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1.
FASEB J ; 36(1): e22083, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34918385

RESUMO

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the mainstay of therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) but up to 60% of patients have inadequate response to therapy. Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) play important roles in nociception. This study aimed to investigate whether the increased expression of ASICs results in neuronal hyperexcitability in GERD. Esophageal biopsies were taken from GERD patients and healthy subjects to compare expression of ASIC1 and 3. Next, gene and protein expression of ASIC1 and 3 from esophageal mucosa and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons were measured by qPCR, Western-blot and immunofluorescence in rodent models of reflux esophagitis (RE), non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), and sham operated groups. Excitability of DRG neurons in the GERD and sham groups were also tested by whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. We demonstrated that ASIC1 and 3 expression were significantly increased in patients with RE compared with healthy controls. This correlated positively with symptom severity of heartburn and regurgitation (p < .001). Next, ASIC1 and 3 gene and protein expression in rodent models of RE and NERD were similarly increased in esophageal mucosa as well as T3-T5 DRG neurons compared with sham operation. DRG neurons from RE animals showed hyperexcitability compared with sham group. However, intrathecal injection of ASIC specific inhibitors, PcTx1 and APTEx-2, as well as silencing ASIC1 and 3 genes with specific siRNAs prevented visceral hypersensitivity. Overall, upregulation of ASIC1 and 3 may lead to visceral hypersensitivity in RE and NERD and may be a potential therapeutic target for PPI non-responsive patients.


Assuntos
Canais Iônicos Sensíveis a Ácido/biossíntese , Esôfago/metabolismo , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/metabolismo , Azia/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Canais Iônicos Sensíveis a Ácido/genética , Animais , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/genética , Azia/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
2.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 58(4): 525-533, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34909861

RESUMO

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) presents typical manifestations such as heartburn and/or regurgitation as well as atypical manifestations such as throat symptoms, laryngitis, hoarseness, chronic cough, asthma, and sleep alterations. There are two phenotypes of the disease: erosive GERD, when erosions are identified by upper digestive endoscopy, and non-erosive GERD, when the esophageal mucosa presents a normal endoscopic aspect. Relevant clinical findings are usually absent in the physical examination, but it should be highlighted that obesity is an important aggravating factor of reflux. The treatment is established based on clinical findings and, according to the clinical situation, on complementary exams such as upper digestive endoscopy. In dubious cases where a precise diagnosis is required, the indicated test is esophageal pHmetry or impedance-pHmetry. Clinical treatment is divided into behavioral/dietary measures and pharmacological measures. Most patients benefit from clinical treatment, but surgical treatment may be indicated in the presence of a larger hiatal hernia and complications of the disease.


Assuntos
Esofagite Péptica , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Laringite , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/diagnóstico , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/terapia , Azia , Humanos
3.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 54(7): 923-930, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is complex and multifactorial. The oesophageal hypervigilance and anxiety scale (EHAS) is a novel cognitive-affective evaluation of visceral sensitivity. AIMS: To investigate the interrelationship between EHAS and reflux symptom severity, psychological stress, acid reflux burden, phenotypes, and oesophageal mucosal integrity in patients with GERD. METHODS: Patients with chronic reflux symptoms and negative endoscopy underwent 24-hour impedance-pH monitoring for phenotyping, acid reflux burden, and mucosal integrity with mean nocturnal baseline impedance (MNBI) calculation. Validated scores for patient-reported outcomes, including EHAS, GERD questionnaire (GERDQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory score, and Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire score, were recorded. RESULTS: We enrolled 105 patients, aged 21-64 years (mean, 48.8), of whom 58.1% were female; 27 had non-erosive reflux disease, 43 had reflux hypersensitivity and 35 had functional heartburn. There were no significant differences in sex, EHAS, GERDQ, questionnaires of depression or anxiety among GERD phenotypes. EHAS was significantly correlated with GERDQ, questionnaires of depression and anxiety (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant correlations between GERDQ and questionnaires of depression or anxiety. Regarding patient-reported outcomes, GERDQ positively correlated with acid exposure time and negatively correlated with MNBI (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: EHAS associates with reflux symptom severity and psychological stress but not with acid reflux burden or mucosal integrity. Thus, EHAS assessment shows promise in assessment of subjective patient outcome and satisfaction with treatment, a hitherto unmet clinical need.


