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1.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266469, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35363831

RESUMO

Worldwide, the frequency (pitch) of blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) calls has been decreasing since first recorded in the 1960s. This frequency decline occurs over annual and inter-annual timescales and has recently been documented in other baleen whale species, yet it remains unexplained. In the Northeast Pacific, blue whales produce two calls, or units, that, when regularly repeated, are referred to as song: A and B calls. In this population, frequency decline has thus far only been examined in B calls. In this work, passive acoustic data collected in the Southern California Bight from 2006 to 2019 were examined to determine if A calls are also declining in frequency and whether the call pulse rate was similarly impacted. Additionally, frequency measurements were made for B calls to determine whether the rate of frequency decline is the same as was calculated when this phenomenon was first reported in 2009. We found that A calls decreased at a rate of 0.32 Hz yr-1 during this period and that B calls were still decreasing, albeit at a slower rate (0.27 Hz yr-1) than reported previously. The A call pulse rate also declined over the course of the study, at a rate of 0.006 pulses/s yr-1. With this updated information, we consider the various theories that have been proposed to explain frequency decline in blue whales. We conclude that no current theory adequately accounts for all aspects of this phenomenon and consider the role that individual perception of song frequency may play. To understand the cause behind call frequency decline, future studies might want to explore the function of these songs and the mechanism for their synchronization. The ubiquitous nature of the frequency shift phenomenon may indicate a consistent level of vocal plasticity and fine auditory processing abilities across baleen whale species.


Assuntos
Balaenoptera , Vocalização Animal , Acústica , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Balaenoptera/fisiologia , California , Oceano Pacífico , Fatores de Tempo , Vocalização Animal/classificação
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(7)2022 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408351

RESUMO

This study extracts the energy characteristic distributions of the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and residue functions (RF) for a blue whale sound signal, with empirical mode decomposition (EMD) as the basic theoretical framework. A high-resolution marginal frequency characteristics extraction method, based on EMD with energy density intensity (EDI) parameters for blue B call vocalizations, was proposed. The extraction algorithm included six steps: EMD, energy analysis, marginal frequency (MF) analysis with EDI parameters, feature extraction (FE), classification, and Hilbert spectrum (HS) analysis. The blue whale sound sources were obtained from the website of the Scripps Whale Acoustics Lab of the University of California, San Diego, USA. The source is a type of B call with a time duration of 46.65 s, from which 59 analysis samples with a time duration of 180 ms were taken. The average energy distribution ratios of the IMF1, IMF2, IMF3, IMF4, and RF are 49.06%, 20.58%, 13.51%, 10.94% and 3.84%, respectively. New classification criteria and EDI parameters were proposed to extract the blue whale B call vocalization (BWBCV) characteristics. The analysis results show that the main frequency bands of the signal are distributed at 41-43 Hz in the MF of IMF1 for Class I BWBCV and 11-13 Hz in the MF of IMF2 for Class II BWBCV, respectively.


Assuntos
Balaenoptera , Acústica , Algoritmos , Animais , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Som , Espectrografia do Som
3.
Microb Ecol ; 83(1): 18-33, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745062

RESUMO

Large baleen and toothed whales play crucial ecological roles in oceans; nonetheless, very little is known about their intestinal microbiomes. Based on striking differences in natural history and thus in feeding behaviours, it can be expected that intestinal microbiomes of large baleen whales and toothed whales are different. To test this hypothesis, the phylogenetic composition of faecal microbiomes was investigated by a 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequence-based approach for Bacteria and Archaea. Faecal samples from free-ranging large whales collected off the Azores Archipelago (Portugal) were used, comprising 13 individual baleen whales (one sei, two blue and ten fin whales) and four sperm whales. The phylogenetic composition of the Bacteria faecal microbiomes of baleen and toothed whales showed no significant differences at the phylum level. However, significant differences were detected at the family and genus levels. Most abundant phyla were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Tenericutes and Spirochaeta. Few highly abundant bacterial genera were identified as key taxa with a high contribution to differences among baleen and toothed whales microbiomes. Only few archaeal sequences were detected, primarily Methanomassiliicoccales representing potential methanogenic Archaea. This is the first study that directly compares the faecal bacterial and archaeal microbiomes of free-ranging baleen and toothed whales which represent the two parvorders of Cetacea which members are fully aquatic large mammals which were evolutionary split millions of years ago.


