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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150565, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582867

RESUMO

The distribution of cadmium (Cd) within the oceans strongly suggests that it is used as a nutrient by marine phytoplankton. Biologically induced removal of Cd from modern surface waters is accompanied by an isotopic fractionation leaving surface-waters enriched in isotopically heavy Cd. This first study focusses on tying the Cd isotopic record preserved in modern shallow platform carbonates of the Great Bahama Bank (GBB) to conditions in the upper water column, and provides a base for future studies aiming at reconstructing past bioproductivity levels in ancient ocean/basin surface waters. In addition, we compare δ114Cd values with previously published chromium (Cr) isotope values and link signals of bioproductivity with redox conditions in the surface waters. The GBB core samples yield [Cd] (21-188 µg/kg), which increases with depth alongside changes in carbonate mineralogy related to sediment supply and diagenesis. The δ114Cd values of these carbonates are mainly positively fractionated with an average of 0.11‰ ± 0.17 (2σ; n = 17) relative to the NIST 3108 reference standard. Unlike previously observed for Cr isotopes, there is no control of δ114Cd values by relative abundances of the carbonate polymorphs aragonite and calcite in the studied profile. Likewise, δ114Cd values are not correlated to major and trace element (e.g. Ca, Mg, Mn and Sr) contents. We postulate that the burial and diagenetic processes of carbonate cannot modify the Cd isotope signals. Using the experimental fractionation factor for Cd into calcite (-0.45‰), calculated seawater δ114Cd of +0.56 ± 0.17‰ is in agreement with values for modern North Atlantic Surface Seawater. This study's results suggest that δ114Cd values in carbonates are a reliable tool for reconstruction of bioproductivity levels in past surface seawaters, and open new possibilities in combination with Cr isotopes to link these with past ocean redox.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Água , Bahamas , Cádmio/análise , Isótopos de Carbono , Carbonatos , Isótopos do Cromo/análise , Isótopos
2.
Rural Remote Health ; 21(4): 6724, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753291

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite UN recommendations to monitor food insecurity using the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES), to date there are no published reports of its validity for The Bahamas, nor have prevalence rates of moderate or severe food insecurity been reported for the remote island nation. At the same time, food security is a deep concern, with increasing incidence of natural disasters and health concerns related to diet-related disease and dietary quality plaguing the nation and its food system. This article aims to examine the validity of the FIES for use in The Bahamas, the prevalence of moderate and severe food insecurity, and the sociodemographic factors that contribute to increased food insecurity. METHODS: The FIES survey was administered by randomized and weighted landline telephone survey in Nassau in The Bahamas to 1000 participants in June and July 2017. The Rasch modelling procedure was applied to examine tool validity and prevalence of food insecurity. Equating procedures calibrated this study's results to the global FIES reference scale and computed internationally comparable prevalence rates of both moderate and severe food insecurity. A regression analysis assessed the relationship between household variables and food security. RESULTS: The FIES met benchmarks for fit statistics for all eight items and the overall Rasch reliability is 0.7. As of 2017, Bahamians' prevalence of moderate and severe food insecurity was 21%, and the prevalence of severe food insecurity was 10%. Statistically significant variables that contribute to food insecurity included education, age, gender, and presence of diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart disease. Results also indicated that Bahamians experience food insecurity differently than populations across the globe, likely due in large part to the workings of an isolated food system heavily dependent on foreign imports. Responses showed that by the time a Bahamian worries they will not have enough food to eat, they have already restricted their meals to a few kinds of foods and begun to limit their intake of vegetables and fruits. CONCLUSION: This study, which is among the first to comprehensively measure food security in The Bahamas, provides a baseline for further research and evaluation of practices aimed at mitigating food insecurity in small island developing states. Further, this study provides a benchmark for future research, which may seek to understand the impacts of Hurricane Dorian and COVID-19, disasters further isolating the remote island nation. Post-disaster food security data are needed to further understand the extent to which food security is impacted by natural disasters and identify which sectors and stakeholders are most vital in restructuring the agricultural sector and improving food availability following catastrophic events.


