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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150356, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563901

RESUMO

With a focus on five sites in an impaired, densely populated area in the New Orleans area, we investigated the temporal and spatial variability of standard FIB and a marker of human-associated pollution (Bacteroides HF183). With all sites combined, only a weak positive correlation (r = 0.345; p = 0.001) was observed between E. coli and HF183. Also, specific conductivity (r = - 0.374; p < 0.0001) and dissolved oxygen (r = - 0.390; p < 0.0001) were observed to show a weak moderate correlation with E. coli. These correlations increased to moderately negative when HF183 was correlated with specific conductivity (r = - 0.448; p < 0.0001) and dissolved oxygen (r = - 0.455; p < 0.0001). E. coli contamination was generally highest at the sites in the canal that are situated in the most densely populated part of the watershed while HF183 was frequently detected across all sites. E. coli concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) when HF183 was present. HF183 was detected at significantly higher concentrations in samples that exceeded the EPA water quality standard (WQS) than those that did not (p < 0.05). Dissolved oxygen and specific conductivity were significantly lower when E. coli WQS was exceeded or when HF183 was present (p < 0.05). Rainfall impacted E. coli concentrations and HF183 differently at the study sites. While HF183 and E. coli concentrations levels were significantly higher (p < 0.05) if the days prior to sampling had been wet, the frequency of detection of HF183 was unimpacted, as comparable detection rates were recorded during wet and dry weather conditions. Without testing for HF183, it would have been assumed, based on testing for E. coli alone, that human fecal pollution was only associated with densely populated areas and rainfall events. E. coli alone may not be an effective indicator of sewage pollution at the study sites across all weather conditions and may need to be complemented with HF183 enumeration to optimize human fecal pollution identification and management at the watershed level.


Assuntos
Bacteroides , Escherichia coli , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes , Humanos , Incidência , Nova Orleans , Esgotos , Microbiologia da Água , Poluição da Água/análise
2.
Nature ; 598(7880): 332-337, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616040

RESUMO

Humans have co-evolved with a dense community of microbial symbionts that inhabit the lower intestine. In the colon, secreted mucus creates a barrier that separates these microorganisms from the intestinal epithelium1. Some gut bacteria are able to utilize mucin glycoproteins, the main mucus component, as a nutrient source. However, it remains unclear which bacterial enzymes initiate degradation of the complex O-glycans found in mucins. In the distal colon, these glycans are heavily sulfated, but specific sulfatases that are active on colonic mucins have not been identified. Here we show that sulfatases are essential to the utilization of distal colonic mucin O-glycans by the human gut symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. We characterized the activity of 12 different sulfatases produced by this species, showing that they are collectively active on all known sulfate linkages in O-glycans. Crystal structures of three enzymes provide mechanistic insight into the molecular basis of substrate specificity. Unexpectedly, we found that a single sulfatase is essential for utilization of sulfated O-glycans in vitro and also has a major role in vivo. Our results provide insight into the mechanisms of mucin degradation by a prominent group of gut bacteria, an important process for both normal microbial gut colonization2 and diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease3.


Assuntos
Bacteroides/enzimologia , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Mucinas/metabolismo , Sulfatases/metabolismo , Acetilgalactosamina/química , Acetilgalactosamina/metabolismo , Animais , Colo/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Feminino , Galactose/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Especificidade por Substrato , Sulfatases/química
3.
Water Sci Technol ; 84(7): 1732-1744, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662309