Assuntos
Balaenoptera , Microbiota , Animais , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Cachalote/microbiologia
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5491, 2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361884

RESUMO

The North Atlantic blue whale was depleted by modern whaling and it is still considered to be highly endangered. Despite its protection in 1954, catches continued in the South European Atlantic Shelf (SEAS) region and immediately adjacent waters until 1979. We compiled catches and investigate abundance trends in the region using original data from whaling (1921-1985) and scientific surveys around the last years of exploitation (1981-1987). The struck and lost rate was estimated at 3.2% for sperm whales and 2.3% for baleen whales. The compiled records include 60 catches, with an additional 1-2 blue whales likely struck and lost. From these, 29 individuals had been correctly reported as blue whales but 31 were mislabelled as fin whales. After correcting for loss rates, the number of blue whales killed in the region was estimated at 61 in 55 years (1.12 individuals/year). The data from the 1950s shows some oversized fin whales but it is unclear whether they are due to an incorrect reporting of species or to incorrect measurements, so it cannot be discarded that the actual number of blue whales caught was slightly higher than estimated. Mean body length of reported blue whales was lower than in higher latitudes of the North Atlantic, probably reflecting geographical stratification with higher proportion of immatures in the SEAS. The ratio between catches or sightings of blue whales and those of fin whales was 5.9% in the southern part of the SEAS previous to exploitation, it declined to 0.02-0.18% in the 1920s, and increased thereafter up to 1.6% in the 1980-1990s. Taking as reference the population size of fin whales in the SEAS, that of blue whales at the end of the 1980s can be guessed to be at ca337-497 individuals. Considering accepted population estimates in other areas as well as the observed rates of increase, current abundance is thought to be over a thousand whales in the SEAs and at in the order of 4000-5000 individuals for the whole eastern North Atlantic basin.


Assuntos
Balaenoptera , Baleia Comum , Animais , Geografia , Densidade Demográfica
5.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260273, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910750

RESUMO

Passive acoustic monitoring is an important tool for studying marine mammals. Ocean bottom seismometer networks provide data sets of opportunity for studying blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) which vocalize extensively at seismic frequencies. We describe methods to localize calls and obtain tracks using the B call of northeast Pacific blue whale recorded by a large network of widely spaced ocean bottom seismometers off the coast of the Pacific Northwest. The first harmonic of the B call at ~15 Hz is detected using spectrogram cross-correlation. The seasonality of calls, inferred from a dataset of calls identified by an analyst, is used to estimate the probability that detections are true positives as a function of the strength of the detection. Because the spacing of seismometers reaches 70 km, faint detections with a significant probability of being false positives must be considered in multi-station localizations. Calls are located by maximizing a likelihood function which considers each strong detection in turn as the earliest arrival time and seeks to fit the times of detections that follow within a feasible time and distance window. An alternative procedure seeks solutions based on the detections that maximize their sum after weighting by detection strength and proximity. Both approaches lead to many spurious solutions that can mix detections from different B calls and include false detections including misidentified A calls. Tracks that are reliable can be obtained iteratively by assigning detections to localizations that are grouped in space and time, and requiring groups of at least 20 locations. Smooth paths are fit to tracks by including constraints that minimize changes in speed and direction while fitting the locations to their uncertainties or applying the double difference relocation method. The reliability of localizations for future experiments might be improved by increasing sampling rates and detecting harmonics of the B call.