Assuntos
Insegurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fome , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Bahamas , Humanos , Prevalência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(12): 817, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791534

RESUMO

Forest loss is occurring at alarming rates across the globe. The pine rockland forests of Andros, The Bahamas, likely represent some of the largest stands of Bahamian subspecies of Caribbean pine in the world. Given the unique species that inhabit these pine forests, such as the endemic and critically endangered Bahama Oriole, monitoring habitats on Andros is crucial to inform conservation planning. We developed a 2019 land classification map to assess the status of nine terrestrial habitats on Andros. Our Random Forest classification model predicted habitat classes with high overall accuracy. Caribbean pine was the dominant land class making up roughly one-third of the total terrestrial area. Whereas much of the pine forest area was found as small patches, most were close to other patches of pine suggesting isolation of forest patches is low. We compared our known intact forest areas to recent forest loss identified by the Hansen et al. Global Forest Change product and assessed areas of habitat disturbance in high-resolution imagery. Our results suggest that this global map overpredicted forest loss on Andros. The small degree of true forest loss on Andros was driven mostly by anthropogenic activity. A cross-tabulation of the Hansen forest loss with fire data showed that understory fires were frequently associated with falsely classified deforestation. Given the threats of climate change to this open forest type-intensifying fire regimes, strengthening hurricanes, and sea level rise-monitoring changes in open forest extent is a critical task across the Caribbean region and the world.


Assuntos
Incêndios , Pinus , Bahamas , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental
4.
In. Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies. 23rd Annual Student Research Day. Port of Sapin, Faculty of Medical Sciences,The University of the West Indies, October 14, 2021. .
Não convencional em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: biblio-1341969

RESUMO

Synthetic medication is being overprescribed, resulting in adverse complications linked to major public health issues such as antimicrobial resistance, drug dependency, and the current opioid crisis. According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, this global burden of overuse of synthetic accounts for the heaviest burden of disease attributable to drug use disorders. In 2015, with almost 12 million disability-adjusted life year (DALYs), or 70% of the global burden of disease attributable to opioid addiction. With suitable alternatives available, peptide-based drugs will help to reduce the global burden, appease the patient preference of naturally derived medication and ensure safer patient usage.


Assuntos
Humanos , Peptídeos , Bahamas , Trinidad e Tobago , Resistência a Medicamentos , Saúde Pública
5.
J Fish Biol ; 99(5): 1550-1560, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382210

RESUMO

The genus Acyrtus Schultz, 1944 currently includes four species distributed in the western Atlantic (WA), three occurring from the Bahamas to the southern Caribbean, and one endemic to the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago in north-east Brazil. We describe a new species of Acyrtus based on morphology and genetics from several individuals caught at artificial hard substrates deployed between 10 and 16 m deep at Malpelo Island, Colombian Pacific. The Malpelo clingfish, Acyrtus arturo new species, differs from all its WA congeners by a combination of morphology, meristics and genetics. This species is unique within Acyrtus in having the greatest number of caudal rays (12-13). It can also be distinguished by the greater body height (19.8-27.8% standard length), its longer disc (34.0-39.1% standard length) and the greater distance between anus and disc (13.9-18.1% standard length). A. arturo sp. nov. is the first Acyrtus so far recorded from the eastern Pacific and adds to the already high number of fishes endemic to Colombia's remote oceanic territory of Malpelo.


Assuntos
Peixes , Animais , Bahamas , Brasil , Região do Caribe , Oceanos e Mares
6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 172: 112872, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454388

RESUMO

Halogenated natural products (HNPs) were identified from organic extracts of the marine sponge Hyrtios proteus from The Bahamas using gas chromatography with electron capture negative ion mass spectrometry and non-targeted gas chromatography with electron ionization mass spectrometry. The HNPs found have similar properties to anthropogenic persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Two ortho-methoxy brominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-BDEs) 2'-MeO-BDE 68 and 6-MeO-BDE 47 were the most abundant compounds. Fourteen other MeO-BDEs were detected along with several polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) (1,3,7-triBDD, 1,3,6,8-tetraBDD and 1,3,7,9-tetraBDD) and MeO-PBDDs. Further analysis of a higher trophic level octopus (Octopus maya) from the same FAO fishing area showed that the major HNPs detected in Hyrtios proteus were also predominant. Moreover, HNPs were more than 30-fold higher in abundance than the major POPs in the octopus, i.e., polychlorinated biphenyls. Hence, Caribbean marine organisms, including those potentially used for food, harbor relatively high concentrations of HNPs.


