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1.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 46(8): 1213-1217, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717502

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Understanding of rare or unknown anatomical variations of the vasculature of the neck is critical to reduce the risk of complications during surgeries and other invasive procedures in the neck and shoulder regions. METHODS: Bilateral dissection of the neck and muscles of the back of an 87-year-old Caucasian male donor was performed to demonstrate the origin, course and termination of the arteries that arise in the neck. RESULTS: Several anatomical variations were noted on the right side of the neck of the donor body - (i) only inferior thyroid and ascending cervical arteries originated from the thyrocervical trunk (TCT), from the first part of the subclavian artery (SA), whereas the transverse cervical (TCA) and suprascapular (SSA) arteries were entirely absent, (ii) Dorsal scapular artery (DSA) emerged normally from the third part of the SA. However, after supplying the rhomboids and levator scapulae muscles, DSA provided two additional branches to the trapezius muscle and a branch to the supraspinatus muscle. Interestingly, the branches to the trapezius muscle from the DSA were the only sources of blood supply to the muscle. CONCLUSION: We report a unique anatomical variation involving the absence of the TCA and SSA from the TCT. The unilateral absence of these major vessels and the branches of DSA supplying the trapezius and supraspinatus muscles have not been reported previously in the literature in a single case report. This case study may provide useful information for head and neck reconstruction and shoulder repair surgeries.


Assuntos
Variação Anatômica , Cadáver , Humanos , Masculino , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Escápula/irrigação sanguínea , Artéria Subclávia/anormalidades , Artéria Subclávia/anatomia & histologia , Músculos do Dorso/irrigação sanguínea , Músculos do Dorso/diagnóstico por imagem , Pescoço/irrigação sanguínea , Dissecação , Artérias/anormalidades , Artérias/anatomia & histologia , Músculos Superficiais do Dorso/irrigação sanguínea
2.
Appl Ergon ; 118: 104278, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626669

RESUMO

Commonly used risk indexes, such as the NIOSH Lifting Index, do not capture the effect of exoskeletons. This makes it difficult for Health and Safety professionals to rigorously assess the benefit of such devices. The community requires a simple method to assess the effectiveness of back-support exoskeleton's (BSE) in possibly reducing ergonomic risk. The method introduced in this work is termed "Equivalent Weight" (EqW) and it proposes an interpretation of the effect built on the benefit delivered through reduced activation of the erector spinae (ES). This manifests itself as an apparent reduction of the lifted load perceived by the wearer. This work presents a pilot study where a practical application of the EqW method is used to assess the ergonomic risk in manual material handling (MMH) when using a back support exoskeleton (StreamEXO). The results are assessed by combining observational measurements from on-site testing with five different workers and quantitative measures of the muscle activity reduction achieved during laboratory evaluation with ten workers. These results will show that when lifting, lowering, and carrying a 19 kg load the StreamEXO can reduce risk by up to two levels (from "high" to "low") in the target sub-tasks. The Lifting index (LI) was reduced up to 64% when examining specific sub-tasks and the worker's movement conduction.


Assuntos
Eletromiografia , Ergonomia , Exoesqueleto Energizado , Remoção , Ferrovias , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Suporte de Carga , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Adulto , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Ergonomia/métodos , Músculos do Dorso/fisiologia , Feminino , Medição de Risco/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
J Biomech ; 168: 112125, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38688184

RESUMO

Industrial back support exoskeletons (BSEs) are a promising approach to addressing low back pain (LBP) which still affect a significant proportion of the workforce. They aim to reduce lumbar loading, the main biomechanical risk factor for LBP, by providing external support to the lumbar spine. The aim of this study was to determine the supporting effect of one active (A1) and two passive (P1 and P2) BSEs during different manual material handling tasks. Kinematic data and back muscle activity were collected from 12 subjects during dynamic lifting and static holding of 10 kg. Mean and peak L5/S1 extension moments, L5/S1 compression forces and muscle activation were included in the analysis. During dynamic lifting all BSEs reduced peak (12-26 %) and mean (4-17 %) extension moments and peak (10-22 %) and mean (4-15 %) compression forces in the lumbar spine. The peak (13-28 %) and mean (4-32 %) activity of the back extensor muscles was reduced accordingly. In the static holding task, analogous mean reductions for P1 and P2 of L5/S1 extension moments (12-20 %), compression forces (13-23 %) and muscular activity (16-23 %) were found. A1 showed a greater reduction during static holding for extension moments (46 %), compression forces (41 %) and muscular activity (54 %). This pronounced difference in the performance of the BSEs between tasks was attributed to the actuators used by the different BSEs.


