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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt A): 130144, 2023 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36242956

RESUMO

Although previous research indicated that the Baltic Sea has a strong "memory effect" for trapping pollutants/nutrients, the associated environmental risks are not well understood due to the knowledge gaps in the long-term hydrodynamics-driven exchange of pollutants/nutrients between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. In this work, we exploited 99Tc and 129I released from the two European nuclear reprocessing plants as oceanic tracers and pollutant proxies, and performed a five-decade hindcast simulation to quantitatively estimate the fluxes and timescales of marine transport of pollutants/nutrients in the North-Baltic Sea. Modeling results underline two potential environmental risks of the Baltic Sea's "memory effect": (1) ∼26 years of environmental half-life for any existing water-soluble pollutants/nutrients in the Baltic Sea driven by its hydrodynamics; (2) the Baltic Sea as a pollutant reservoir continuously exporting 3 % of contaminations per year to the downstream areas after any pollution event. Our findings provide fundamental knowledge for understanding the long-term hydrodynamics-driven pollutant/nutrient transport in the North-Baltic Sea, facilitating the future regional management of the marine environment.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Oceanos e Mares , Países Bálticos
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19382, 2022 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36371446

RESUMO

Based on new fossil materials, a new species Toxorhina (Ceratocheilus) christelius sp. nov. has been described herein with complete documentation of drawings and photographs. Features such as wide spine on the gonocoxite differentiating the new species of Toxorhina were discussed. Finding new interesting fossil materials also allowed for providing an emended diagnosis and additional description of known Eocene species-Toxorhina (Ceratocheilus) eridanus. Comparison of chosen morphological features of fossil and recent representatives of the genus were given and key for fossil species of subgenus Ceratocheilus was introduced. Distribution of recent Toxorhina and evolutionary history of the genus were discussed. The results of research on fossil materials prove that the stratigraphic range of the subgenus Ceratocheilus and the genus Toxorhina goes back to the Eocene, there is no evidence of their existence on Earth before. Moreover, these insects were probably associated with a warm climate, they were found for example in Baltic amber, the deposits of which were formed mainly in a subtropical climate. The reach diversity of the genus Toxorhina of recent fauna is strictly observed in tropical zones around the world.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Besouros , Animais , Nematóceros , Fósseis , Insetos , Países Bálticos
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(45): e2208703119, 2022 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36282902

RESUMO

The world's oceans are currently facing major stressors in the form of overexploitation and anthropogenic climate change. The Baltic Sea was home to the first "industrial" fishery ∼800 y ago targeting the Baltic herring, a species that is still economically and culturally important today. Yet, the early origins of marine industries and the long-term ecological consequences of historical and contemporary fisheries remain debated. Here, we study long-term population dynamics of Baltic herring to evaluate the past impacts of humans on the marine environment. We combine modern whole-genome data with ancient DNA (aDNA) to identify the earliest-known long-distance herring trade in the region, illustrating that extensive fish trade began during the Viking Age. We further resolve population structure within the Baltic and observe demographic independence for four local herring stocks over at least 200 generations. It has been suggested that overfishing at Øresund in the 16th century resulted in a demographic shift from autumn-spawning to spring-spawning herring dominance in the Baltic. We show that while the Øresund fishery had a negative impact on the western Baltic herring stock, the demographic shift to spring-spawning dominance did not occur until the 20th century. Instead, demographic reconstructions reveal population trajectories consistent with expected impacts of environmental change and historical reports on shifting fishing targets over time. This study illustrates the joint impact of climate change and human exploitation on marine species as well as the role historical ecology can play in conservation and management policies.


Assuntos
DNA Antigo , Pesqueiros , Animais , Humanos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Dinâmica Populacional , Peixes/genética , Genômica , Países Bálticos
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(43): e2118156119, 2022 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36256813