Assuntos
Balaenoptera/fisiologia , Espectrografia do Som/métodos , Algoritmos , Animais , Oceanos e Mares , Vocalização Animal
6.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 149(5): 3635, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241118

RESUMO

Passive acoustic monitoring has proven to be an indispensable tool for many aspects of baleen whale research. Manual detection of whale calls on these large data sets demands extensive manual labor. Automated whale call detectors offer a more efficient approach and have been developed for many species and call types. However, calls with a large level of variability such as fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) 40 Hz call and blue whale (B. musculus) D call have been challenging to detect automatically and hence no practical automated detector exists for these two call types. Using a modular approach consisting of faster region-based convolutional neural network followed by a convolutional neural network, we have created automated detectors for 40 Hz calls and D calls. Both detectors were tested on recordings with high- and low density of calls and, when selecting for detections with high classification scores, they were shown to have precision ranging from 54% to 57% with recall ranging from 72% to 78% for 40 Hz and precision ranging from 62% to 64% with recall ranging from 70 to 73% for D calls. As these two call types are produced by both sexes, using them in long-term studies would remove sex-bias in estimates of temporal presence and movement patterns.


Assuntos
Balaenoptera , Baleia Comum , Acústica , Animais , Redes Neurais de Computação , Vocalização Animal
7.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 149(5): 3086, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241138

RESUMO

The goal of this project is to use acoustic signatures to detect, classify, and count the calls of four acoustic populations of blue whales so that, ultimately, the conservation status of each population can be better assessed. We used manual annotations from 350 h of audio recordings from the underwater hydrophones in the Indian Ocean to build a deep learning model to detect, classify, and count the calls from four acoustic song types. The method we used was Siamese neural networks (SNN), a class of neural network architectures that are used to find the similarity of the inputs by comparing their feature vectors, finding that they outperformed the more widely used convolutional neural networks (CNN). Specifically, the SNN outperform a CNN with 2% accuracy improvement in population classification and 1.7%-6.4% accuracy improvement in call count estimation for each blue whale population. In addition, even though we treat the call count estimation problem as a classification task and encode the number of calls in each spectrogram as a categorical variable, SNN surprisingly learned the ordinal relationship among them. SNN are robust and are shown here to be an effective way to automatically mine large acoustic datasets for blue whale calls.


Assuntos
Balaenoptera , Acústica , Animais , Oceano Índico , Redes Neurais de Computação , Vocalização Animal
8.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 149(6): 4422, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241450

RESUMO

The source level (SL) and vocalizing source depth (SD) of individuals from two blue whale (BW) subspecies, an Antarctic blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia; ABW) and a Madagascar pygmy blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda; MPBW) are estimated from a single bottom-mounted hydrophone in the western Indian Ocean. Stereotyped units (male) are automatically detected and the range is estimated from the time delay between the direct and lowest-order multiply-reflected acoustic paths (multipath-ranging). Allowing for geometric spreading and the Lloyd's mirror effect (range-, depth-, and frequency-dependent) SL and SD are estimated by minimizing the SL variance over a series of units from the same individual over time (and hence also range). The average estimated SL of 188.5 ± 2.1 dB re 1µPa measured between [25-30] Hz for the ABW and 176.8 ± 1.8 dB re. 1µPa measured between [22-27] Hz for the MPBW agree with values published for other geographical areas. Units were vocalized at estimated depths of 25.0 ± 3.7 and 32.7 ± 5.7 m for the ABW Unit A and C and, ≃20 m for the MPBW. The measurements show that these BW calls series are stereotyped in frequency, amplitude, and depth.


Assuntos
Balaenoptera , Acústica , Animais , Oceano Índico , Masculino , Vocalização Animal
9.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 310: 113830, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087186

RESUMO

The goal of the present study was to complement existing data of testosterone and progesterone in blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) blubber from the eastern North Pacific Ocean to evaluate effects of seasonality and location on these hormones and to better assess reproductive status of individuals. Physiological parameters regarding reproduction are fundamental for describing population dynamics, and hormones can be a valid tool to estimate those for wildlife populations. In this study, blubber tissue was validated for testosterone and progesterone assays. Hormone concentrations were measured in 69 (35 males and 34 females) blubber samples from live (n = 66) and stranded (n = 3) animals collected between 2002 and 2016 from a known winter reproductive ground in the Gulf of California (GoC) and summer feeding areas along the United States West Coast (USWC), specifically off the states of California and Oregon. Results were combined with sighting histories as a tool to determine reproductive status of individual whales. Testosterone concentrations in adult male blue whales were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in blubber biopsies sampled off the USWC between the months of June and November compared to those sampled in the GoC between February and April. Elevated testosterone concentrations likely indicate physiological preparation for reproductive activity while the animals were present off the USWC. Progesterone concentrations were significantly elevated in pregnant females, confirming progesterone as an indicator of pregnancy in blue whales. Probabilities of being pregnant were estimated for adult females with unknown sighting histories based on progesterone concentrations. Testosterone in females was detected and measured only in pregnant whales suggesting its biosynthesis or metabolism is altered during gestation. These results provide updated and new information on the reproductive cycle of blue whales in the eastern North Pacific, posing new milestones to better estimate the timing of the mating season for this endangered population.


