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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 343: 126085, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610426

RESUMO

To determine the potential for improving biomass enzymolysis, a combined oxidization and liquid ammonia pretreatment (OD-LAT) was employed for bamboo. The effects of oxidant, bamboo ages, and species on the pretreatment effectiveness and subsequent enzymolysis were studied. Under the optimal OD-LAT pretreatment and enzymolysis of the B-NA bamboo Neosinocalamus affinis, the glucan and xylan conversion reached 83.85% and 78.66%, respectively, and approximately 59.7-68.5 g of fermentable sugars can be produced per 100 g of dry bamboo, which was an approximately 5-8 fold increase compared with untreated sample. The H2O2 loading of 1.0 was the optimal oxidant dosage for the OD-LAT process. The OD-LAT pretreatment was only suitable for bamboo under three-year-old, and it significantly improved the enzymolysis of B-NA and B-BM, while it was limited to B-DO and B-PP. The pretreatment effects of bamboo were not only related to composition but also to the bamboo age, species, macro-structures and micro-structures.


Assuntos
Bambusa , Açúcares , Amônia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Xilanos
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(34): 9915-9923, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425053

RESUMO

The authentication of bamboo shoots found in the marketplace is complex because the chemical profile of processed and unprocessed material is different. During processing, heat derivatives of the potentially toxic cyanogenic glycoside taxiphyllin are produced. Here, we report the isolation and structure elucidation of the two major diarylbutenedinitrile derivatives, which are cis and trans isomers of the rare 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)but-2-enedinitrile from a commercial extract of bamboo shoots. These compounds, absent in fresh bamboo shoots, were produced by boiling the shoots of Bambusa vulgaris and were associated with a decrease in levels of taxiphyllin. Furthermore, (E)-2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)but-2-enedinitrile was quantified in all 16 of the commercial products tested. Its abundance was found to be highly variable, ranging from 1 to 3 mg/g in preserved bamboo shoots and from 10 to 160 mg/mL in commercial aqueous extracts. Of the 15 authenticated bamboo samples tested for taxiphyllin, it was found only in the shoots of B. vulgaris and Gigantochloa verticillata, which represent two edible bamboo species. Our results indicate that diarylbutenedinitriles can be used as markers for the authentication of boil-processed bamboo shoots obtained from taxiphyllin-containing edible species and organs.


Assuntos
Bambusa , Glicosídeos , Brotos de Planta , Verduras
3.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065427

RESUMO

Early plants began colonizing earth about 450 million years ago. During the process of coevolution, their metabolic cellular pathways produced a myriad of natural chemicals, many of which remain uncharacterized biologically. Popular preparations containing some of these molecules have been used medicinally for thousands of years. In Brazilian folk medicine, plant extracts from the bamboo plant Guadua paniculata Munro have been used for the treatment of infections and pain. However, the chemical basis of these therapeutic effects has not yet been identified. Here, we performed protein biochemistry and downstream pharmacological assays to determine the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of an aqueous extract of the G. paniculata rhizome, which we termed AqGP. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of AqGP were assessed in mice. We identified and purified a protein (AgGP), with an amino acid sequence similar to that of thaumatins (~20 kDa), capable of repressing inflammation through downregulation of neutrophil recruitment and of decreasing hyperalgesia in mice. In conclusion, we have identified the molecule and the molecular mechanism responsible for the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of a plant commonly used in Brazilian folk medicine.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Bambusa/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Células MCF-7 , Masculino , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
4.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e237813, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161451

RESUMO

Bamboo (Bambusa sp.) is a grass species with high potential for exploitation, however, this raw material is easily attacked by xylophagous agents such as Coleoptera. The objective of this study is thus to analyse the presence of wood-boring beetles associated with Bambusa sp. in Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The study was carried out in a bamboo plantation, from August 2016 to July 2017. Two models of ethanolic traps were used, PET Santa Maria and ESALQ-84. Three families of wood-boring beetles were observed in this study: Bostrichidae, Cerambycidae and Curculionidae. 2,144 individuals were identified, belonging to 19 species, in four subfamilies and 11 tribes, and the species Xyleborus affinis was the most frequently collected. Thus, this study constitutes an important contribution to the knowledge of coleoborers associated with bamboo plantations, with the registration of the occurrence of species, as well as contributing to the knowledge of the entomofauna associated with species cultivated in the Southern Amazon.