Assuntos
Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Angústia Psicológica , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/etiologia , Feminino , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/complicações , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/diagnóstico , Azia , Humanos
4.
J Dig Dis ; 22(9): 529-535, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387020

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Esophagogastric junction contractile integral (EGJ-CI) is a novel indicator to evaluate quantitatively the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) barrier function. We aimed to assess the role of EGJ-CI in patients with refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms and the correlation between EGJ-CI and impedance-pH monitoring characteristics. METHODS: In total 82 patients with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)-refractory gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (heartburn or regurgitation) were enrolled. These patients were further divided into two groups based on their EGJ-CI value (39 mmHg·cm). The mean nocturnal baseline impedance (MNBI) was measured to explore its association with EGJ-CI. RESULTS: The median EGJ-CI in patients with PPI-refractory symptoms was 30.8 mmHg·cm. EGJ-CI was inversely correlated with acid exposure time and reflux episodes; while it was positively correlated with MNBI, distal contractile integral, lower esophageal sphincter basal pressure and integrated relaxation pressure. Patients were further divided into the high (n = 27) and low (n = 55) EGJ-CI groups using a cut-off value of 39.0 mmHg·cm. Patients with a low EGJ-CI had a lower MNBI level than those with a high EGJ-CI (2703 Ω vs 3545 Ω, P = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with PPIs-refractory symptoms, EGJ-CI is associated with acid exposure and conventional high-resolution manometry parameters. EGJ-CI may play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with refractory GERD.


Assuntos
Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons , Monitoramento do pH Esofágico , Junção Esofagogástrica , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/tratamento farmacológico , Azia , Humanos , Manometria , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico
5.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203134

RESUMO

Heartburn and non-cardiac chest pain are the predominant symptoms in many esophageal disorders, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), functional heartburn and chest pain, and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). At present, neuronal mechanisms underlying the process of interoceptive signals in the esophagus are still less clear. Noxious stimuli can activate a subpopulation of primary afferent neurons at their nerve terminals in the esophagus. The evoked action potentials are transmitted through both the spinal and vagal pathways to their central terminals, which synapse with the neurons in the central nervous system to induce esophageal nociception. Over the last few decades, progress has been made in our understanding on the peripheral and central neuronal mechanisms of esophageal nociception. In this review, we focus on the roles of capsaicin-sensitive vagal primary afferent nodose and jugular C-fiber neurons in processing nociceptive signals in the esophagus. We briefly compare their distinctive phenotypic features and functional responses to mechanical and chemical stimulations in the esophagus. Then, we summarize activation and/or sensitization effects of acid, inflammatory cells (eosinophils and mast cells), and mediators (ATP, 5-HT, bradykinin, adenosine, S1P) on these two nociceptive C-fiber subtypes. Lastly, we discuss the potential roles of capsaicin-sensitive esophageal afferent nerves in processing esophageal sensation and nociception. A better knowledge of the mechanism of nociceptive signal processes in primary afferent nerves in the esophagus will help to develop novel treatment approaches to relieve esophageal nociceptive symptoms, especially those that are refractory to proton pump inhibitors.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Capsaicina/uso terapêutico , Esôfago/metabolismo , Azia/dietoterapia , Nociceptividade/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Nervo Vago/metabolismo , Animais , Esôfago/inervação , Esôfago/patologia , Azia/metabolismo , Azia/patologia , Humanos , Nervo Vago/patologia
6.
Obes Surg ; 31(11): 4717-4723, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232446