Assuntos
Remoção , Dor Lombar , Vértebras Lombares , Suporte de Carga , Humanos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Masculino , Adulto , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Dor Lombar/fisiopatologia , Vértebras Lombares/fisiologia , Exoesqueleto Energizado , Feminino , Músculos do Dorso/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia
4.
J Biomech ; 167: 112077, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599020

RESUMO

Low back pain is commonly reported in occupational settings due to factors such as heavy lifting and poor ergonomic practices, often resulting in significant healthcare expenses and lowered productivity. Assessment tools for human motion and ergonomic risk at the workplace are still limited. Therefore, this study aimed to assess lower back muscle and joint reaction forces in laboratory conditions using wearable inertial measurement units (IMUs) during weight lifting, a frequently high-risk workplace task. Ten able-bodied participants were instructed to lift a 28 lbs. box while surface electromyography sensors, IMUs, and a camera-based motion capture system recorded their muscle activity and body motion. The data recorded by IMUs and motion capture system were used to estimate lower back muscle and joint reaction forces via musculoskeletal modeling. Lower back muscle patterns matched well with electromyography recordings. The normalized mean absolute differences between muscle forces estimated based on measurements of IMUs and cameras were less than 25 %, and the statistical parametric mapping results indicated no significant difference between the forces estimated by both systems. However, abrupt changes in motion, such as lifting initiation, led to significant differences (p < 0.05) between the muscle forces. Furthermore, the maximum L5-S1 joint reaction force estimated using IMU data was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than those estimated by cameras during weight lifting and lowering. The study showed how kinematic errors from IMUs propagated through the musculoskeletal model and affected the estimations of muscle forces and joint reaction forces. Our findings showed the potential of IMUs for in-field ergonomic risk evaluations.


Assuntos
Músculos do Dorso , Dor Lombar , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Humanos , Remoção , Músculos/fisiologia , Eletromiografia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7562, 2024 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38555353

RESUMO

Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are localized contraction knots that develop after muscle overuse or an acute trauma. Significant work has been done to understand, diagnose, and treat MTrPs in order to improve patients suffering from their effects. However, effective non-invasive diagnostic tools are still a missing gap in both understanding and treating MTrPs. Effective treatments for patients suffering from MTrP mediated pain require a means to measure MTrP properties quantitatively and diagnostically both prior to and during intervention. Further, quantitative measurements of MTrPs are often limited by the availability of equipment and training. Here we develop ultrasound (US) based diagnostic metrics that can be used to distinguish the biophysical properties of MTrPs, and show how those metrics can be used by clinicians during patient diagnosis and treatment. We highlight the advantages and limitations of previous US-based approaches that utilize elasticity theory. To overcome these previous limitations, we use a hierarchical approach to distinguish MTrP properties by patients' reported pain and clinician measured palpation. We show how US-based measurements can characterize MTrPs with this approach. We demonstrate that MTrPs tend to be smaller, stiffer, and deeper in the muscle tissue for patients with pain compared to patients without pain. We provide evidence that more than one MTrP within a single US-image field increases the stiffness of neighboring MTrPs. Finally, we highlight a combination of metrics (depth, thickness, and stiffness) that can be used by clinicians to evaluate individual MTrPs in combination with standard clinical assessments.