RESUMO

The contamination of water catchments by nonpoint source faecal pollution is a major issue affecting the microbial quality of receiving waters and is associated with the occurrence of a range of enteric illnesses in humans. The potential sources of faecal pollution in surface waters are diverse, including urban sewage leaks, surface runoff and wildlife contamination originating from a range of hosts. The major contributing hosts require identification to allow targeted management of this public health concern. In this study, two high-performing Microbial Source Tracking (MST) assays, HF183/Bac242 and BacCan-UCDmodif, were used for their ability to detect host-specific Bacteroides 16Sr RNA markers for faecal pollution in a 12-month study on an urban coastal lagoon in Sydney, Australia. The lagoon was found to contain year-round high numbers of human and canine faecal markers, as well as faecal indicator bacteria counts, suggesting considerable human and animal faecal pollution. The high sensitivity and specificity of the HF183/Bac242 and BacCan-UCDmodif assays, together with the manageable levels of PCR inhibition and high level DNA extraction efficiency obtained from lagoon water samples make these markers candidates for inclusion in an MST 'toolbox' for investigating host origins of faecal pollution in urban surface waters.


Assuntos
Bacteroides , Esgotos , Animais , Bacteroides/genética , Cães , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Fezes , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1062, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has increased in recent years, making it a very common childhood illness worldwide. The relationship between different enterovirus genotypes and disease severity is not clearly understood. Given that enteroviruses are transmitted through the gastrointestinal tract, we hypothesized that variation in intestinal microorganisms of the host might play a role in the prognosis of HFMD. METHODS: We carried out a meta-transcriptomic-wide association study of fecal samples obtained from a cohort of children (254 patients, 227 tested positive for enterovirus, including 16 patients co-infectied with 2 kinds of enterovirus) with mild and severe HFMD and healthy controls. RESULTS: We found there was no significant difference in the amount of each virus type between the mild and severe cases. Genes of enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A (CV-A) from the severe and mild cases did not show significant clustering. Clostridium sp. L2-50 and Bacteroides stercoris ATCC 43183 were enriched in the guts of children with severe HFMD and KEGG enrichment was found between mild and severe cases. CONCLUSIONS: Intestinal microorganisms appear to interact with enterovirus to determine the progression of HFMD. Genes of Bacteroides and Clostridium may be used as predictive markers for a more efficient prognosis and intervention. The enrichment of intestinal bacteria genes with functions may facilitate the development of severe symptoms for HFMD patients.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano A , Enterovirus , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca , Bacteroides , Criança , China , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus Humano A/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5958, 2021 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645820

RESUMO

Understanding the functional potential of the gut microbiome is of primary importance for the design of innovative strategies for allergy treatment and prevention. Here we report the gut microbiome features of 90 children affected by food (FA) or respiratory (RA) allergies and 30 age-matched, healthy controls (CT). We identify specific microbial signatures in the gut microbiome of allergic children, such as higher abundance of Ruminococcus gnavus and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and a depletion of Bifidobacterium longum, Bacteroides dorei, B. vulgatus and fiber-degrading taxa. The metagenome of allergic children shows a pro-inflammatory potential, with an enrichment of genes involved in the production of bacterial lipo-polysaccharides and urease. We demonstrate that specific gut microbiome signatures at baseline can be predictable of immune tolerance acquisition. Finally, a strain-level selection occurring in the gut microbiome of allergic subjects is identified. R. gnavus strains enriched in FA and RA showed lower ability to degrade fiber, and genes involved in the production of a pro-inflammatory polysaccharide. We demonstrate that a gut microbiome dysbiosis occurs in allergic children, with R. gnavus emerging as a main player in pediatric allergy. These findings may open new strategies in the development of innovative preventive and therapeutic approaches. Trial: NCT04750980.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Tolerância Imunológica , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/microbiologia , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Bacteroides/isolamento & purificação , Bacteroides/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium longum/isolamento & purificação , Bifidobacterium longum/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Clostridiales/isolamento & purificação , Clostridiales/metabolismo , Alérgenos Animais/efeitos adversos , Alérgenos Animais/imunologia , Ovos/efeitos adversos , Faecalibacterium prausnitzii/isolamento & purificação , Faecalibacterium prausnitzii/metabolismo , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/biossíntese , Masculino , Leite/efeitos adversos , Leite/imunologia , Nozes/efeitos adversos , Nozes/imunologia , Pólen/química , Pólen/imunologia , Prunus persica/química , Prunus persica/imunologia , Pyroglyphidae/química , Pyroglyphidae/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/imunologia , Urease/biossíntese
6.
J Int Med Res ; 49(10): 3000605211047277, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704482