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with one-anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) can develop gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The nature of this GERD (acid or biliary) remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess the nature of GERD via impedance pH testing in patients presenting with reflux post OAGB. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database of 43 patients with OAGB backgrounds who developed postoperative GERD and were investigated with impedance pH monitoring between 2006 and 2019. RESULTS: Mean age was 52.48 ± 9 years. Mean body mass index (BMI) prior to OAGB was 46.82 kg/m2. None of these patients had clinical GERD before surgery. The median time interval between surgery and investigation with 24-h impedance pH monitoring was 64 (56) months. The mean BMI at the time of investigations was 32.67 ± 6.9 kg/m2. The type of reflux was acid in 13 (30.2%), non-acid (biliary) in 12 (27.9%), and mixed (acid and biliary) in 5 (11.6%) patients. However, it remained not confirmed in 13 (30.2%). Median DeMeester score was 48.95 (27.67) in patients with acid, 2.8 (7.4) in patients with biliary, and 28.7 (5.6) in patients with mixed reflux. Median percent of time spent with pH < 4 was 9.65 (8) in patients with acid, 0.6 (1.75) in patients with biliary, and 7.7 (3.9) in patients with mixed reflux. CONCLUSION: Acid reflux seems to be as common as bile reflux in patients presenting with GERD after OAGB. In case of revisional surgery for severe GERD post OAGB, 24-h impedance pH monitoring could be essential to determine the surgical procedure of choice.


Assuntos
Derivação Gástrica , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Obesidade Mórbida , Adulto , Derivação Gástrica/efeitos adversos , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/etiologia , Azia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 54(4): 402-411, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tegoprazan is a novel, fast- and long-acting potassium-competitive acid blocker that suppresses gastric acid secretion, which could benefit patients with non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), a type of gastroesophageal reflux disease. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety profiles of tegoprazan compared with those of a placebo in Korean patients with NERD. METHODS: In this phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study, 324 Korean patients with NERD were randomised into three treatment groups: tegoprazan 50 mg, tegoprazan 100 mg and placebo. These drugs were provided once daily for 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with complete resolution of major symptoms (both heartburn and regurgitation) for the last 7 days of the 4-week treatment period. Other outcomes related to efficacy, safety and tolerability were also evaluated. RESULTS: Among all, 42.5% (45/106), 48.5% (48/99) and 24.2% (24/99) of patients showed complete resolution of major symptoms at week 4 after receiving tegoprazan 50 mg, tegoprazan 100 mg, and placebo, respectively. Both doses of tegoprazan showed superior efficacy than the placebo (P = 0.0058 and P = 0.0004, respectively). The complete resolution rates of heartburn and proportions of heartburn-free days (as other efficacy outcomes) were significantly higher in both tegoprazan groups than in the placebo group (P < 0.05 for all). No significant difference in the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events were noted. CONCLUSIONS: Tegoprazan 50 and 100 mg showed superior therapeutic efficacy compared with the placebo, as well as a favourable safety profile in patients with NERD. Registration number: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02556021.


Assuntos
Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Imidazóis , Derivados de Benzeno , Método Duplo-Cego , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/tratamento farmacológico , Azia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 7(1): 55, 2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326345

RESUMO

Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disorder in adults and children. The global prevalence of GERD is high and increasing. Non-erosive reflux disease is the most common phenotype of GERD. Heartburn and regurgitation are considered classic symptoms but GERD may present with various atypical and extra-oesophageal manifestations. The pathophysiology of GERD is multifactorial and different mechanisms may result in GERD symptoms, including gastric composition and motility, anti-reflux barrier, refluxate characteristics, clearance mechanisms, mucosal integrity and symptom perception. In clinical practice, the diagnosis of GERD is commonly established on the basis of response to anti-reflux treatment; however, a more accurate diagnosis requires testing that includes upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy and reflux monitoring. New techniques and new reflux testing parameters help to better phenotype the condition. In children, the diagnosis of GERD is primarily based on history and physical examination and treatment vary with age. Treatment in adults includes a combination of lifestyle modifications with pharmacological, endoscopic or surgical intervention. In refractory GERD, optimization of proton-pump inhibitor treatment should be attempted before a series of diagnostic tests to assess the patient's phenotype.