Assuntos
Músculos do Dorso , Síndromes da Dor Miofascial , Humanos , Pontos-Gatilho , Síndromes da Dor Miofascial/diagnóstico , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Dor
7.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 25(1): 155, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38373986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common musculoskeletal conditions. People with LBP often display changes of neuromuscular control and trunk mechanical properties, including trunk stiffness. Although a few individual studies have examined back muscle stiffness in individuals with LBP, a synthesis of the evidence appears to be lacking. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to synthesize and evaluate the available literature investigating back muscle stiffness in association with LBP. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the literature according to the PRISMA guidelines. We searched Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science and ScienceDirect for studies, that compared back muscle stiffness, measured either by ultrasound-based elastography or myotonometry, between individuals with and without LBP. Pooled data of the included studies were presented descriptively. Additionally, we performed two meta-analyses to calculate the standardized mean difference between the two groups for resting stiffness of the multifidus and erector spinae muscle. For both meta-analyses, the random effect model was used and the weight of individual studies was calculated using the inverse-variance method. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for Analytical Cross-Sectional studies. Furthermore, the certainty of evidence was evaluated using the GRADE approach. RESULTS: Nine studies were included in our systematic review. Our results suggest that individuals with LBP have higher stiffness of the multifidus (SMD = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.15 - 0.81, p < 0.01; I2 = 48 %, p = 0.11) and erector spinae at rest (SMD = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.11 - 0.62, p < 0.01; I2 = 39 %, p = 0.14) compared to asymptomatic controls. On the other hand, the evidence regarding muscle stiffness during submaximal contractions is somewhat contradictory. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the findings of this systematic review we conclude that people with LBP may have higher back muscle stiffness compared to asymptomatic controls. Addressing muscle stiffness might represent an important goal of LBP treatment. Nevertheless, our findings should be interpreted with extreme caution due to a limited quality of evidence, small number of included studies and differences in measurement methodology.


Assuntos
Músculos do Dorso , Dor Lombar , Humanos , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico , Dor Lombar/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Dor nas Costas , Músculos do Dorso/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculos Paraespinais/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng ; 71(7): 2154-2162, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324444

RESUMO

Lumbar exoskeleton is an assistive robot, which can reduce the risk of injury and pain in low back muscles when lifting heavy objects. An important challenge it faces involves enhancing assistance with minimal muscle energy consumption. One of the viable solutions is to adjust the force or torque of assistance in response to changes in the load on the low back muscles. It requires accurate loading recognition, which has yet to yield satisfactory outcomes due to the limitations of available measurement tools and load classification methods. This study aimed to precisely identify muscle loading using a multi-channel surface electromyographic (sEMG) electrode array on the low back muscles, combined with a participant-specific load classification method. Ten healthy participants performed a stoop lifting task with objects of varying weights, while sEMG data was collected from the low back muscles using a 3x7 electrode array. Nineteen time segments of the lifting phase were identified, and time-domain sEMG features were extracted from each segment. Participant-specific classifiers were built using four classification algorithms to determine the object weight in each time segment, and the classification performance was evaluated using a 5-fold cross-validation method. The artificial neural network classifier achieved an impressive accuracy of up to 96%, consistently improving as the lifting phase progressed, peaking towards the end of the lifting movement. This study successfully achieves accurate recognition of load on low back muscles during the object lifting task. The obtained results hold significant potential in effectively reducing muscle energy consumption when wearing a lumbar exoskeleton.


Assuntos
Eletromiografia , Exoesqueleto Energizado , Humanos , Eletromiografia/métodos , Masculino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Músculos do Dorso/fisiologia , Feminino , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Algoritmos , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia
9.
J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil ; 37(4): 897-908, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38250755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Weakness and atrophy in trunk muscles have been associated with chronic low back pain (CLBP). OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify isometric exercises resulting the highest trunk muscle activity for individuals with and without CLBP. METHODS: Fourteen males with CLBP and 15 healthy age-matched healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Muscle activity during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was measured for a comparative reference with surface electromyography (sEMG) from six trunk muscles. Thereafter maximum EMG amplitude values were measured during eleven trunk stability exercises. The maximal EMG activity in each exercise relative to the MVICs was analyzed using generalizing estimating equations (GEE) models with the unstructured correlation structure. RESULTS: The GEE models showed statistically significant differences in muscle activity between exercises within both groups (p< 0.001), with no significant differences between groups (p> 0.05). The highest muscle activity was achieved with the hip flexion machine for multifidus, side pull with a resistance band for lumbar extensors, side and single-arm cable pull exercises for thoracic extensors, rotary plank and the hip flexion machine for abdominal. CONCLUSION: This study found five isometric trunk exercises that exhibited highest muscle activity depending on muscle tested, with no significant difference between individuals with and without CLBP.