RESUMO

Bacteroides caccae is an anaerobic bacterium with a reportedly high isolation rate; however, it rarely causes bloodstream infections. Patients with hypertension are at increased risk of developing anaerobic bacterial infection. In this study, we report a case of bacteremia caused by B. caccae in a patient with renal hypertension and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. This study describes the clinical manifestations of bloodstream infection involving B. caccae to provide guidance for laboratory technicians and clinicians. A 42-year-old Chinese man was admitted for gastrointestinal hemorrhage and subsequently diagnosed with anaerobic blood infection. The pathogenic bacteria isolated from anaerobic blood culture bottles were identified as B. caccae by using an automatic bacterial identification instrument and mass spectrometry (MS). B. caccae is an intestinal opportunistic pathogen that can invade the intestinal mucosa and cause anaerobic bloodstream infection. Two or more sets of blood cultures and MS identification can greatly improve the positive detection rate of blood cultures of anaerobic bacteria. Furthermore, the increased drug resistance of anaerobic bacteria necessitates drug sensitivity tests for anaerobic bacteria in many hospitals. Thus, the early prevention and control of primary diseases with appropriate diagnoses and timely anti-infection therapies are necessary to reduce B. caccae bloodstream infection.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Renal , Sepse , Adulto , Bacteroides , Composição de Bases , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Análise de Sequência de DNA
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17775, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493783

RESUMO

Macropod progressive periodontal disease (MPPD) is a necrotizing, polymicrobial, inflammatory disease commonly diagnosed in captive macropods. MPPD is characterized by gingivitis associated with dental plaque formation, which progresses to periodontitis and then to osteomyelitis of the mandible or maxilla. However, the underlying microbial causes of this disease remain poorly understood. In this study, we collected 27 oral plaque samples and associated clinical records from 22 captive Macropodidae and Potoroidae individuals that were undergoing clinical examination at Adelaide and Monarto Zoos in South Australia (15 healthy, 7 gingivitis and 5 periodontitis-osteomyelitis samples). The V3-V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene was sequenced using an Illumina Miseq to explore links between MPPD and oral bacteria in these animals. Compositional differences were detected between the microbiota of periodontitis-osteomyelitis cases compared to healthy samples (p-value with Bonferroni correction < 0.01), as well as gingivitis cases compared to healthy samples (p-value with Bonferroni correction < 0.05) using Permutational Multivariate Analysis of Variance (PERMANOVA). An overabundance of Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, and Bacteroides taxa was also identified in animals with MPPD compared to healthy individuals using linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe; p = < 0.05). An increased abundance of Desulfomicrobium also was detected in MPPD samples (LEfSe; p < 0.05), which could potentially reflect differences in disease progression. This is the first microbiota analysis of MPPD in captive macropods, and these results support a polymicrobial pathogenesis of MPPD, suggesting that the microbial interactions underpinning MPPD may be more complex than previously documented.


Assuntos
Bacteroides/isolamento & purificação , Placa Dentária/veterinária , Fusobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Gengivite/veterinária , Macropodidae/microbiologia , Microbiota , Periodontite/veterinária , Porphyromonas/isolamento & purificação , Potoroidae/microbiologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/microbiologia , Biodiversidade , Coinfecção , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Progressão da Doença , Gengivite/microbiologia , Doenças Mandibulares/microbiologia , Doenças Mandibulares/veterinária , Doenças Maxilares/microbiologia , Doenças Maxilares/veterinária , Osteomielite/microbiologia , Osteomielite/veterinária , Periodontite/microbiologia , Austrália do Sul
8.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578867