Assuntos
Bambusa , Besouros , Gorgulhos , Animais , Brasil , Madeira
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7849, 2021 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846519

RESUMO

Bamboos, member of the family Poaceae, represent many interesting features with respect to their fast and extended vegetative growth, unusual, yet divergent flowering time across species, and impact of sudden, large scale flowering on forest ecology. However, not many studies have been conducted at the molecular level to characterize important genes that regulate vegetative and flowering habit in bamboo. In this study, two bamboo FD genes, BtFD1 and BtFD2, which are members of the florigen activation complex (FAC) have been identified by sequence and phylogenetic analyses. Sequence comparisons identified one important amino acid, which was located in the DNA-binding basic region and was altered between BtFD1 and BtFD2 (Ala146 of BtFD1 vs. Leu100 of BtFD2). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that this alteration had resulted into ten times higher binding efficiency of BtFD1 than BtFD2 to its target ACGT motif present at the promoter of the APETALA1 gene. Expression analyses in different tissues and seasons indicated the involvement of BtFD1 in flower and vegetative development, while BtFD2 was very lowly expressed throughout all the tissues and conditions studied. Finally, a tenfold increase of the AtAP1 transcript level by p35S::BtFD1 Arabidopsis plants compared to wild type confirms a positively regulatory role of BtFD1 towards flowering. However, constitutive expression of BtFD1 had led to dwarfisms and apparent reduction in the length of flowering stalk and numbers of flowers/plant, whereas no visible phenotype was observed for BtFD2 overexpression. This signifies that timely expression of BtFD1 may be critical to perform its programmed developmental role in planta.


Assuntos
Bambusa , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sasa , Bambusa/genética , Bambusa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sasa/genética , Sasa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Food Res Int ; 140: 109866, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648184

RESUMO

Bamboo is a grass that has gained economic attention in the food industry as a source of dietary fiber, and the young bamboo culm may be an alternative to supply fibers to the market. The objective was to evaluate and characterize different portions (bottom, middle and top) of the young bamboo culm fibrous fractions from Dendrocalamus asper, Bambusa tuldoides and B. vulgaris regarding their color parameters, physicochemical composition and hemicellulosic polysaccharide characterization. Fibrous fractions were obtained after starch extraction and results showed high amounts of total dietary fiber (79-89%). The hemicellulosic polysaccharide contents (35.4-41.5%) demonstrated great potential for commercial extraction and so, we extracted them with alkali and fractionated regarding their solubility in cold-water. Insoluble polysaccharides (KP fractions) were obtained in higher yields (from 21.2% to 38.5%) than the soluble ones (KS fractions, yields from 2.3% to 5.2%). Monosaccharide composition showed mainly xylose and arabinose, with some minor amounts of mannose and galactose in some fractions. In a detailed NMR analysis, the presence of neutral xylans and arabinoxylans could be observed in all studied bamboo species, which can be used in food products and also in the production of xylooligosaccharides (XOS), biomaterials and biofuels.


Assuntos
Bambusa , Fibras na Dieta , Indústria Alimentícia , Polissacarídeos , Amido
7.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 193(6): 1800-1812, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496924

RESUMO

The word "bamboo" reminds us of "a hollow stick," but it is filled with a plethora of health benefits. The tribals of northeastern India ferment these beneficial bamboo shoots for the goodness of mankind. Fermentation is an important age-old biotechnological procedure used for the preservation of food products. Fermented bamboo shoots form the niche for many microorganisms, and this confers positive effects and advantages in many ways. These magical shoots have tremendous health benefits like anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-aging, cardioprotective, weight loss, probiotics, to name a few. Apart from health benefits, fermented bamboo shoots form important functional foods and have industrial and economical values. Though these are commonly found and started in the tribal area, and local markets, today, they are valuable all around the world, as popular as gold. Hence, fermented bamboo shoots are referred as "green gold" of India. This review briefs about various health benefits, advantages, disadvantages, future scope, and finally the economic values of fermented bamboo shoots, the "green gold" of the twenty-first century.


Assuntos
Bambusa , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Brotos de Planta , Probióticos , Dietoterapia , Humanos , Índia
8.
Mycologia ; 113(2): 450-458, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481694

RESUMO

Twenty-seven Colletotrichum isolates associated with asymptomatic tissues of bamboo (Bambusoideae, Gramineae) were isolated from Anhui, Beijing, and Guangxi in China. Based on multilocus (internal transcribed spacer [ITS], glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GAPDH], chitin synthase [CHS], actin [ACT], beta-tubulin [TUB2]) phylogenetic analyses and morphological characteristics, three species were distinguished, including two novel species, C. bambusicola and C. guangxiense, and one known species, C. metake, which is a first report for China. These species have hitherto only been discovered on Bambusoideae, indicating that they probably have host preference.