Assuntos
Dioxinas , Bifenil Polibromatos , Poríferos , Animais , Bahamas , Dioxinas/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Bifenil Polibromatos/análise , Proteus
7.
Nassau; PAHO; 2021-08-06. (PAHO/BHS/21-0001).
Não convencional em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-54604

RESUMO

Founded in 1902 as the independent specialized health agency of the inter-American system, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has developed recognized competence and expertise, providing technical cooperation to its Member States to fight communicable and noncommunicable diseases and their causes, to strengthen health systems, and to respond to emergencies and disasters throughout the Region of the Americas. In addition, acting in its capacity as the World Health Organization’s Regional Office, PAHO participates actively in the United Nations Country Team, collaborating with other agencies, the funds and programs of the United Nations system to contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) at country level. This 2020 annual report reflects PAHO’s technical cooperation in the countries for the period, implementing the Country Cooperation Strategy, responding to the needs and priorities of the country, and operating within the framework of the Organization’s regional and global mandates and the SDGs. Under the overarching theme of Universal Health and the Pandemic – Resilient Health Systems, it highlights PAHO’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic as well as its continuing efforts in priority areas such as communicable diseases, noncommunicable diseases, mental health, health throughout the life course, and health emergencies. It also provides a financial summary for the year under review.


Assuntos
Cooperação Técnica , Prioridades em Saúde , Sistemas de Saúde , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Política de Saúde , Acesso Universal aos Serviços de Saúde , Doenças Transmissíveis , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Fatores de Risco , Saúde Mental , Administração Financeira , Região do Caribe , Bahamas , Índias Ocidentais
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228608

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, motile bacterium, designated strain RKSG073T, was isolated from the sea sponge Aplysina fistularis, collected off the west coast of San Salvador, The Bahamas. Cells were curved-to-spiral rods with single, bipolar (amphitrichous) flagella, oxidase- and catalase-positive, non-nitrate-reducing and required salt for growth. RKSG073T grew optimally at 30-37 °C, pH 6-7, and with 2-3 % (w/v) NaCl. The predominant fatty acids of RKSG073T were summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω6c and/or C18 : 1ω7c) and C16 : 0. Major isoprenoid quinones were identified as Q-10 and Q-9. Phylogenetic analyses of nearly complete 16S rRNA genes and genome sequences positioned strain RKSG073T in a clade with its closest relative Aestuariispira insulae AH-MY2T (92.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), which subsequently clustered with Hwanghaeella grinnelliae Gri0909T, Marivibrio halodurans ZC80T and type species of the genera Kiloniella, Thalassospira and Terasakiella. The DNA G+C content calculated from the genome of RKSG073T was 42.2 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic distinctiveness and polyphasic analysis, here we propose that RKSG073T (culture deposit numbers: ATCC collection = TSD-74T, BCCM collection = LMG 29869T) represents the type strain of a novel genus and species within the family Kiloniellaceae, order Rhodospirillales and class Alphaproteobacteria, for which the name Curvivirga aplysinae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed.


Assuntos
Alphaproteobacteria/classificação , Filogenia , Poríferos/microbiologia , Alphaproteobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Bahamas , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ubiquinona/química
9.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 7: 1206-1208, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314227

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Understanding the distribution of human papilloma virus (HPV) subtypes in limited-resource settings is imperative for cancer prevention strategies in these regions. The objective of our study is to compare the prevalence of cervical HPV genotypes in women across the African diaspora. METHODS: This study was approved by the African Caribbean Consortium (AC3). Six member institutions (Benin, Ethiopia, The Bahamas, Tobago, Curacao, and Jamaica) provided independently collected HPV data. Prevalence comparisons across for each nation were performed followed by an assessment of anticipated 9-valent vaccine coverage. Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests were used with significance at P < .05. RESULTS: One thousand three hundred fifty high-risk (HR) and 584 low-risk (LR) HPV subtypes were identified in the entire cohort. The most common HR HPV subtype was HPV 16 (17.9%) of infections. The distribution of HR and LR subtypes varied by country. The proportion of HR-HPV subtypes covered by the current 9-valent vaccine was lower in African countries compared with the Caribbean countries (47.9% v 67.9%; P < .01). No significant difference was seen for LR subtypes (8.1% African continent v 5.2% Caribbean; P = .20). Marked variation in the proportion of infections covered by the 9-valent vaccine persisted in individual countries. CONCLUSION: Significant variations in HPV prevalence were identified among African and Afro-Caribbean women. A large number of women in these regions are potentially uncovered by current vaccination formulation, particularly low-risk HPV infections.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Bahamas , Benin , Curaçao , Etiópia , Feminino , Genótipo , Migração Humana , Humanos , Jamaica , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Trinidad e Tobago
10.
Geobiology ; 19(6): 585-600, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087035