RESUMO

Dietary habits and gut microbiota play an essential role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and related factors such as insulin resistance and de novo lipogenesis. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of Bacteroides uniformis CBA7346, isolated from the gut of healthy Koreans, on mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD. Administration of B. uniformis CBA7346 reduced body and liver weight gain, serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, liver steatosis, and liver triglyceride levels in mice on an HFD; the strain also decreased homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance values, as well as serum cholesterol, triglyceride, lipopolysaccharide, leptin, and adiponectin levels in mice on an HFD. Moreover, B. uniformis CBA7346 controlled fatty liver disease by attenuating steatosis and inflammation and regulating de novo lipogenesis-related proteins in mice on an HFD. Taken together, these findings suggest that B. uniformis CBA7346 ameliorates HFD-induced NAFLD by reducing insulin resistance and regulating de novo lipogenesis in obese mice.


Assuntos
Bacteroides , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fígado Gorduroso/prevenção & controle , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Lipogênese/fisiologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fígado Gorduroso/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Humanos , Fígado , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17662, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480044

RESUMO

Bacteroidetes are efficient degraders of complex carbohydrates, much thanks to their use of polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs). An integral part of PULs are highly specialized carbohydrate-active enzymes, sometimes composed of multiple linked domains with discrete functions-multicatalytic enzymes. We present the biochemical characterization of a multicatalytic enzyme from a large PUL encoded by the gut bacterium Bacteroides eggerthii. The enzyme, BeCE15A-Rex8A, has a rare and novel architecture, with an N-terminal carbohydrate esterase family 15 (CE15) domain and a C-terminal glycoside hydrolase family 8 (GH8) domain. The CE15 domain was identified as a glucuronoyl esterase (GE), though with relatively poor activity on GE model substrates, attributed to key amino acid substitutions in the active site compared to previously studied GEs. The GH8 domain was shown to be a reducing-end xylose-releasing exo-oligoxylanase (Rex), based on having activity on xylooligosaccharides but not on longer xylan chains. The full-length BeCE15A-Rex8A enzyme and the Rex domain were capable of boosting the activity of a commercially available GH11 xylanase on corn cob biomass. Our research adds to the understanding of multicatalytic enzyme architectures and showcases the potential of discovering novel and atypical carbohydrate-active enzymes from mining PULs.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Bacteroides/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Bacteroides/genética , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/genética , Humanos , Polissacarídeos/genética , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo
10.
Poult Sci ; 100(11): 101422, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534851