Assuntos
Balaenoptera , Animais , Balaenoptera/metabolismo , Biologia , Feminino , Masculino , Oceano Pacífico , Gravidez , Reprodução/fisiologia , Testosterona/metabolismo
10.
J Exp Biol ; 224(13)2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109418

RESUMO

High efficiency lunate-tail swimming with high-aspect-ratio lifting surfaces has evolved in many vertebrate lineages, from fish to cetaceans. Baleen whales (Mysticeti) are the largest swimming animals that exhibit this locomotor strategy, and present an ideal study system to examine how morphology and the kinematics of swimming scale to the largest body sizes. We used data from whale-borne inertial sensors coupled with morphometric measurements from aerial drones to calculate the hydrodynamic performance of oscillatory swimming in six baleen whale species ranging in body length from 5 to 25 m (fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus; Bryde's whale, Balaenoptera edeni; sei whale, Balaenoptera borealis; Antarctic minke whale, Balaenoptera bonaerensis; humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae; and blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus). We found that mass-specific thrust increased with both swimming speed and body size. Froude efficiency, defined as the ratio of useful power output to the rate of energy input ( Sloop, 1978), generally increased with swimming speed but decreased on average with increasing body size. This finding is contrary to previous results in smaller animals, where Froude efficiency increased with body size. Although our empirically parameterized estimates for swimming baleen whale drag were higher than those of a simple gliding model, oscillatory locomotion at this scale exhibits generally high Froude efficiency as in other adept swimmers. Our results quantify the fine-scale kinematics and estimate the hydrodynamics of routine and energetically expensive swimming modes at the largest scale.


Assuntos
Balaenoptera , Baleia Comum , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Natação
11.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248557, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857163

RESUMO

We document changes in the number of sightings and timing of humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae), blue (Balaenoptera musculus), and gray (Eschrichtius robustus) whale migratory phases in the vicinity of the Farallon Islands, California. We hypothesized that changes in the timing of migration off central California were driven by local oceanography, regional upwelling, and basin-scale climate conditions. Using 24 years of daily whale counts collected from Southeast Farallon Island, we developed negative binomial regression models to evaluate trends in local whale sightings over time. We then used linear models to assess trends in the timing of migration, and to identify potential environmental drivers. These drivers included local, regional and basin-scale patterns; the latter included the El Niño Southern Oscillation, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation, which influence, wind-driven upwelling, and overall productivity in the California Current System. We then created a forecast model to predict the timing of migration. Humpback whale sightings significantly increased over the study period, but blue and gray whale counts did not, though there was variability across the time series. Date of breeding migration (departure) for all species showed little to no change, whereas date of migration towards feeding areas (arrival) occurred earlier for humpback and blue whales. Timing was significantly influenced by a mix of local oceanography, regional, and basin-scale climate variables. Earlier arrival time without concomitant earlier departure time results in longer periods when blue and humpback whales are at risk of entanglement in the Gulf of the Farallones. We maintain that these changes have increased whale exposure to pot and trap fishery gear off the central California coast during the spring, elevating the risk of entanglements. Humpback entanglement rates were significantly associated with increased counts and early arrival in central California. Actions to decrease the temporal overlap between whales and pot/trap fishing gear, particularly when whales arrive earlier in warm water years, would likely decrease the risk of entanglements.