Assuntos
Eletromiografia , Terapia por Exercício , Contração Isométrica , Dor Lombar , Tronco , Humanos , Dor Lombar/fisiopatologia , Dor Lombar/reabilitação , Dor Lombar/terapia , Masculino , Adulto , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Tronco/fisiopatologia , Tronco/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Dor Crônica/reabilitação , Dor Crônica/terapia , Músculos Abdominais/fisiopatologia , Músculos Abdominais/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Músculos do Dorso/fisiopatologia , Músculos do Dorso/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 50(4): 564-570, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38272743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the reliability of quantifying psoas major (PM) and quadratus lumborum (QL) stiffness with ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE), and to explore the effects of gender and physical activity on muscle stiffness. METHODS: Fifty-two healthy participants (18-32 y) were recruited. To determine reliability, 29 of them underwent repeated SWE measurements of PM and QL stiffness by an operator on the same day. The intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC3,1), standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change with 95% confidence interval (MDC95) were calculated. The rest participants underwent a single measurement. Two-way MANCOVA was conducted for the effects of gender and physical activity on muscle stiffness. RESULTS: The observed reliability for PM (ICC3,1 = 0.89-0.92) and QL (ICC3,1 = 0.79-0.82) were good-to-excellent and good, respectively. The SEM (kPa) was 0.79-1.03 and 1.23-1.28, and the MDC95 (kPa) was 2.20-2.85 and 3.41-3.56 for PM and QL, respectively. After BMI adjustment, both gender (PM: F = 10.15, p = 0.003; QL: F = 18.07, p < 0.001) and activity level (PM: F = 5.90, p = 0.005; QL: F = 6.33, p = 0.004) influenced muscle stiffness. The female and inactive groups exhibited higher stiffness in both muscles. CONCLUSION: SWE is reliable for quantifying the stiffness of PM and QL. Female and physical inactivity may elevate PM and QL stiffness, underscoring the importance of accounting for these factors in muscle stiffness investigations. Larger prospective studies are needed to further elucidate their effects.


Assuntos
Músculos do Dorso , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Humanos , Feminino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Músculos Psoas/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculos Psoas/fisiologia , Exercício Físico
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38165795

RESUMO

Lumbar exoskeleton has potential to assist in lumbar movements and thereby prevent impairment of back muscles. However, due to limitations of evaluation tools, the effect of lumbar exoskeletons on coordinated activities of back muscles is seldom investigated. This study used the surface electromyography (sEMG) topographic map based on multi-channel electrodes from low back muscles to analyze the effects. Thirteen subjects conducted two tasks, namely lifting and holding a 20kg-weight box. For each task, three different trials, not wearing exoskeleton (NoExo), wearing exoskeleton but power-off (OffExo), and wearing exoskeleton and power-on (OnExo), were randomly conducted. Root-mean-square (RMS) and median-frequency (MDF) topographic maps of the recorded sEMG were constructed. Three parameters, average pixel values, distribution of center of gravity (CoG), and entropy, were extracted from the maps to assess the muscle coordinated activities. In the lifting task, results showed the average pixel values of RMS maps for the NoExo trial were lower than those for the OffExo trial ( [Formula: see text]) but the same as those for the OnExo trial ( [Formula: see text]0.05). The distribution of CoG showed a significant difference between NoExo and OnExo trials ( [Formula: see text]). In the holding task, RMS and MDF maps' average pixel values showed significant differences between NoExo and OnExo trials ( [Formula: see text]). These findings suggest that active lumbar exoskeletons can reduce the load on low back muscles in the static holding task rather than in the dynamic lifting task. This proves sEMG topographic maps offer a new way to evaluate such effects, thereby helping improve the design of lumbar exoskeleton systems.


Assuntos
Músculos do Dorso , Exoesqueleto Energizado , Humanos , Eletromiografia/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Músculos do Dorso/fisiologia , Região Lombossacral/fisiologia , Movimento , Fenômenos Biomecânicos
12.
Ergonomics ; 67(5): 650-659, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37459607

RESUMO

Firefighters often experience low back pain (LBP), but their back muscle characteristics are not well studied. This study aimed to 1) compare the biomechanical characteristics of back muscles and self-reported back disabilities in frontline firefighters with and without LBP history, and 2) examine the relationships between back disability and biomechanical measurements. We recruited 42 male firefighters and assessed their perceived pain and disabilities, maximum isometric back extension strength, passive stiffness, and fatigability of the longissimus. 54.8% of the participants experienced LBP within the past year. Those indicating higher pain intensity also had greater disability as indicated by the Oswestry Disability Index. There were no significant differences in strength, stiffness or fatigability of the back muscles between firefighters with and without LBP history. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed no significant relationship between the back disability and any biomechanical or demographic measures, likely due to the high functional abilities of the participants.