RESUMO

Body weight at the onset of egg production is a major factor influencing hen productivity, as suitable body weight is crucial to laying performance in laying hens. To better understand the association between body weight and microbial community membership and structure in different sites of the digestive and reproductive tracts in chickens, we performed 16S rRNA sequencing surveys and focused on how the microbiota may interact to influence body weight. Our results demonstrated that the microbial community and structure of the digestive and reproductive tracts differed between low and high body weight groups. In particular, we found that the species Pseudomonas viridiflava was negatively associated with body weight in the 3 digestive tract sites, while Bacteroides salanitronis was negatively associated with body weight in the 3 reproductive tract sites; and further in-depth studies are needed to explore their function. These findings will help extend our understanding of the influence of the bird digestive and reproductive tract microbiotas on body weight trait and provide future directions regarding the control of body weight in the production of laying hens.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Microbiota , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bacteroides , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Pseudomonas , RNA Ribossômico 16S
11.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 188, 2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, and it can progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Alterations in the gut microbiome have been implicated in the development of NAFLD/NASH, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. RESULTS: We found that the consumption of the prebiotic inulin markedly ameliorated the phenotype of NAFLD/NASH, including hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, in mice. Inulin consumption resulted in global changes in the gut microbiome, including concomitant enrichment of the genera Bacteroides and Blautia, and increased concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, particularly acetate, in the gut lumen and portal blood. The consumption of acetate-releasing resistant starch protected against NAFLD development. Colonisation by Bacteroides acidifaciens and Blautia producta in germ-free mice resulted in synergetic effects on acetate production from inulin. Furthermore, the absence of free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2), an acetate receptor, abolished the protective effect of inulin, as indicated by the more severe liver hypertrophy, hypercholesterolaemia and inflammation. These effects can be attributed to an exacerbation of insulin resistance in the liver, but not in muscle or adipose tissue. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated that the commensal microbiome-acetate-FFAR2 molecular circuit improves insulin sensitivity in the liver and prevents the development of NAFLD/NASH. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Acetatos , Animais , Bacteroides , Clostridiales , Camundongos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética
12.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255446, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is the cause of cardiovascular diseases and other diseases, leading to increased medical costs, and causing a great burden to individuals, families and society. The prevalence of obesity is increasing and has become a global health problem. There is growing evidence that gut microbiota plays an important role in obesity. In this article, we revealed the differences in the gut microbiota between 21 people with obesity and 21 control subjects, and predicted the functional potential changes by 16S rRNA sequencing of the fecal bacteria of the subjects. METHODS: The raw sequencing data of 21 healthy Beijing volunteers was downloaded from Microbial Genome Database System. Microbial 16S rRNA genes of 21 adults with obesity were sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq instrument and analyzed by using bioinformatics and statistical methods. RESULTS: The diversity of gut microbiota in people with obesity decreased significantly. There were significant differences in gut microbiota between the Obesity and Control group at different levels. At the phylum level, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria are significantly different between the Obesity and Control group. In people with obesity, the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes decreased significantly. At the genus level, there were significant differences among the 16 major genera, of which four genera Prevotella, Megamonas, Fusobacterium and Blautia increased significantly in people with obesity, while the remaining 12 genera, Faecalibacterium, Lachnospiracea_incertae_sedis, Gemmiger and Clostridium XlVa, etc. decreased significantly. At the species level, nine species including Bacteroides uniformis and Prevotella copri had significant differences. Compared with the control group, subjects with obesity were abnormalities in 57 pathways, mainly in Carbohydrate metabolism and Lipid metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our study revealed differences in the gut microbiota between people with obesity and control subjects, providing novel target for the treatment of individuals with obesity.


Assuntos
Bacteroides , Prevotella , Adulto , Disbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S
13.
Georgian Med News ; (315): 56-60, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365426

RESUMO

The study is aimd at detection the pathogenic markers: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomit, Porphyromonas Gingivalis, Prevotella Intermedia, Tannerella Forsythia and Treponema Denticola, identify their types, qualitative content and encounter frequency in periodontal pockets of the patients with generalized periodontitis, stage II (A or B level), before and after treatment with mechanical forms of therapy - Ultrasound, Vector or Laser Therapy . The material has been studied by using Micro-Ident biological method based on DNA-Strip technology. The surveyed 25 patients (women - 75% and men - 25%), 20 to 60 years of age, were divided into the three groups: group I treatment with Ultrasound scaler (n=9), group II treatment with Ultrasound Scaler and Diode laser (n=8), group III treatment with Ultrasound Scaler and Vector Sistem (n=8). All five strain before treatment were detected in 3 (12.5%) cases, none of the strain were detected in 1 patient (4%); among the rest 21 patients (87.5%) the following associations of different microorganisms were detected: P.G., P.I, T.F., T.D. - in 20.8% of patients, P.G., T.F., T.D. - 12.5%; A.A., P.G., P.I., T.F. - 4.16%; P.G., P.I., T.F.-33.28%; P.I., T.F., T.D. - 4.16%; A.A., P.G., T.F., T.D. - 12.5%; P.I., T.F. - 4.16%; P.G., P.I., T.D. - 4.16%. After evaluating the effectiveness of the treatment, based on Ultrasound system, Vector system, Diode laser and the complex picture of clinical and laboratory examinations in patients with generalized periodontitis, stage II, A or B level, a significant improvement in clinical conditions was observed. The microbiological study of Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomit (AA), Porphyromonas Gingivalis (PG), Prevotella Intermidia (PI), Tannerella Forsythia (BF), Treponema Denticola (TD) showed a complete elimination of qualitative and quantitative data after Vector therapy, but no reliable elimination of bacteria was observed after ultrasound and laser therapies. After treatment all five strain were detected in 1 (4%) case, 4 strain A.A., P.G., T.F., T.D. in 1 (4%) case, P.G.,P.I.,T.F.,T.D. - 2 (8%) case, 3 strain P.G., P.I., T.F in 3 (12.5%) case, 2 strain P.G., T.F - 1 strain (4%) and 1 T.F in 2 (8%).