Assuntos
Migração Animal/fisiologia , Aquicultura/métodos , Baleias/fisiologia , Animais , Balaenoptera/fisiologia , California , Clima , Ecossistema , Jubarte/fisiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Oceano Pacífico , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8762, 2021 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888792

RESUMO

Blue whales were brought to the edge of extinction by commercial whaling in the twentieth century and their recovery rate in the Southern Hemisphere has been slow; they remain endangered. Blue whales, although the largest animals on Earth, are difficult to study in the Southern Hemisphere, thus their population structure, distribution and migration remain poorly known. Fortunately, blue whales produce powerful and stereotyped songs, which prove an effective clue for monitoring their different 'acoustic populations.' The DGD-Chagos song has been previously reported in the central Indian Ocean. A comparison of this song with the pygmy blue and Omura's whale songs shows that the Chagos song are likely produced by a distinct previously unknown pygmy blue whale population. These songs are a large part of the underwater soundscape in the tropical Indian Ocean and have been so for nearly two decades. Seasonal differences in song detections among our six recording sites suggest that the Chagos whales migrate from the eastern to western central Indian Ocean, around the Chagos Archipelago, then further east, up to the north of Western Australia, and possibly further north, as far as Sri Lanka. The Indian Ocean holds a greater diversity of blue whale populations than thought previously.


Assuntos
Balaenoptera/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal , Migração Animal , Animais , Oceano Índico , Estações do Ano , Espectrografia do Som , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 309: 113795, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891932

RESUMO

Monitoring the physiology of wild populations presents many technical challenges. Blood samples, long the gold standard of wildlife endocrinology studies, cannot always be obtained. The validation and use of non-plasma samples to obtain hormone data have greatly improved access to more integrated information about an organism's physiological state. Keratinous tissues like skin, hair, nails, feathers, or baleen store steroid hormones in physiologically relevant concentrations, are stable across decades, and can be used to retrospectively infer physiological state at prior points in time. Most protocols for steroid extraction employ physical pulverization or cutting of the sample, followed by mixing with a solvent. Such methods do produce repeatable and useful data, but low hormone yield and detectability issues can complicate research on small or rare samples. We investigated the use of keratinase, an enzyme that breaks down keratin, to improve the extraction and yield of corticosterone from vertebrate keratin tissues. Corticosterone content of keratinase-digested extracts were compared to non-keratinase extracts for baleen from three species of whale (blue, Balaenoptera musculus; bowhead, Balaena mysticetus; southern right, SRW; Eubalaena australis), shed skin from two reptiles (tegu lizard, Salvator merianae; narrow-headed garter snake, Thamnophis rufipunctatus), hair from arctic ground squirrel (AGS; Urocitellus parryii), feathers from Purple Martins (PUMA; Progne subis), and spines from the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus). We tested four starting masses (10, 25, 50, 100 mg) for each sample; digestion was most complete in the 10 and 25 mg samples. A corticosterone enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was validated for all keratinase-digested extracts. In all sample types except shed skin from reptiles, keratinase digestion improved hormone yield, with PUMA feathers and blue whale baleen having the greatest increase in apparent corticosterone content (100% and 66% more hormone, respectively). The reptilian shed skin samples did not benefit from keratinase digestion, actually yielding less hormone than controls. With further optimization and refinement, keratinase digestion could greatly improve yield of steroid hormones from various wildlife epidermal tissue types, allowing more efficient use of samples and ultimately improving understanding of the endocrine physiology of wild populations.


Assuntos
Balaenoptera , Queratinas , Animais , Corticosterona , Digestão , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esteroides
14.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 97(5)2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749784

RESUMO

Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing have enabled the large-scale interrogation of microbiota in the most diverse environments, including host-associated microbiota. This has led to the recognition that the skin microbiota of rorquals is specific and structurally different from that of the ocean. This study reveals the skin microbiome of 85 wild individuals along the Chilean coast belonging to Megaptera novaeangliae, Balaenoptera musculus and Balaenoptera physalus. Alpha diversity analysis revealed significant differences in richness and phylogenetic diversity, particularly among humpback whales from different locations and between blue and humpback whales. Beta diversity was partially explained by host and location but only accounting for up to 17% of microbiota variability (adjusted VPA). Overall, we found that microbiota composition was dominated by bacterial genera such as Cardiobacter, Moraxella, Tenacibaculum, Stenotrophomonas, Flavobacteria and Pseudomonas. We also found that no ASVs were associated with the three rorqual species. Up to four ASVs were specific of a location, indicating a great variability in the microbiota. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the composition and structure of the skin microbiota of whales off the coast of Chile, providing a foundational dataset to understand the microbiota's role in rorquals.