Assuntos
Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/diagnóstico , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/epidemiologia , Azia , Humanos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Estômago
9.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 58(2): 190-194, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is an independent risk factor for esophageal symptoms, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and motor abnormalities. When contemplating bariatric surgery, patients with obesity type III undergo esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and also esophageal manometry (EMN), and prolonged pHmetry (PHM) as part of their pre-operative evaluation. OBJECTIVE: Description of endoscopy, manometry and pHmetry findings in patients with obesity type III preparing for bariatric surgery, and correlation of these findings with the presence of typical GERD symptoms. METHODS: Retrospective study in which clinical symptoms of GERD were assessed, focusing on the presence of heartburn and regurgitation. All patients underwent EMN, PHM and most of them EGD. RESULTS: 114 patients (93 females-81%), average age 36 years old, average BMI of 45.3, were studied. Typical GERD symptoms were referred by 43 (38%) patients while 71 (62%) were asymptomatic. Eighty two patients (72% of total) underwent EGD and 36 (42%) evidenced esophageal abnormalities. Among the abnormal findings, hiatal hernia was seen in 36%, erosive esophagitis (EE) in 36%, and HH+EE in 28%. An abnormal EMN was recorded in 51/114 patients (45%). The main abnormality was a hypotensive lower esophageal sphincter (LES) in 32%, followed by ineffective esophageal motility in 25%, nutcracker esophagus in 19%, IEM + hypotensive LES in 10%, intra-thoracic LES (6%), hypertensive LES (4%), aperistalsis (2%) and achalasia (2%). Among the 43 symptomatic patients, 23 (53%) had abnormal EMN and 31/71 asymptomatic cases (44%) also presented this finding (P=0.30). PHM showed abnormal reflux in 60/114 patients (53%), with a predominance of bi-positional reflux (42%), followed by supine reflux (33%) and upright reflux (25%). Abnormal PHM was found in 26/43 symptomatic cases (60%) and also among 34/71 asymptomatic cases (48%) (P=0.19). CONCLUSION: Manometric abnormalities were common in obesity type III patients, the most frequent being hypotensive LES, followed by IEM. Most patients were asymptomatic. There was no correlation between the finding of motor abnormalities and the presence of symptoms. More than half the patients had abnormal reflux at PHM. We found no significant correlation between abnormal reflux and the presence of symptoms.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Transtornos da Motilidade Esofágica , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Adulto , Transtornos da Motilidade Esofágica/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Motilidade Esofágica/etiologia , Feminino , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/complicações , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/diagnóstico , Azia , Humanos , Manometria , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 190-194, Apr.-June 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285327