RESUMO

The twin crises of climate change and biodiversity loss define a strong need for functional diversity monitoring. While the availability of high-quality ecological monitoring data is increasing, the quantification of functional diversity so far requires the identification of species traits, for which data are harder to obtain. However, the traits that are relevant for the ecological function of a species also shape its performance in the environment and hence, should be reflected indirectly in its spatiotemporal distribution. Thus, it may be possible to reconstruct these traits from a sufficiently extensive monitoring dataset. Here, we use diffusion maps, a deterministic and de facto parameter-free analysis method, to reconstruct a proxy representation of the species' traits directly from monitoring data and use it to estimate functional diversity. We demonstrate this approach with both simulated data and real-world phytoplankton monitoring data from the Baltic Sea. We anticipate that wider application of this approach to existing data could greatly advance the analysis of changes in functional biodiversity.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Fitoplâncton , Mudança Climática , Fenótipo , Países Bálticos , Ecossistema
5.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1776, 2022 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36123665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The problem of underestimating the burden of mental health-related mortality is widely discussed in the public health literature. Relevant scientific evidence from societies experiencing the largest burden of mental health mortality is important for better understanding global and national mental health challenges and improving policies. Three Baltic States - Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia - are countries in the Central and Eastern European region that experienced post-soviet transition trauma and showed among the highest suicide and alcohol-related mortality rates in Europe. This study aimed to examine the change in the burden of mental health-related mortality in three Baltic States in the context of consistent growth in life expectancy in 2007-2018. METHODS: We calculated age-standardized years of life lost due to specific mental health-related causes of death in three Baltic countries from 2007 to 2018. Four mental health-related causes of death groups were analyzed: (i) all mental and behavioural disorders; (ii) intentional self-harm; (iii) main substance use-related causes of death; and (iv) external causes of death. The number of deaths came from the WHO Mortality Database; population exposures were extracted from the Human Mortality Database. RESULTS: We found that the proportion of age-standardized years of life lost due to mental disorders was relatively low in all three countries. It varied from 0.2% for females in Lithuania in 2009 to 2.4% for males in Estonia in 2007. However, the proportion of age-standardized years of life lost from self-harm and substance use remained high. In 2018, the proportion of age-standardized years of life lost due to self-harm was highest among males in Lithuania (4.1%) while the highest proportion due to substance use-related causes of death was among males in Estonia (7.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that the burden of mental health-related mortality remained high and showed divergent temporal changes across the three countries. In the context of the Baltic States and other post-soviet countries, fractions of various external causes of death and alcohol-related causes of death should be considered in assessing the total burden of mental health-related mortality.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Países Bálticos , Feminino , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Lituânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
6.
Zootaxa ; 5125(3): 295-312, 2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36101213

RESUMO

Gedanochila museisucini gen. et sp. nov. is described, based on inclusions in the Eocene Baltic amber. A morphological phylogenetic analysis supports the placement of Gedanochila gen. nov. into the tribe Achilini. Definition, content and subdivisions of the tribe as well as position of extinct taxa placed within are briefly discussed.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Hemípteros , Animais , Países Bálticos , Fósseis , Filogenia
7.
Zootaxa ; 5165(4): 548-556, 2022 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36101310

RESUMO

Two new species of soldier beetles from the subfamily MalthininaeMalthinus masoni sp. nov. and Malthodes markpankowskii sp. nov.are described from Baltic amber. Their discovery is yet more evidence of the remarkable number of Cantharidae in Europe during the Eocene. This diversity is likely the result of several forces, including the warmer climate that characterized the epoch as well as the wide variety of habitats where Baltic amber formed.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Besouros , Animais , Países Bálticos , Fósseis
8.
Zootaxa ; 5165(3): 435-442, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36101317

RESUMO

Based on well-preserved specimen in Baltic amber (the Kaliningrad Region, Russia), a new polypore fungus beetle of the extant Holarctic genus Eustrophus Illiger, E. praecursor sp. nov. is described and illustrated. It is the first described Cenozoic member of the subfamily Eustrophinae. This fossil record expands the diversity of Tetratomidae known to occur in the Eocene amber forest. A checklist of described fossil Tetratomidae is provided.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Besouros , Animais , Países Bálticos , Florestas , Fósseis
9.
Zootaxa ; 5183(1): 245-253, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095447

RESUMO

A new genus and species of Aleurodicinae whiteflies from the Eocene Baltic amber is described. Medocellodes blackmani Drohojowska et Szwedo gen. et sp. nov. is the second representative of Aleurodicinae from Baltic amber, presenting mixture of plesiomorphic characters, as retention of median ocellus, with apomorphic states, shared also with other contemporaneous Aleurodicinae from Rovno amber. Morphological characters of the newly described fossil are briefly discussed.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Animais , Países Bálticos , Fósseis
10.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274476, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36170259