Assuntos
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Bacteroides , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Bolsa Periodontal , Prevotella intermedia , Treponema denticola
14.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 633242, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368009

RESUMO

The number of people who smoke has increased in recent years, and the incidence of smoking-related diseases increases annually. This study was conducted to explore whether smoking affects diseases via changes in the gut microbiota. We enrolled 33 smokers and 121 non-smokers. We collected fecal samples from all participants and performed whole-genome sequencing. Smoking significantly affected the gut microbiota. At the phylum through genus levels, the smokers' microbiotas showed slight changes compared with those of the non-smokers. The α- and ß-diversities differed significantly between the smokers and non-smokers, and the smokers' gut microbiota compositions differed significantly from those of the non-smokers. At the species level, the relative abundances of Ruminococcus gnavus (P=0.00197) and Bacteroides vulgatus (P=0.0468) were significantly greater in the smokers than in the non-smokers, while the relative abundances of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P=0.0000052) and Akkermansia muciniphila (P=0.0057) were significantly lower in the smokers. Smoking increases inflammation in the body by inducing an increased abundance of proinflammatory bacteria. Non-smokers had higher abundances of anti-inflammatory microorganisms than did smokers; these microorganisms can produce short-chain fatty acids, which inhibit inflammation.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Bacteroides , Clostridiales , Humanos , Fumar , Verrucomicrobia
15.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e242818, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378656

RESUMO

The study was aimed to assess impact of high fat diet (HFD) and synthetic human gut microbiota (GM) combined with HFD and chow diet (CD) in inducing type-2 diabetes (T2D) using mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study using selected human GM transplantation via culture based method coupled dietary modulation in mice for in vivo establishment of inflammation leading to T2D and gut dysbiosis. Twenty bacteria (T2D1-T2D20) from stool samples of confirmed T2D subjects were found to be morphologically different and subjected to purification on different media both aerobically and anerobically, which revealed seven bacteria more common among 20 isolates on the basis of biochemical characterization. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these seven isolates were identified as Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenes (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). The seven isolates were subsequently used as synthetic gut microbiome (GM) for their role in inducing T2D in mice. Inbred strains of albino mice were divided into four groups and were fed with CD, HFD, GM+HFD and GM+CD. Mice receiving HFD and GM+modified diet (CD/HFD) showed highly significant (P<0.05) increase in weight and blood glucose concentration as well as elevated level of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1) compared to mice receiving CD only. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 11 fecal bacteria obtained from three randomly selected animals from each group revealed gut dysbiosis in animals receiving GM. Bacterial strains including Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) and Lactobacillus gasseri (MT152635) were isolated from mice treated with GM+modified diet (HFD/CD) compared to strains Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629) which were isolated from mice receiving CD/HFD. In conclusion, these findings suggest that constitution of GM and diet plays significant role in inflammation leading to onset or/and possibly progression of T2D. .