Assuntos
Balaenoptera , Jubarte , Microbiota , Animais , Chile , Filogenia
15.
Integr Zool ; 16(4): 626-635, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559924

RESUMO

Citizen science is a popular method for the long-term monitoring of the distribution of wild animals. The application of these methods in different species and environments still poses challenges, especially for aquatic animals. In this study, we investigated the distribution of the Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera edeni) in the Beibu Gulf of China by using scientific boat-based surveys and citizen science approaches using 2 different methods of data collection. First, we built our mobile app (Whale Guard) and installed it on fishermen's phones. Second, we used a popular instant messaging app (WeChat) to create an online fisherman community. We found that the mobile phone app collected far fewer reports (5 reports) than the online community group (42 reports, P < 0.01). By using a variety of incentives, we maintained the fisherman's community's activity without significant user loss (P < 0.01). We also found that the locations collected by social media applications in this study were consistent with observations from scientific boat-based transect surveys. The sightings distribution of Bryde's whales differed from those in previous surveys in that they were present across larger areas. Social media apps reported that 69% of reports was confirmed by more than one person, whereas Whale Guard reports were much lower (0, P <0.001). Community-based citizen science can greatly contribute to the long-term monitoring of Bryde's whales, and it has successfully overcome the challenges of data accessibility, accuracy, and fragmentation. Our study shows how to appropriately use citizen science in different community groups and community-based approaches make them useful for large baleen whale surveys.


Assuntos
Balaenoptera , Ciência do Cidadão/métodos , Animais , China , Ecossistema , Pesqueiros , Aplicativos Móveis , Mídias Sociais
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2709, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526800

RESUMO

Defining priority areas and risk evaluation is of utmost relevance for endangered species` conservation. For the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus), we aim to assess environmental habitat selection drivers, priority areas for conservation and overlap with vessel traffic off northern Chilean Patagonia (NCP). For this, we implemented a single-step continuous-time correlated-random-walk model which accommodates observational error and movement parameters variation in relation to oceanographic variables. Spatially explicit predictions of whales' behavioral responses were combined with density predictions from previous species distribution models (SDM) and vessel tracking data to estimate the relative probability of vessels encountering whales and identifying areas where interaction is likely to occur. These estimations were conducted independently for the aquaculture, transport, artisanal fishery, and industrial fishery fleets operating in NCP. Blue whale movement patterns strongly agreed with SDM results, reinforcing our knowledge regarding oceanographic habitat selection drivers. By combining movement and density modeling approaches we provide a stronger support for purported priority areas for blue whale conservation and how they overlap with the main vessel traffic corridor in the NCP. The aquaculture fleet was one order of magnitude larger than any other fleet, indicating it could play a decisive role in modulating potential negative vessel-whale interactions within NCP.


Assuntos
Balaenoptera , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecossistema , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Modelos Teóricos , Navios , Animais , Chile
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418052

RESUMO

The blue whale is the largest animal ever. This gigantism probably evolved to exploit seasonal krill blooms, where massive feasts allow for accumulation of large blubber reserves that can fuel their low mass specific metabolism during prolonged periods of fasting. Until recently, the physiology and biomechanics of blue whales could only be inferred from anatomical inspections, but the recent development of biologging tags now provide unique insights into how these ocean giants function and interact with their environment. Their mandibles, the largest bones ever to evolve, along with a highly expandable buccal cavity, enable an extreme and dynamic bulk feeding behavior. During a lunge feeding event, blue whales accelerate up to 5 m/s to engulf a volume prey laden water that is commensurate with the whale's gigantic body size. Perhaps due to the costs of such extreme foraging, their dive times of 10-15 min are much shorter than scaling would predict for their size. Like other diving animals, blue whales display a dive response with heart rates down to 4 BPM to prolong dive times and perhaps mitigate decompression sickness. Blue whales make the lowest and most energetic calls of any mammal with ocean traversing potential under natural ambient noise conditions. However, communication space may be severely reduced due to pervasive shipping noise. We hope that an increasing ability to study the physiology and behavior of blue whales and other marine megafauna will enable informed decisions and ensure our permanent co-existence in the face of increasing human encroachment into marine habitats.