Approximately 50% of the firefighters who participated in the study experienced low back pain in the past 12 months. Since the pain level was mild to moderate, most of them continued to report to work. Biomechanically, there were no differences in back muscle strength, stiffness, resistance to fatigue, or left-right symmetry between firefighters with and without back pain history. Back disabilities were not related to any biomechanical measures or demographics including age and body mass index. Overall, despite experiencing some back pain, these frontline firefighters are highly functional and did not show diminished physical or neuromuscular responses.


Assuntos
Músculos do Dorso , Bombeiros , Dor Lombar , Humanos , Masculino , Músculos Paraespinais , Atividades Cotidianas
13.
Ergonomics ; 67(2): 182-193, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37204270

RESUMO

This study aimed to establish an ambulatory field-friendly system based on miniaturised wireless flexible sensors for studying the biomechanics of human-exoskeleton interactions. Twelve healthy adults performed symmetric lifting with and without a passive low-back exoskeleton, while their movements were tracked using both a flexible sensor system and a conventional motion capture (MoCap) system synchronously. Novel algorithms were developed to convert the raw acceleration, gyroscope, and biopotential signals from the flexible sensors into kinematic and dynamic measures. Results showed that these measures were highly correlated with those obtained from the MoCap system and discerned the effects of the exoskeleton, including increased peak lumbar flexion, decreased peak hip flexion, and decreased lumbar flexion moment and back muscle activities. The study demonstrated the promise of an integrated flexible sensor-based system for biomechanics and ergonomics field studies as well as the efficacy of exoskeleton in relieving the low-back stress associated with manual lifting.


This study established and tested a flexible sensor-based ambulatory system for biomechanical evaluation of human-exoskeleton interactions and as a promising new tool for field ergonomics studies in practical or naturalistic settings.Abbreviations: MoCap: motion capture; WMSD: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders; EMG: electromyography; IMU: inertial measurement unit; TES: thoracic erector spinae; LES: lumbar erector spinae; WITH: tasks performed with wearing the exoskeleton; WITHOUT: tasks performed without wearing the exoskeleton; RMS: root mean square; RMSE: root-mean-square error; r: Pearson's correlation coefficient; ASIS: anterior superior iliac spine.


Assuntos
Músculos do Dorso , Exoesqueleto Energizado , Organotiofosfatos , Adulto , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Eletromiografia/métodos , Remoção , Músculos do Dorso/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos
14.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 24(1): 917, 2023 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38012671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measurement of trunk muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) using axial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered clinically meaningful for understanding several spinal pathologies, such as low back pain and spinal sagittal imbalance. However, it remains unclear whether trunk muscle mass (TMM) measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can predict the trunk muscle CSA. The aim of this study is to determine if DXA-derived TMM is associated and predicts with CSA of paraspinal muscles and gluteus maximus measured using MRI in healthy volunteers. METHODS: A total of 48 healthy volunteers underwent whole-body DXA and MRI of the spinopelvic region. The CSA of the psoas major, back muscles, and gluteus maximus were measured on axial MRI. Correlations and linear regressions between the TMM measured using DXA and the CSA of each musculature were investigated. RESULTS: There was a weak correlation between TMM and CSA of the psoas major in men (r = 0.39, P = 0.0678), and the linear regression was y = 301.74x - 401.24 (R2 = 0.2976, P = 0.0070). A moderate correlation was found in women (r = 0.58, P = 0.0021), and the linear regression was y = 230.21x - 695.29 (R2 = 0.4445, P = 0.0003). Moderate correlations were observed between TMM and CSA of the back muscles in both men (r = 0.63, P = 0.0012) and women (r = 0.63, P = 0.0007), the linear regression was y = 468.52x + 3688.5 (R2 = 0.5505, P < 0.0001) in men and y = 477.39x + 2364.1 (R2 = 0.564, P < 0.0001) in women. There was a strong correlation between TMM and CSA of the gluteus maximus in men (r = 0.72, P < 0.0001), and the linear regression was y = 252.69x - 880.5 (R2 = 0.6906, P < 0.0001). A moderate correlation was found in women (r = 0.69, P < 0.0001), and the linear regression was y = 230.74x - 231.32 (R2 = 0.6542, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The DXA-derived TMM was able to predict the CSA of the psoas major, back muscles, and gluteus maximus, and significantly correlated with the CSA of the back muscles and gluteus maximus. It might be a safer and cheaper alternative for evaluating the size of the back muscles and gluteus maximus.