RESUMO

Microbialites are formed through two processes, the trapping and binding of sediment grains and mineral precipitation. Sediment trapping and binding result in coarse sandy textures, whereas fine micritic textures are produced by mineral precipitation. Although well-studied modern microbialites (e.g. Bahamas and Shark Bay) are formed through the former process, purely trapped-and-bound examples are rare throughout the geologic record and limited to shallow-marine environments. Through the use of conventional microscopy and 3D micro-computed tomography (µ-CT) scanning, this study found that South African coastal microbialites have a primarily mineral precipitated texture, although detrital material is included sporadically. Furthermore, these modern microbialites exhibit both micritic and fibrous layering with high porosity. The novel use of 3D microtomography rotational scans has revealed that microbialites are extensively burrowed by metazoan activity and was also able to distinguish the occurrence and distribution of heavy minerals and detrital shell material in the samples. Some of the detrital grains appeared to be accidental/random inclusions, while in other cases the metazoan burrows provided space for the accumulation of sediment once abandoned. In both cases, sediment was incorporated as a product of intermittent accumulation, rather than systematic trapping and binding. The microfabric texture of South African microbialites is therefore a function of both biological (e.g. microbially mediated precipitation) and environmental (e.g. sporadic sediment deposition and inorganic cementation) influence. Overall, the findings presented here highlight the importance of these systems regarding microbialite formation, ichnology and taphonomy.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos , Microscopia , Animais , Bahamas , Minerais , Microtomografia por Raio-X
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(10)2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649214

RESUMO

The first Caribbean settlers were Amerindians from South America. Great Abaco and Grand Bahama, the final islands colonized in the northernmost Bahamas, were inhabited by the Lucayans when Europeans arrived. The timing of Lucayan arrival in the northern Bahamas has been uncertain because direct archaeological evidence is limited. We document Lucayan arrival on Great Abaco Island through a detailed record of vegetation, fire, and landscape dynamics based on proxy data from Blackwood Sinkhole. From about 3,000 to 1,000 y ago, forests dominated by hardwoods and palms were resilient to the effects of hurricanes and cooling sea surface temperatures. The arrival of Lucayans by about 830 CE (2σ range: 720 to 920 CE) is demarcated by increased burning and followed by landscape disturbance and a time-transgressive shift from hardwoods and palms to the modern pine forest. Considering that Lucayan settlements in the southern Bahamian archipelago are dated to about 750 CE (2σ range: 600 to 900 CE), these results demonstrate that Lucayans spread rapidly through the archipelago in less than 100 y. Although precontact landscapes would have been influenced by storms and climatic trends, the most pronounced changes follow more directly from landscape burning and ecosystem shifts after Lucayan arrival. The pine forests of Abaco declined substantially between 1500 and 1670 CE, a period of increased regional hurricane activity, coupled with fires on an already human-impacted landscape. Any future intensification of hurricane activity in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean threatens the sustainability of modern pine forests in the northern Bahamas.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Florestas , Incêndios Florestais , Animais , Bahamas , Humanos
12.
Am J Bot ; 108(2): 200-215, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598914