RESUMO

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Obesity is an independent risk factor for esophageal symptoms, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and motor abnormalities. When contemplating bariatric surgery, patients with obesity type III undergo esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and also esophageal manometry (EMN), and prolonged pHmetry (PHM) as part of their pre-operative evaluation. OBJECTIVE: Description of endoscopy, manometry and pHmetry findings in patients with obesity type III preparing for bariatric surgery, and correlation of these findings with the presence of typical GERD symptoms. METHODS: Retrospective study in which clinical symptoms of GERD were assessed, focusing on the presence of heartburn and regurgitation. All patients underwent EMN, PHM and most of them EGD. RESULTS: 114 patients (93 females-81%), average age 36 years old, average BMI of 45.3, were studied. Typical GERD symptoms were referred by 43 (38%) patients while 71 (62%) were asymptomatic. Eighty two patients (72% of total) underwent EGD and 36 (42%) evidenced esophageal abnormalities. Among the abnormal findings, hiatal hernia was seen in 36%, erosive esophagitis (EE) in 36%, and HH+EE in 28%. An abnormal EMN was recorded in 51/114 patients (45%). The main abnormality was a hypotensive lower esophageal sphincter (LES) in 32%, followed by ineffective esophageal motility in 25%, nutcracker esophagus in 19%, IEM + hypotensive LES in 10%, intra-thoracic LES (6%), hypertensive LES (4%), aperistalsis (2%) and achalasia (2%). Among the 43 symptomatic patients, 23 (53%) had abnormal EMN and 31/71 asymptomatic cases (44%) also presented this finding (P=0.30). PHM showed abnormal reflux in 60/114 patients (53%), with a predominance of bi-positional reflux (42%), followed by supine reflux (33%) and upright reflux (25%). Abnormal PHM was found in 26/43 symptomatic cases (60%) and also among 34/71 asymptomatic cases (48%) (P=0.19). CONCLUSION: Manometric abnormalities were common in obesity type III patients, the most frequent being hypotensive LES, followed by IEM. Most patients were asymptomatic. There was no correlation between the finding of motor abnormalities and the presence of symptoms. More than half the patients had abnormal reflux at PHM. We found no significant correlation between abnormal reflux and the presence of symptoms.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A obesidade é fator de risco independente para sintomas esofagianos, doença do refluxo gastroesofágico (DRGE) e alterações motoras. Pacientes com obesidade tipo III, candidatos à cirurgia bariátrica foram submetidos a endoscopia digestiva alta (EDA) e também realizaram esofagomanometria (EMN) e pHmetria prolongada (PHM) como parte da avaliação pré-operatória. OBJETIVO: Em um grupo de pacientes com obesidade tipo III em pré-operatório de cirurgia bariátrica, descrever os achados endoscópicos, manométricos e pHmétricos, correlacionando-os com a presença de sintomas típicos de DRGE. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, de pacientes com obesidade tipo III, candidatos a cirurgia bariátrica. A avaliação clínica focalizou a presença de sintomas típicos de DRGE (pirose/regurgitação); todos foram submetidos a EMN, PHM e a maior parte à EDA, realizada previamente. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 114 pacientes, 93 (81%) do sexo feminino, média de idade de 36 anos e IMC médio de 45,3. Sintomas típicos de refluxo foram referidos por 43 (38%) pacientes e 71 (62%) eram assintomáticos. EDA foi realizada por 82 (72%) pacientes, havendo anormalidades esofagianas em 36 (42%). Entre os anormais, havia hérnia hiatal (HH) em 36%, esofagite erosiva (EE) em 36% e HH + EE em 28%. A EMN foi anormal em 51/114 (45%). Entre os anormais, predominou o esfíncter esofagiano inferior (EEI) hipotenso em 32%, seguido por motilidade esofagiana ineficaz (MEI) em 25%, esôfago em quebra-nozes (19%), EEI hipotenso + MEI (10%), EEI intra-torácico (6%), EEI hipertenso (4%), aperistalse (2%) e acalasia (2%). Dentre os 43 sintomáticos, 23 (53%) apresentavam EMN anormal, sendo que em 31 dos 71 (44%) assintomáticos a EMN também era anormal (P=0,30). A PHM revelou refluxo anormal em 60 (53%) pacientes. Predominou o refluxo anormal biposicional (42%) seguido do refluxo supino (33%) e refluxo ereto (25%). Dentre os 43 pacientes sintomáticos, 26 (60%) apresentavam PHM anormal, sendo que em 34 dos 71 assintomáticos a PHM também era anormal (48%) - P=0,19. CONCLUSÃO: Alterações manométricas foram comuns em obesidade tipo III, sendo as mais frequentes o EEI hipotenso, seguida de motilidade ineficaz. A maioria dos pacientes era assintomática. Mais da metade dos pacientes apresentou refluxo anormal à PHM. Não houve diferença significativa entre o achado de refluxo anormal e a presença de sintomas. Não houve relação entre o achado de alterações motoras e a presença de sintomas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Transtornos da Motilidade Esofágica/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Motilidade Esofágica/etiologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/complicações , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/diagnóstico , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Azia , Manometria
12.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 40, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion enhances exercise performance; however, the efficacy of CHO intake on repeated bouts of exercise simulating a taekwondo tournament is unknown. Therefore, the purpose was to compare the effects of two different doses of CHO on a sports-specific kicking test during a simulated taekwondo tournament compared to placebo (PLA). METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized-placebo controlled, cross-over trial, eleven junior male professional taekwondo athletes (age: 16 ± 0.8 years, body mass: 55.3 ± 7.3 kg) ingested one of three solutions: (i) high dose (C45): 45 g of CHO (60 g∙h- 1), (ii) low dose (C22.5): 22.5 g of CHO (30 g∙h- 1; both solutions containing 2:1 glucose:fructose), or a PLA immediately following each kicking test. The kicking test was repeated 5 times, separated by 45 mins of rest, simulating a typical taekwondo competition day. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and gastrointestinal discomfort (GI) scores were collected immediately after, and blood glucose before each test. RESULTS: The results revealed that C45 and C22.5 did not improve total, successful, or percentage of successful kicks compared to PLA (p > 0.05). Blood glucose was significantly higher following both CHO conditions compared with PLA across all five tests (p < 0.05). There were no differences between treatments or across tests for RPE (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: CHO intake, independent of the dose, did not alter taekwondo kick performance during a simulated taekwondo tournament.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Frutose/administração & dosagem , Artes Marciais/fisiologia , Adolescente , Bebidas , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Azia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia
14.
Curr Opin Gastroenterol ; 37(4): 372-377, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899778