Assuntos
Músculos do Dorso , Dor Lombar , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Absorciometria de Fóton , Músculos Psoas/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculos do Dorso/diagnóstico por imagem , Nádegas/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Músculos Paraespinais
15.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2023: 1-6, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37941217

RESUMO

Here we present the GyroTrainer, a bespoke mechatronic balance board system designed to trigger activation of the back muscles while the user engages in a balance-challenging game. The GyroTrainer uses admittance control coupled with an iterative learning approach so as to tailor the admittance control parameters, i.e. difficulty level, according to the user's skill. Our experimental evaluation demonstrated that an individualized admittance control stiffness could be identified for each user, which corresponds with a desired level of difficulty and increased back muscle activity. A first game implementation demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing the GyroTrainer system and the individually identified admittance control stiffness for gamification of back muscle training.


Assuntos
Músculos do Dorso , Aprendizagem , Humanos
16.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 36: 364-369, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37949585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study was carried out in the athletes with and without Low Back Pain (LBP) to determine the surface electromyography activity of core stabilizing muscles while performing isometric shoulder and trunk contractions. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: This study enlisted the participation of 40 athletes. Group A included 20 athletes (18 males and 2 females) without LBP, and Group B included 20 athletes (12 males and 8 females) with LBP. Athletes with LBP were assessed using the Modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (MODQ) and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) to determine their level of disability and pain severity, respectively. EMG activity of the rectus abdominis, external oblique, longissimus, and multifidus was recorded in both groups as they performed bilateral isometric shoulder and trunk contractions. RESULTS: In the LBP group, EMG activity of the rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles was significantly lower (P < 0.05). The LBP group had significantly more multifidus activity (P = 0.03) than the NLBP group. Among all the exercises, bilateral isometric shoulder extension contraction activated the rectus abdominis, right external oblique, and longissimus group of muscles significantly more (P < 0.05) in both groups. In both groups, bilateral isometric shoulder flexion contraction resulted in significantly higher multifidus muscle activation (P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: The activation of core stabilizing muscles was altered in athletes with LBP. When athletes are unable to contract and activate trunk muscles owing to pain, upper extremity exercises can be used to activate these muscles.


Assuntos
Músculos do Dorso , Dor Lombar , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Eletromiografia , Ombro , Estudos Transversais , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Reto do Abdome/fisiologia , Extremidade Superior , Músculos Abdominais/fisiologia
17.
PLoS One ; 18(10): e0292555, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37847728

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The study aimed to test the feasibility of using tensiomyography to assess the functional status of the latissimus dorsi and erector spinae muscles in girls with C-shaped low back scoliosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five girls aged 13-15 took part in an observational (cross-sectional) study. The examination involved measurements using the tensiomyography method (TMG). Two groups of muscles were tested: latissimus dorsi and erector spinae on the concave and convex side of low-grade scoliosis. The following indicators were analyzed: Td-delay time, Tc-contraction time, and Dm-maximal muscle displacement. RESULTS: The analysis of Td revealed that values of this variable on the concave side were slightly lower compared to the convex side in both tested groups of muscles. Similarly, Tc values on the concave side were slightly lower than on the convex side of the curvature in both groups of muscles. In the case of Dm, lower displacement values and, consequently, greater muscle rigidity were observed on the concave side of the latissimus dorsi and the convex side of the erector spinae. CONCLUSIONS: The TMG method can be potentially used to diagnose the functional condition of muscles in patients with low-grade scoliosis. There were differences between the functional condition of the muscles on the concave and convex sides of the curvature.