RESUMO

PREMISE: The Caribbean islands are in the top five biodiversity hotspots on the planet; however, the biogeographic history of the seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF) there is poorly studied. Consolea consists of nine species of dioecious, hummingbird-pollinated tree cacti endemic to the West Indies, which form a conspicuous element of the SDTF. Several species are threatened by anthropogenic disturbance, disease, sea-level rise, and invasive species and are of conservation concern. However, no comprehensive phylogeny yet exists for the clade. METHODS: We reconstructed the phylogeny of Consolea, sampling all species using plastomic data to determine relationships, understand the evolution of key morphological characters, and test their biogeographic history. We estimated divergence times to determine the role climate change may have played in shaping the current diversity of the clade. RESULTS: Consolea appears to have evolved very recently during the latter part of the Pleistocene on Cuba/Hispaniola likely from a South American ancestor and, from there, moved into the Bahamas, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Florida, and the Lesser Antilles. The tree growth form is a synapomorphy of Consolea and likely aided in the establishment and diversification of the clade. CONCLUSIONS: Pleistocene aridification associated with glaciation likely played a role in shaping the current diversity of Consolea, and insular gigantism may have been a key innovation leading to the success of these species to invade the often-dense SDTF. This in-situ Caribbean radiation provides a window into the generation of species diversity and the complexity of the SDTF community within the Antilles.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Animais , Bahamas , Região do Caribe , Florida , Porto Rico , Índias Ocidentais
14.
J Evol Biol ; 34(1): 49-59, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242998

RESUMO

Extreme inbreeding is expected to reduce the incidence of hybridization, serving as a prezygotic barrier. Mangrove rivulus is a small killifish that reproduces predominantly by self-fertilization, producing highly homozygous lines throughout its geographic range. The Bahamas and Caribbean are inhabited by two highly diverged phylogeographic lineages of mangrove rivulus, Kryptolebias marmoratus and a 'Central clade' closely related to K. hermaphroditus from Brazil. The two lineages are largely allopatric, but recently were found in syntopy on San Salvador, Bahamas, where a single hybrid was reported. To better characterize the degree of hybridization and the possibility of secondary introgression, here we conducted a detailed genetic analysis of the contact zone on San Salvador. Two mixed populations were identified, one of which contained sexually mature hybrids. The distribution of heterozygosity at diagnostic microsatellite loci in hybrids showed that one of these hybrids was an immediate offspring from the K. marmoratus x Central clade cross, whereas the remaining five hybrids were products of reproduction by self-fertilization for 1-3 generations following the initial cross. Two hybrids had mitochondrial haplotypes of K. marmoratus and the remaining four hybrids had a haplotype of the Central clade, indicating that crosses go in both directions. In hybrids, alleles of parental lineages were represented in equal proportions suggesting lack of recent backcrossing to either of the parental lineages. However, sympatric populations of two lineages were less diverged than allopatric populations, consistent with introgression. Results are discussed in terms of applicability of the biological species concept for isogenic, effectively clonal, organisms.


Assuntos
Fundulidae/genética , Introgressão Genética , Autofertilização , Simpatria , Animais , Bahamas , Feminino , Fundulidae/classificação , Organismos Hermafroditas , Masculino , Filogeografia
15.
J Morphol ; 282(2): 217-229, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179804

RESUMO

Lancelets (Phylum Chordata, subphylum Cephalochordata) readily regenerate a lost tail. Here, we use light microscopy and serial blockface scanning electron microscopy (SBSEM) to describe tail replacement in the Bahamas lancelet, Asymmetron lucayanum. One day after amputation, the monolayered epidermis has migrated over the wound surface. At 4 days, the regenerate is about 3% as long as the tail length removed. The re-growing nerve cord is a tubular outgrowth of ependymal cells, and the new part of the notochord consists of several degenerating lamellar cells anterior to numerous small vacuolated cells. The cut edges of the mesothelium project into the regenerate as tubular extensions. These tubes anastomose with each other and with midline mesodermal canals beneath the regenerating edges of the dorsal and ventral fins. SBSEM did not reveal a blastema-like aggregation of undifferentiated cells anywhere in the regenerate. At 6 days, the regenerate (10% of the amputated tail length) includes a notochord in which the small vacuolated cells mentioned above are differentiating into lamellar cells. At 10 days, the regenerate is 22% of the amputated tail length: myocytes have appeared in the walls of the myomeres, and sclerocoels have formed. By 14 days, the regenerate is 35% the length of the amputated tail, and the new tissues resemble smaller versions of those originally lost. The present results for A. lucayanum, a species regenerating quickly and with little inter-specimen variability, provide the morphological background for future cell-tracer, molecular genetic, and genomic studies of cephalochordate regeneration.