Assuntos
Balaenoptera/fisiologia , Fisiologia/história , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Tamanho Corporal , Doença da Descompressão/fisiopatologia , Mergulho/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Mandíbula/fisiologia , Ruído , Oceanos e Mares
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 806, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436710

RESUMO

Since 2001, hundreds of thousands of hours of underwater acoustic recordings have been made throughout the Southern Ocean south of 60° S. Detailed analysis of the occurrence of marine mammal sounds in these circumpolar recordings could provide novel insights into their ecology, but manual inspection of the entirety of all recordings would be prohibitively time consuming and expensive. Automated signal processing methods have now developed to the point that they can be applied to these data in a cost-effective manner. However training and evaluating the efficacy of these automated signal processing methods still requires a representative annotated library of sounds to identify the true presence and absence of different sound types. This work presents such a library of annotated recordings for the purpose of training and evaluating automated detectors of Antarctic blue and fin whale calls. Creation of the library has focused on the annotation of a representative sample of recordings to ensure that automated algorithms can be developed and tested across a broad range of instruments, locations, environmental conditions, and years. To demonstrate the utility of the library, we characterise the performance of two automated detection algorithms that have been commonly used to detect stereotyped calls of blue and fin whales. The availability of this library will facilitate development of improved detectors for the acoustic presence of Southern Ocean blue and fin whales. It can also be expanded upon to facilitate standardization of subsequent analysis of spatiotemporal trends in call-density of these circumpolar species.


Assuntos
Acústica/instrumentação , Balaenoptera/fisiologia , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador/instrumentação , Espectrografia do Som/instrumentação , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Acesso à Informação , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Espectrografia do Som/métodos , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(2): 683-692, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040180

RESUMO

Bacterial pathogens are a major threat to both humans and animals worldwide. It is crucial to understand the mechanisms of various disease processes at the molecular level. Shewanella species are widespread in the environment and some are considered as emerging opportunistic human and marine mammal pathogens. In this study, putative virulence factors on the genome of Shewanella indica BW, a bacterium isolated from the Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera edeni), were determined. Additionally, for comparative purposes, putative virulence factors from two other S. indica and ten S. algae strains were also determined using the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC) pipeline. We confirmed the presence of previously reported virulence factors and we are proposing several new candidate virulence factors. Interestingly, the putative virulence factors were very similar between the two species with the exception of microbial collagenase which was present in all S. algae genomes, but absent in all S. indica genomes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Shewanella/genética , Shewanella/patogenicidade , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Animais , Balaenoptera/microbiologia , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Humanos
20.
Mar Environ Res ; 163: 105201, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162117

RESUMO

Migratory marine megafauna generally move vast distances between productive foraging grounds and environmentally stable breeding grounds, but characterizing how they use these habitats to maintain homeostasis and reproduce is difficult. We used isotope analysis of blue whale skin strata (n = 621) and potential prey (n = 300) to examine their migratory and foraging strategies in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Our results suggest that most whales in the northeast Pacific use a mixed income and capital breeding strategy, and use the California Current Ecosystem as their primary summer-fall foraging ground. A subset of individuals exhibited migratory plasticity and spend most of the year in the Gulf of California or Costa Rica Dome, two regions believed to be their primary winter-spring breeding grounds. Isotope data also revealed that whales in the southern Eastern Tropical Pacific generally do not forage in the northeast Pacific, which suggests a north-south population structure with a boundary near the equator.


Assuntos
Balaenoptera , Migração Animal , Animais , Ecossistema , Isótopos , Oceano Pacífico , Estações do Ano
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