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Bacteroides , Bacteroidetes , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Disbiose , Humanos , Inflamação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Prevotella , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ruminococcus
16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(15): 10451-10461, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291905

RESUMO

Microbial pollution in rivers poses known ecological and health risks, yet causal and mechanistic linkages to sources remain difficult to establish. Host-associated microbial source tracking (MST) markers help to assess the microbial risks by linking hosts to contamination but do not identify the source locations. Land-use regression (LUR) models have been used to screen the source locations using spatial predictors but could be improved by characterizing transport (i.e., hauling, decay overland, and downstream). We introduce the microbial Find, Inform, and Test (FIT) framework, which expands previous LUR approaches and develops novel spatial predictor models to characterize the transported contributions. We applied FIT to characterize the sources of BoBac, a ruminant Bacteroides MST marker, quantified in riverbed sediment samples from Kewaunee County, Wisconsin. A 1 standard deviation increase in contributions from land-applied manure hauled from animal feeding operations (AFOs) was associated with a 77% (p-value <0.05) increase in the relative abundance of ruminant Bacteroides (BoBac-copies-per-16S-rRNA-copies) in the sediment. This is the first work finding an association between the upstream land-applied manure and the offsite bovine-associated fecal markers. These findings have implications for the sediment as a reservoir for microbial pollution associated with AFOs (e.g., pathogens and antibiotic-resistant bacteria). This framework and application advance statistical analysis in MST and water quality modeling more broadly.


Assuntos
Microbiologia da Água , Poluição da Água , Animais , Bacteroides , Bovinos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes , Ruminantes , Poluição da Água/análise
17.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 161, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A foodborne pathogen, Vibrio vulnificus, encounters normal microflora inhabiting the gut environments prior to causing fatal septicemia or gastroenteritis and should overcome the barriers derived from the gut commensals for successful infection. Its interactions with gut commensals during the infection process, however, have not yet been understood. In the present study, the effect of V. vulnificus on the community structures of gut microbiota in mice was examined. RESULTS: Analyses of microbiota in the fecal samples of mice that died due to V. vulnificus infection revealed the decreased abundance of bacteria belonged to Bacteroidetes, notably, the species Bacteroides vulgatus. In vitro coculturing of the two bacterial species resulted in the decreased survival of B. vulgatus. The antagonistic effect of V. vulnificus against B. vulgatus was found to be mediated by cyclo-Phe-Pro (cFP), one of the major compounds secreted by V. vulnificus. cFP-treated B. vulgatus showed collapsed cellular morphology with an undulated cell surface, enlarged periplasmic space, and lysed membranes, suggesting the occurrence of membrane disruption. The degree of membrane disruption caused by cFP was dependent upon the cellular levels of ObgE in B. vulgatus. Recombinant ObgE exhibited a high affinity to cFP at a 1:1 ratio. When mice were orally injected with cFP, their feces contained significantly reduced B. vulgatus levels, and their susceptibility to V. vulnificus infection was considerably increased. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that V. vulnificus-derived cFP modulates the abundance of the predominant species among gut commensals, which made V. vulnificus increase its pathogenicity in the hosts. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Vibrio vulnificus , Animais , Bacteroides , Membrana Celular , Camundongos
18.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 66(7): 422-427, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292685

RESUMO

The system of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) is one of the most ancient mechanisms of the macroorganism resistance to infectious pathogens invasion. The aim of the study was to determine the role of the antimicrobial peptides system and periodontal pathogenic markers in the development and progression of inflammatory periodontal diseases. Gingival pocket washes (91 samples in total) for the research were received from patients with inflammatory periodontal diseases (chronic periodontitis and gingivitis) and intact periodontium. Using ELISA, the content of antimicrobial peptides was determined: human alpha-defensin (HNP 1-3), beta-defensin (HBD 1-3) and cathelicidin (LL-37). Periodontal pathogenic markers were isolated during RT-PCR. The study revealed differences in AMP concentrations by groups: level of HBD 2 in patients with chronic periodontitis was 1,36 times higher than those in the group of patients with chronic gingivitis (p=0,023) and 2,39 times higher than those in the control group (p<0,001), the content of HNP 1-3 in the group of patients with chronic periodontitis was reduced by 1,23 times compared with the indicators of the group of patients with gingivitis (p=0,045) and by 1,97 times compared with the indicators of the control group (p<0,001). The frequency of detection of periodontal pathogenic bacteria genes was 88,0% in patients with periodontitis, 76,92% in patients with gingivitis and 33,3% in the group with intact periodontium. HBD 2 content moderately correlated with the definition of P. gingivalis (r=0,612; p=0,022), T. forsythensis (r= 0,434; p=0,015), A. actinomycetemcomitans (r=0,483; p=0,006), a moderate negative correlation was detected between the content of HNP 1-3 and the release of periodontal pathogens in associations (P. gingivalis with T. forsythensis and T. denticola) (r=-0,388; p=0,031) in the group of patients with chronic periodontitis. Thus, the revealed relationships and correlations indicate shifts in the processes of reparative regeneration of the oral cavity and the regulation of local immunity in response to microbial invasion.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica , Gengivite , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Bacteroides , Humanos , Bolsa Periodontal , Periodonto , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros , Porphyromonas gingivalis
19.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 29: e3446, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287544

