygen supplementation. The mean (SE) dose calculated post hoc was 0.9 (0.04) mg nalbuphine/kg, 0.2 (0.01) mg azaperone/kg, and 0.2 (0.01) mg medetomidine/kg. The mean induction time was 8 (1) min for six of the bears in October and 6 (1) min for eight bears in May. The NalMed-A combination provided good sedation in captive yearling black bears in autumn and spring and was effectively antagonized with a combination of naltrexone and atipamezole. Mild hypoxemia (PaO2: 53.5-54.4 mmHg) was the most significant side effect and was corrected (PaO2: 68.4-150.1 mmHg) with supplemental oxygen administered at 2-5 L/min for 5 min (point of sampling).


Assuntos
Azaperona/farmacologia , Imobilização/veterinária , Medetomidina/farmacologia , Nalbufina/farmacologia , Ursidae , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Animais , Azaperona/administração & dosagem , Azaperona/efeitos adversos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Hipóxia/induzido quimicamente , Hipóxia/terapia , Hipóxia/veterinária , Medetomidina/administração & dosagem , Medetomidina/efeitos adversos , Nalbufina/administração & dosagem , Nalbufina/efeitos adversos , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Oxigênio/uso terapêutico
20.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 46(1): 90-95, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554889

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine fixed-dose combination (BAM, respectively, 30-12-12 mg mL-1) with subsequent antagonism by naltrexone-atipamezole was evaluated for reversible immobilization of captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, clinical trial. ANIMALS: Twelve cheetahs (six males and six females, weighing 37-57 kg) housed in enclosures, were immobilized at Hoedspruit Endangered Species Centre in the Republic of South Africa. METHODS: BAM volume dose rate was 0.009-0.014 mL kg-1 (mean ± standard deviation 0.010 ± 0.001 mL kg-1). Total dose in all animals was 0.5 mL. The actual doses were as follows: butorphanol (0.29 ± 0.04 mg kg-1), azaperone (0.12 ± 0.01 mg kg-1) and medetomidine (0.12 ± 0.01 mg kg-1). Physiologic variables and quality of immobilization were recorded every 5 minutes beginning at 15-20 minutes after darting. Arterial blood samples were collected three times at 20, 30 and 40 minutes after darting from all animals for analysis of blood oxygenation and acid-base status. RESULTS: The inductions were calm and smooth and mean induction time was 4.0 ± 1.1 minutes. Heart rate (50 ± 9 beats minute-1) and respiratory frequency (20 ± 3 breaths minute-1) were stable throughout immobilization. The recovery time after reversing with naltrexone and atipamezole was 9.1 ± 3.6 minutes. CONCLUSIONS: and clinical relevance BAM proved to be a reliable and cardiovascular stable drug combination for immobilization of cheetahs.


Assuntos
Acinonyx/fisiologia , Anestesia/veterinária , Azaperona/farmacologia , Butorfanol/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Imobilização/veterinária , Medetomidina/farmacologia , Anestésicos Combinados , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/fisiologia , Azaperona/administração & dosagem , Butorfanol/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Medetomidina/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
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