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the wide prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying heartburn perception in the esophagus of patients with GERD remains incompletely understood. Recent studies have highlighted the potential influence sensory afferent nerves innervating the oesophageal epithelium may have on heartburn pathogenesis. The purpose of this review is to consider the current understanding of esophageal afferent neuronal innervation, including the nociceptive role of acid-sensing receptors expressed on these sensory nerves, in relation to pain perception in the esophagus of GERD patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Central and peripheral pathways of sensitization following noxious stimulation of nociceptive receptors expressed on afferent nerves can regulate the strength of sensory nerve activation in the esophagus, which can result in the amplification or suppression of afferent signal transmission. The localization and characterization of mucosal sensory afferent nerves vary between GERD phenotypes and may explain the heterogeneity of symptom perception in patients with apparently similar levels of reflux. SUMMARY: In this review, we discuss the relevance of afferent esophageal innervation in heartburn perception, with a particular focus on the pathways of reflux-induced activation of nociceptive nerves.


Assuntos
Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Azia , Mucosa Esofágica , Azia/etiologia , Humanos , Membrana Mucosa
15.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 58(1): 5-9, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heartburn and acid regurgitation are typical symptoms usually associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). GERD is one of the gastrointestinal diagnosis with higher prevalence worldwide, significantly impairing patients' quality of life. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of GERD-related symptoms in the Brazilian urban population. METHODS: National telephone survey with community-dwelling Brazilian individuals. Self-reported prevalence and frequency of symptoms (heartburn / regurgitation) were assessed. Individuals rated the impact of symptoms in their general well-being using a numeric scale from 1 to 10 (1 = no impact; 10 = very intense, preventing the person to eat and perform daily routine activities). Descriptive and bivariate statistical analyses were performed. RESULTS: The final sample was comprised of 1,773 subjects, 935 (52.7%) females, an average of 40 years old. The prevalence of heartburn and regurgitation in the past 6 months was 26.2% (n=466) and 11.0% (n=196), respectively. Women presented higher prevalence (heartburn n=266, 28.5% and regurgitation n=119, 12.7%) than men (n=200, 23.1% and n=78, 8.9%, respectively) (P<0.05). Heartburn in the past week was reported by 175 individuals (9.8%), while regurgitation episodes by 67 (3.8%). Absence of impact of the symptom in the overall well-being was observed for 82 subjects (17.6%) with heartburn and 18 individuals (9.2%) with regurgitation. Very intense impact was reported by 46 subjects (9.8%) with heartburn and 41 (20.9%) with regurgitation. Women's well-being was more affected than men's (mean score 5.45 vs 4.71, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Heartburn and regurgitation were frequent symptoms, women with higher prevalence. These symptoms led to a substantial impact on individuals' well-being, women being more affected.


Assuntos
Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Azia , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/epidemiologia , Azia/epidemiologia , Azia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(13): e25426, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787652

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of heartburn in pediatric patients with functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with gastrointestinal symptoms, sleep disturbances, and psychologic distress.The overlap in symptoms of FD, IBS, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) predicts greater symptom severity and decreased quality of life and presents opportunities for improved diagnostic classification and personalized therapeutics.A cross-sectional observational study of 260 pediatric patients with abdominal pain was conducted. Patients completed standardized questionnaires assessing clinical symptoms, sleep quality, and psychologic symptoms during routine clinical care. Questionnaire data were compared for patients reporting heartburn and not reporting heartburn using χ2 and t tests where appropriate.Gastrointestinal symptoms were significantly more prevalent among patients with a positive report of heartburn (vs a negative report of heartburn): pain with eating (83% vs 67%, P = .007), bloating (63% vs 44%, P = .005), acid regurgitation (47% vs 24%, P ≤ .001), and chest pain (45% vs 20%, P ≤ .001). Likewise, initiating and maintaining sleep (P = .007), arousal/nightmares (P = .046), sleep-wake transition (P = .001), hyperhidrosis during sleep (P = .016), and anxiety (P = .001) and depression (P = .0018) were also significantly increased in patients who reported heartburn versus patients who did not report heartburn.Patients with a positive report of heartburn, whether classified as having FD and/or IBS, had increased gastrointestinal symptoms, sleep disturbances, anxiety, and depression than patients with a negative report of heartburn. A better understanding of these associations may allow for personalized treatment for youth with abdominal pain and heartburn as a primary symptom.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Dispepsia/complicações , Azia/etiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/complicações , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Biópsia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Dispepsia/diagnóstico , Dispepsia/patologia , Dispepsia/psicologia , Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório , Mucosa Esofágica/diagnóstico por imagem , Mucosa Esofágica/patologia , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/diagnóstico por imagem , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Azia/psicologia , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/psicologia , Masculino , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia
17.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 320(5): G804-G815, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655767