RESUMO

Coexistence of fish populations (= stocks) of the same species is a common phenomenon. In the Baltic Sea, two genetically divergent stocks of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), Western Baltic cod (WBC) and Eastern Baltic cod (EBC), coexist in the Arkona Sea. Although the relative proportions of WBC and EBC in this area are considered in the current stock assessments, the mixing dynamics and ecological mechanisms underlying coexistence are not well understood. In this study, a genetically validated otolith shape analysis was used to develop the most comprehensive time series of annual stock mixing data (1977-2019) for WBC and EBC. Spatio-temporal mixing analysis confirmed that the two stocks coexist in the Arkona Sea, albeit with fluctuating mixing proportions over the 43-year observation period. Depth-stratified analysis revealed a strong correlation between capture depth and stock mixing patterns, with high proportions of WBC in shallower waters (48-61% in <20m) and increasing proportions of EBC in deeper waters (50-86% in 40-70m). Consistent depth-specific mixing patterns indicate stable differences in depth distribution and habitat use of WBC and EBC that may thus underlie the long-term coexistence of the two stocks in the Arkona Sea. These differences were also reflected in significantly different proportions of WBC and EBC in fisheries applying passive gears in shallower waters (more WBC) and active gears in deeper waters (more EBC). This highlights the potential for fishing gear-specific exploitation of different stocks, and calls for stronger consideration of capture depth and gear type in stock assessments. This novel evidence provides the basis for improved approaches to research, monitoring and management of Baltic cod stocks.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Gadus morhua , Animais , Países Bálticos , Ecossistema , Água do Mar
12.
Mar Environ Res ; 179: 105690, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35853313

RESUMO

The North Sea and the Baltic Sea, including Danish coastal waters, have experienced a drastic decline in eelgrass Zostera marina coverage during the past century. Around 1900, eelgrass meadows covered about 6700 km2 of Danish coastal waters while the current potential distribution area is only about one third of this. In some areas, the potential distribution area is far from realized, and restoration efforts are needed to assist recovery. Such efforts are challenging, and resource-demanding and careful site selection is, therefore, important. In the present study, we aim to identify the connectivity of eelgrass populations as a basis for guiding site selection for restoration. We developed a coupled biophysical model to study eelgrass dispersal in the Kattegat. Partly submerged particles simulated the dispersal of reproductive eelgrass shoots containing seeds during the flowering season July-September. We then used network analysis to identify the potential connectivity between populations. We evaluated connectivity based on In-strength, Betweenness and Eigenvector centrality metrics and identified key areas in the Kattegat such as the central part of Aalborg Bay, to be considered to restore the network of Z. marina patches. The study proves the potentials of combining hydrodynamic models and network analysis to support marine conservation and planning, and highlights the importance of collaboration between ecologists, oceanographers, and practitioners in this endeavour.


Assuntos
Zosteraceae , Países Bálticos , Mar do Norte , Estações do Ano
13.
Zoology (Jena) ; 153: 126023, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35717730

RESUMO

The large interspecific variation in marine mammal skull and dental morphology reflects ecological specialisations to foraging and communication. At the intraspecific level, the drivers of skull shape variation are less well understood, having implications for identifying putative local foraging adaptations and delineating populations and subspecies for taxonomy, systematics, management and conservation. Here, we assess the range-wide intraspecific variation in 71 grey seal skulls by 3D surface scanning, collection of cranial landmarks and geometric morphometric analysis. We find that skull shape differs slightly between populations in the Northwest Atlantic, Northeast Atlantic and Baltic Sea. However, there was a large shape overlap between populations and variation was substantially larger among animals within populations than between. We hypothesize that this pattern of intraspecific variation in grey seal skull shape results from balancing selection or phenotypic plasticity allowing for a remarkably generalist foraging behaviour. Moreover, the large overlap in skull shape between populations implies that the separate subspecies status of Atlantic and Baltic Sea grey seals is questionable from a morphological point of view.


Assuntos
Focas Verdadeiras , Animais , Países Bálticos , Cabeça , Crânio
14.
J Fish Biol ; 101(3): 741-744, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35678592

RESUMO

We report observations of vateritic crystallization in the sagittal otoliths of the Baltic herring Clupea harengus membras in the northern Baltic Sea. While the existence of vaterite in the calcium carbonate matrix of sagittal otoliths has been observed in various species globally, reports from the brackish Baltic Sea are few in number. Large variation in the frequency of vaterite in 1984, 1988, 1997, 2010 and 2017 was observed, suggesting that the phenomenon is not static and more long-term studies should be conducted in search of the ultimate causing factors.


Assuntos
Peixes , Membrana dos Otólitos , Animais , Países Bálticos , Carbonato de Cálcio
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10873, 2022 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35760936

RESUMO

In late summer, massive blooms and surface scums of cyanobacteria emerge regularly in the Baltic Sea. The bacteria can produce toxins and add bioavailable nitrogen fixed from atmospheric nitrogen to an already over-fertilized system. This counteracts management efforts targeted at improving water quality. Despite their critical role, the controls on cyanobacteria blooms are not comprehensively understood yet. This limits the usability of models-based bloom forecasts and projections into our warming future. Here we add to the discussion by combining, for the first time, satellite estimates of cyanobacteria blooms with output of a high-resolution general ocean circulation model and in-situ nutrient observations. We retrace bloom origins and conditions by calculating the trajectories of respective water parcels backwards in time. In an attempt to identify drivers of bloom development, we find that blooms originate and manifest themselves predominantly offshore where conditions are more nutrient-depleted compared to more coastal environments.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Toxinas Biológicas , Países Bálticos , Eutrofização , Nitrogênio , Estações do Ano
16.
Chemosphere ; 303(Pt 3): 135191, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690171