Assuntos
Músculos do Dorso , Escoliose , Músculos Superficiais do Dorso , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Escoliose/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculos Paraespinais
18.
J Electromyogr Kinesiol ; 73: 102815, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37688848

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of back muscle fatigue on the estimation of low-back loads and active low-back moments during lifting, using an EMG and kinematics based model calibrated with data from an unfatigued state. Fourteen participants performed lifting tasks in unfatigued and fatigued states. Fatigue was induced through semi-static forward bending. EMG, kinematics, and ground reaction forces were measured, and low-back loads were estimated using inverse dynamics and EMG-driven muscle model. A regression model was developed using data from a set of calibration lifts, and its accuracy was evaluated for unfatigued and fatigued lifts. During the fatigue-inducing task, the EMG amplitude increased by 2.8 %MVC, representing a 38% increase relative to the initial value. However, during the fatigued lifts, the peak EMG amplitude was found to be 1.6 %MVC higher than that observed during the unfatigued lifts, representing a mere 4% increase relative to the baseline unfatigued peak EMG amplitude. Kinematics and low-back load estimates remained unaffected. Regression model estimation errors remained unaffected for 5 kg lifts, but increased by no more than 5% of the peak active low-back moment for 15 kg lifts. We conclude that the regression-based estimation quality of active low-back moments can be maintained during periods of muscle fatigue, although errors may slightly increase for heavier loads.


Assuntos
Músculos do Dorso , Fadiga Muscular , Humanos , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Remoção , Eletromiografia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos
19.
PLoS One ; 18(8): e0290418, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37594956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Echocardiographic assessment of right ventricular (RV) measurements may be challenging. The aim of this study was to develop a formula for calculation of RV volumes and function based on measurements of linear dimensions by 2-dimensional (2D) transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in comparison to cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). METHODS: 129 consecutive patients with standard TTE and RV analysis by CMR were included. A formula based on the geometric assumptions of a truncated cone minus a truncated rhomboid pyramid was developed for calculations of RV end-diastolic volume (EDV) and RV end-systolic volume (ESV) by using the basal diameter of the RV (Dd and Ds) and the baso-apical length (Ld and Ls) in apical 4-chamber TTE views: RV EDV = 1.21 * Dd2 * Ld, and RV ESV = 1.21 * Ds2 * Ls. RESULTS: Calculations of RV EDV (ΔRV EDV = 10.2±26.4 ml to CMR, r = 0.889), RV ESV (ΔRV ESV = 4.5±18.4 ml to CMR, r = 0.921) and RV EF (ΔRV EF = 0.5±4.0% to CMR, r = 0.905) with the cone-pyramid formula (CPF) highly agreed with CMR. Impaired RV function on CMR (n = 52) was identified with a trend to higher accuracy by CPF than by conventional echocardiographic parameters (tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and fractional area change (FAC)). CONCLUSION: Calculations of RV volumes and RV function by 2D TTE with the newly developed CPF were in high concordance to measurements by CMR. Accuracy for detection of patients with reduced RV function were higher by the proposed 2D TTE CPF method than by conventional echocardiographic parameters of TAPSE and RV FAC.


Assuntos
Músculos do Dorso , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Humanos , Ecocardiografia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Tratos Piramidais
20.
Exp Gerontol ; 181: 112271, 2023 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37597710

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Postural control deteriorates with age, especially under dual-task conditions. It is currently unknown how a challenging virtual reality weight-shifting task affects lower back muscle activity. Hence, this study investigated erector spinae neuromuscular control during mediolateral weight-shifting as part of an exergame during single- (ST) and dual-task (DT) conditions in young and older adults. METHODS: Seventeen young and 17 older adults performed mediolateral weight-shifts while hitting virtual wasps in a virtual environment with and without a serial subtraction task (DT). Center of mass position was recorded in real-time using 3D motion capturing. Electromyography recorded bilateral activation of the lumbar longissimus and iliocostalis muscles. RESULTS: Weight-shifting (p < 0.03) and targeting the wasps (p < 0.005) deteriorated with age and DT. Relative muscle activation during both quiet stance and weight-shifting increased with age, while the DT-effect did not differ consistently between age-groups. However, bilateral muscle co-contraction decreased with DT in young adults only. When switching direction and targeting the wasps, variability of muscle activation increased with age and DT and proved related to worse targeting performance. These effects were mainly visible at the non-dominant body side. CONCLUSION: Older adults showed a higher erector spinae muscle contribution to perform weight-shifts with increased variability at the end of a shift, whereby muscle activity was modulated less well in older than in young adults in response to DT. Hence, the current findings point to the potential for developing postural training in which older adults learn to fine-tune trunk muscle activity to improve weight-shifting and reduce fall risk.


Assuntos
Músculos do Dorso , Humanos , Idoso , Músculos , Envelhecimento , Eletromiografia , Aprendizagem
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