RESUMO

The underlying causes of heartburn, characteristic symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), remain incompletely understood. Superficial afferent innervation of the esophageal mucosa in nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) may drive nociceptive reflux perception, but its acid-sensing role has not yet been established. Transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member-1 (TRPV1), transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8), and acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) are regulators of sensory nerve activity and could be important reflux-sensing receptors within the esophageal mucosa. We characterized TRPV1, TRPM8, and ASIC3 expression in esophageal mucosa of patients with GERD. We studied 10 patients with NERD, 10 with erosive reflux disease (ERD), 7 with functional heartburn (FH), and 8 with Barrett's esophagus (BE). Biopsies obtained from the distal esophageal mucosa were costained with TRPV1, TRPM8, or ASIC3, and CGRP, CD45, or E-cadherin. RNA expression of TRPV1, TRPM8, and ASIC3 was assessed using qPCR. Patients with NERD had significantly increased expression of TRPV1 on superficial sensory nerves compared with ERD (P = 0.028) or BE (P = 0.017). Deep intrapapillary nerve endings did not express TRPV1 in all phenotypes studied. ASIC3 was exclusively expressed on epithelial cells most significantly in patients with NERD and ERD (P ≤0.0001). TRPM8 was expressed on submucosal CD45+ leukocytes. Superficial localization of TRPV1-immunoreactive nerves in NERD, and increased ASIC3 coexpression on epithelial cells in NERD and ERD, suggests a mechanism for heartburn sensation. Esophageal epithelial cells may play a sensory role in acid reflux perception and act interdependently with TRPV1-expressing mucosal nerves to augment hypersensitivity in patients with NERD, raising the enticing possibility of topical antagonists for these ion channels as a therapeutic option.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We demonstrate for the first time that increased pain perception in patients with nonerosive reflux disease likely results from expression of acid-sensitive channels on superficial mucosal afferents and esophageal epithelial cells, raising the potential for topical therapy.


Assuntos
Canais Iônicos Sensíveis a Ácido/metabolismo , Mucosa Esofágica/fisiopatologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/fisiopatologia , Azia/fisiopatologia , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Mucosa Esofágica/metabolismo , Esôfago/metabolismo , Esôfago/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/metabolismo , Azia/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(1): 5-9, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248996