Assuntos
Anfioxos/fisiologia , Regeneração/fisiologia , Cauda/fisiologia , Amputação , Animais , Bahamas , Anfioxos/genética , Anfioxos/ultraestrutura , Cauda/ultraestrutura
17.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 39(12): 2120-2127, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284702

RESUMO

As climate change alters the behavior of Atlantic hurricanes, these storms are trending stronger, wetter, and slower moving over coastal and island populations. Hurricane Dorian exemplified all three attributes. Dorian's destructive passage over the Abaco Islands, Bahamas, on September 1, 2019, exposed residents of its capital, Marsh Harbour, to a prolonged encounter with the storm's core. After Dorian's fierce front eyewall and towering storm surge tore apart shanty town habitats and eviscerated concrete homesites, residents desperately sought refuge during the brief respite when Dorian's eye passed directly overhead. The category 5 winds then resumed abruptly and Dorian continued its relentless destruction. This article focuses on the storm's mental health consequences, drawing on observations of on-site clinicians as well as findings from previous research on the mental health effects of Atlantic hurricanes and the transformation of hurricane hazards resulting from climate change. To protect island and coastal populations against climate-driven storms, disaster planning policy should emphasize resilience-focused prevention and mitigation strategies. In the aftermath of these events, health system response should include community outreach, case finding, and evidence-based interventions that optimize the use of mental health professionals.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Planejamento em Desastres , Bahamas , Mudança Climática , Humanos , Saúde Mental
18.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242935, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296401

RESUMO

Most species of modern iguanas (Iguania, Iguanidae) dig burrows for dwelling and nesting, yet neither type of burrow has been interpreted as trace fossils in the geologic record. Here we describe and diagnose the first known fossil example of an iguana nesting burrow, preserved in the Grotto Beach Formation (Early Late Pleistocene, ~115 kya) on San Salvador Island, The Bahamas. The trace fossil, located directly below a protosol, is exposed in a vertical section of a cross-bedded oolitic eolianite. Abundant root traces, a probable land-crab burrow, and lack of ghost-crab burrows further indicate a vegetated inland dune as the paleoenvironmental setting. The trace fossil matches dimensions and overall forms of burrows made by modern iguanas, and internal structures indicate active backfilling consistent with modern iguana nesting burrows. The trace fossil is also located on an island with a modern native species of rock iguana (Cyclura riyeli riyeli), suggesting a presence of iguanas on San Salvador since the Late Pleistocene. This nesting burrow may provide a search image for more fossil iguana burrows in The Bahamas and other places with long-established iguana species and favorable geological conditions for preserving their burrows.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Iguanas , Animais , Bahamas , Sedimentos Geológicos , Comportamento de Nidação
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(43): 26833-26841, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020311

RESUMO

Comparing distributional information derived from fossils with the modern distribution of species, we summarize the changing bird communities of the Bahamian Archipelago across deep ecological time. While our entire dataset consists of 7,600+ identified fossils from 32 sites on 15 islands (recording 137 species of resident and migratory birds), we focus on the landbirds from four islands with the best fossil records, three from the Late Pleistocene (∼25 to 10 ka [1,000 y ago]) and one from the Holocene (∼10 to 0 ka). The Late Pleistocene sites feature 51 resident species that have lost one or more Bahamian populations; 29 of these species do not occur in any of the younger Holocene sites (or in the Bahamas today). Of these 29 species, 17 have their closest affinities to species now or formerly living in Cuba and/or North America. A set of 27 species of landbirds, most of them extant somewhere today, was more widespread in the Bahamas in the prehistoric Holocene (∼10 to 0.5 ka) than they are today; 16 of these 27 species were recorded as Pleistocene fossils as well. No single site adequately captures the entire landbird fauna of the combined focal islands. Information from all sites is required to assess changes in Bahamian biodiversity (including endemism) since the Late Pleistocene. The Bahamian islands are smaller, flatter, lower, and more biotically depauperate than the Greater Antilles, resulting in more vulnerable bird communities.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Biodiversidade , Aves , Extinção Biológica , Fósseis , Animais , Bahamas , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
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