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze scientific evidence regarding the relationship between the type of birth and the microbiota acquired by newborns. METHOD: this integrative review addresses the role of the type of delivery on newborns' microbial colonization. A search was conducted in the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online/PubMed and Virtual Health Library databases using the descriptors provided by Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and Health Science Descriptors (DeCS). RESULTS: infants born vaginally presented a greater concentration of Bacteroides, Bifidobacteria, and Lactobacillus in the first days of life and more significant microbial variability in the following weeks. The microbiome of infants born via C-section is similar to the maternal skin and the hospital setting and less diverse, mainly composed of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Clostridium. CONCLUSION: the maternal vaginal microbiota provides newborns with a greater variety of colonizing microorganisms responsible for boosting and preparing the immune system. Vaginal birth is the ideal birth route, and C-sections should only be performed when there are medical indications.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Bacteroides , Cesárea , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Parto , Gravidez
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208885

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated that flavonoid metabolites inhibit cancer cell proliferation through both CDK-dependent and -independent mechanisms. The existing evidence suggests that gut microbiota is capable of flavonoid biotransformation to generate bioactive metabolites including 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic acid (2,4,6-THBA), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHBA), 3,4,5-trihyroxybenzoic acid (3,4,5-THBA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). In this study, we screened 94 human gut bacterial species for their ability to biotransform flavonoid quercetin into different metabolites. We demonstrated that five of these species were able to degrade quercetin including Bacillus glycinifermentans, Flavonifractor plautii, Bacteroides eggerthii, Olsenella scatoligenes and Eubacterium eligens. Additional studies showed that B. glycinifermentans could generate 2,4,6-THBA and 3,4-DHBA from quercetin while F. plautii generates DOPAC. In addition to the differences in the metabolites produced, we also observed that the kinetics of quercetin degradation was different between B. glycinifermentans and F. plautii, suggesting that the pathways of degradation are likely different between these strains. Similar to the antiproliferative effects of 2,4,6-THBA and 3,4-DHBA demonstrated previously, DOPAC also inhibited colony formation ex vivo in the HCT-116 colon cancer cell line. Consistent with this, the bacterial culture supernatant of F. plautii also inhibited colony formation in this cell line. Thus, as F. plautii and B. glycinifermentans generate metabolites possessing antiproliferative activity, we suggest that these strains have the potential to be developed into probiotics to improve human gut health.


Assuntos
Ácido 3,4-Di-Hidroxifenilacético/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bromobenzoatos/farmacologia , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Quercetina/química , Ácido 3,4-Di-Hidroxifenilacético/química , Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Actinobacteria/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/química , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias , Bacteroides/genética , Bacteroides/isolamento & purificação , Bacteroides/metabolismo , Bromobenzoatos/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Clostridiales/genética , Clostridiales/isolamento & purificação , Clostridiales/metabolismo , Eubacterium/genética , Eubacterium/isolamento & purificação , Eubacterium/metabolismo , Ácido Gálico/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de RNA
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