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to determine the concentrations of nonylphenols (NPs) and 4-t-octylphenol (4tOP) in the muscles, liver, and kidneys of selected waterbird species. Three species with different feeding habits were selected, i.e., greater scaup (Aythya marila), great crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus), and great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) to investigate the potential effects of diet on the level of contaminants tested. The determination and quantification of analytes were performed using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS). The highest NP concentrations were noted in the kidneys of greater scaups and great crested grebes (208.3 and 160.8 µg kg-1 ww, resp.), which were six to fourteen-fold higher than those in the muscles (15.0 and 25.6 µg kg-1 ww, resp.) and livers (22.9 and 13.8 µg kg-1 ww, resp.) of these species. In greater scaups, the mean concentration of NPs in the livers was lower than in the muscles, while in great crested grebes, it was the opposite and higher concentrations were noted in the muscles. The mean concentrations of NPs in the muscles and livers of great cormorants were at similarly low levels (12.5 and 9.7 µg kg-1 ww, resp.). The concentrations of 4tOP in all samples were low, ranging from

Assuntos
Aves , Monitoramento Ambiental , Animais , Países Bálticos , Patos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Distribuição Tecidual
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 839: 156230, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643144

RESUMO

Marine eutrophication is a pervasive and growing threat to global sustainability. Macroalgal cultivation is a promising circular economy solution to achieve nutrient reduction and food security. However, the location of production hotspots is not well known. In this paper the production potential of macroalgae of high commercial value was predicted across the Baltic Sea region. In addition, the nutrient limitation within and adjacent to macroalgal farms was investigated to suggest optimal site-specific configuration of farms. The production potential of Saccharina latissima was largely driven by salinity and the highest production yields are expected in the westernmost Baltic Sea areas where salinity is >23. The direct and interactive effects of light availability, temperature, salinity and nutrient concentrations regulated the predicted changes in the production of Ulva intestinalis and Fucus vesiculosus. The western and southern Baltic Sea exhibited the highest farming potential for these species, with promising areas also in the eastern Baltic Sea. Macroalgal farming did not induce significant nutrient limitation. The expected spatial propagation of nutrient limitation caused by macroalgal farming was less than 100-250 m. Higher propagation distances were found in areas of low nutrient and low water exchange (e.g. offshore areas in the Baltic Proper) and smaller distances in areas of high nutrient and high water exchange (e.g. western Baltic Sea and Gulf of Riga). The generated maps provide the most sought-after input to support blue growth initiatives that foster the sustainable development of macroalgal cultivation and reduction of in situ nutrient loads in the Baltic Sea.


Assuntos
Fucus , Alga Marinha , Países Bálticos , Eutrofização , Nutrientes , Oceanos e Mares , Água
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 839: 156240, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644392

RESUMO

Coastal eutrophication is a major issue worldwide, also affecting the Baltic Sea and its coastal waters. Effective management responses to coastal eutrophication require good understanding of the interacting coastal pressures from land, the open sea, and the atmosphere, and associated coastal ecosystem impacts. In this study, we investigate how research on Baltic coastal eutrophication has handled these interactions so far and what key research gaps still remain. We do this through a scoping review, identifying 832 scientific papers with a focus on Baltic coastal eutrophication. These are categorized in terms of study focus, methods, and consideration of coastal system components and land-coast-sea interactions. The coastal component categories include coastal functions (including also socio-economic driver aspects), pressures that are natural (or mediated by a natural process or system) or directly anthropogenic, and management responses. The classification results show that considerably more studies focus on coastal eutrophication pressures (52%) or impacts (39%) than on characterizing the coastal eutrophication itself (20%). Moreover, few studies investigate pressures and impacts together, indicating that feedbacks are understudied. Regarding methods, more studies focus on data collection (62%) than on linking and synthetic methods (44%; e.g., modelling), and very few studies use remote sensing (6%) or participatory (3%) methods. Coastal links with land and open sea are mentioned but much less investigated. Among the coastal functions, studies considering ecological aspects are dominant, but much fewer studies investigate human aspects and the coastal filter function. Among the coastal pressures, studies considering nutrient loads are dominant, but much fewer studies investigate the sources of these loads, especially long-lived legacy sources and possible solutions for their mitigation. Overall, few studies investigate synergies, trade-offs and incentives for various solutions to address cross-scale multi-solution management.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Eutrofização , Atmosfera , Países Bálticos , Humanos , Nutrientes , Oceanos e Mares
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