RESUMO

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Heartburn and acid regurgitation are typical symptoms usually associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). GERD is one of the gastrointestinal diagnosis with higher prevalence worldwide, significantly impairing patients' quality of life. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of GERD-related symptoms in the Brazilian urban population. METHODS: National telephone survey with community-dwelling Brazilian individuals. Self-reported prevalence and frequency of symptoms (heartburn / regurgitation) were assessed. Individuals rated the impact of symptoms in their general well-being using a numeric scale from 1 to 10 (1 = no impact; 10 = very intense, preventing the person to eat and perform daily routine activities). Descriptive and bivariate statistical analyses were performed. RESULTS: The final sample was comprised of 1,773 subjects, 935 (52.7%) females, an average of 40 years old. The prevalence of heartburn and regurgitation in the past 6 months was 26.2% (n=466) and 11.0% (n=196), respectively. Women presented higher prevalence (heartburn n=266, 28.5% and regurgitation n=119, 12.7%) than men (n=200, 23.1% and n=78, 8.9%, respectively) (P<0.05). Heartburn in the past week was reported by 175 individuals (9.8%), while regurgitation episodes by 67 (3.8%). Absence of impact of the symptom in the overall well-being was observed for 82 subjects (17.6%) with heartburn and 18 individuals (9.2%) with regurgitation. Very intense impact was reported by 46 subjects (9.8%) with heartburn and 41 (20.9%) with regurgitation. Women's well-being was more affected than men's (mean score 5.45 vs 4.71, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Heartburn and regurgitation were frequent symptoms, women with higher prevalence. These symptoms led to a substantial impact on individuals' well-being, women being more affected.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Pirose e regurgitação ácida são sintomas típicos usualmente relacionados à doença do refluxo gastroesofágico (DRGE). A DRGE é um dos diagnósticos gastrointestinais com maior prevalência mundial, afetando significativamente a qualidade de vida dos pacientes. OBJETIVO: Analisar o impacto de sintomas relacionados à DRGE em uma amostra da população brasileira urbana. MÉTODOS: Inquérito nacional via telefone com indivíduos brasileiros em contexto comunitário. O inquérito foi conduzido entre 6 de agosto e 12 de setembro de 2018. A prevalência autorrelatada e a frequência dos sintomas foram avaliadas. Os respondentes classificaram o impacto dos sintomas no seu bem-estar geral utilizando uma escala numérica de 1 a 10 (1 = ausência de impacto; 10 = impacto muito grave, impedindo a pessoa de comer ou realizar atividades da vida diária). Análises estatísticas descritivas e bivariadas foram conduzidas. RESULTADOS: A amostra final foi constituída por 1.773 indivíduos, 935 (52,7%) mulheres, com idade média de 40 anos. A prevalência de pirose e regurgitação nos últimos 6 meses foi de 26,2% (n=466) e 11,0% (n=196), respectivamente. Sexo feminino (pirose n=266, 28,5% e regurgitação n=119, 12,7%) apresentou prevalência mais alta do que o masculino (n=200, 23,1% e n=78, 8,9%, respectivamente) (P<0,05). Pirose na última semana foi relatada por 175 indivíduos (9,8%), enquanto episódios de regurgitação por 67 (3,8%). Ausência de impacto dos sintomas no bem-estar geral dos indivíduos foi observada para 82 respondentes (17,6%) com pirose e 18 (9,2%) daqueles com regurgitação. Impacto muito grave foi reportado por 46 (9,8%) indivíduos com pirose e 41 (20,9%) com regurgitação. Sexo feminino foi mais afetado pelos sintomas do que o masculino. CONCLUSÃO: Pirose e regurgitação foram bastante frequentes sendo o sexo feminino mais afetado. Tais sintomas levaram a impacto no bem-estar dos indivíduos, com maior prejuízo para mulheres.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/epidemiologia , Azia/etiologia , Azia/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Brasil/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Dig Endosc ; 33(4): 663-667, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559229

RESUMO

Endoscopic pressure study integrated system (EPSIS) is a novel tool for the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. It enables the evaluation of the function of the lower esophageal sphincter by monitoring intragastric pressure (IGP) while insufflating the stomach during esophagogastroduodenoscopy. EPSIS can predict abnormal acid reflux with high accuracy based on previous studies. IGP was measured by inserting through the working channel of the scope an intragastric catheter connected to a pressure measuring device. Herein, we assess the feasibility of an updated EPSIS system, which can be performed just by connecting a flush tube to the working channel. This method does not require inserting foreign objects in the stomach and spares catheter insertion in order to simplify the procedure and reduce costs. A single-center pilot study was conducted to evaluate the association between catheter-based EPSIS and the updated EPSIS. The results of EPSIS in 20 patients who underwent both methods were assessed. In all cases, the waveform pattern of IGP measured by catheter-based EPSIS and updated EPSIS was consistent with 15 uphill pattern and five flat pattern. Intraobserver agreement of waveform pattern was perfect between two examiners with kappa value = 1. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for intraobserver reliability for maximum IGP was excellent with 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI] of 0.77 < ICC < 0.96) and for pressure gradient was also good with 0.89 (95% CI of 0.71 < ICC < 0.95). In conclusion, our study suggests that the updated EPSIS can be performed without the use of a catheter.


Assuntos
Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Esfíncter Esofágico Inferior , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/diagnóstico , Azia , Humanos , Manometria , Projetos Piloto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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