Assuntos
Bambusa/microbiologia , Colletotrichum/classificação , Colletotrichum/genética , DNA Fúngico/genética , Filogenia , China , Colletotrichum/isolamento & purificação , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111711, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396042

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Salt iodization in Manipur of north-east India failed to prevent endemic goiter, therefore an in depth study carried out to evaluate thyroid functions of goitrous subjects in a randomly selected region. METHODS: Goiter survey conducted in children and women of reproductive ages by palpation followed by measurement of urinary iodine, thiocyanate and house-hold salt iodine to evaluate iodine nutritional status and consumption pattern of bamboo-shoots (BS). In all grade-2 goitrous subjects, free thyroxine, triiodothyronine, TSH, TPO and Tg antibodies, thyroid volume and echogenecity by ultrasonography and cytomorphology of thyroid by FNAC studied. RESULTS: Study population was 2486 children and 1506 women, goiter prevalence was 12.59% and 16.27% respectively; median urinary iodine and mean thiocyanate were 166 µg/l and 0.729 ± 0.408 mg/dl while salt iodine was ≥30 ppm. Serum thyroid hormones and TSH profiles of all grade-2 goitrous subjects showed 16.21% were subclinically hypothyroid, 2.16% overt hypothyroid, 4.86% subclinically hyperthyroid and 6.48% overt hyperthyroid, serum TPO- and Tg-antibodies found positive in 41.62%. Ultrasonographic results showed 24% had enlarged thyroid and 86.4% hypoechoic. Cytomorphological studies showed prevalence of colloid goiter (41.08%), lymphocytic thyroiditis (37.83%), Hashimoto's thyroiditis (8.10%), autoimmune thyroiditis (4.32%), sub-acute thyroiditis (2.16%) and 1.62% each papillary, medullary carcinoma, simple diffused hyperplasia and adenomoid nodular goiter. CONCLUSIONS: Grade-2 goitrous individuals in this mild goiter endemic region were affected by hypo- and hyperthyroidism with hypoechoic thyroid and thyroiditis. Thiocyanate that originates from BS even in presence of adequate iodine developed goiter and led goitrous population towards such diseases.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Bócio Endêmico/induzido quimicamente , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Tiocianatos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Bambusa/efeitos adversos , Bambusa/química , Criança , Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Bócio Endêmico/diagnóstico , Bócio Endêmico/epidemiologia , Bócio Endêmico/imunologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Iodo/urina , Masculino , Prevalência , Saúde da População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Tiocianatos/urina , Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Glândula Tireoide/fisiopatologia , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Tireotropina/sangue
10.
J Plant Res ; 134(1): 165-175, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411148

RESUMO

Bio-energy crops need to be grown on marginal salt and drought lands in India as per policy. Understanding environmental stress response in bio-energy crops might help in promoting cultivation of bio-energy feedstock on marginal salty and drought land. This is one of the first report for vegetative propagation of Bamboo (Bambusa balcooa) under salt and drought stress to understand antioxidant enzymes' gene regulations to combat stress through activation of antioxidant enzymes and osmo-protectant molecules to scavenge reactive oxygen species as measured by physiological changes. Morphological, physiological, and biochemical traits were noted as indicators of plant health upon different sodium chloride (NaCl) salt-stress while various drought conditions with correlation analysis. A significant up-regulation of genes related to most of the antioxidant enzymes was observed up to salinity of 14 mS cm- 1 electric conductivity (EC) at 150 mM NaCl experimental salt stress which declined with higher salt-stress. While in the case of drought-stress, all genes remained up-regulated while proline dehydrogenase (PDH) remained down-regulated up-to 100% drought-stress having 4% soil moisture. The gene expressions of antioxidant enzymes were significantly correlated with their corresponding gene-products namely super-oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities. Biochemical parameters such as, soluble sugar, proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), total amino acids, hydrogen peroxide and electrolyte leakage ratio also showed positive correlation (p = 0.001) with salt condition. Genetic and biochemical test parameters were significantly correlated with physiological attributes of plant health at soil EC of 14 mS cm- 1 shown as 150 mM NaCl salt stress and 60% drought-stress having 17% soil moisture content, were the optimum stress tolerance limits observed. Application of these data would be useful to cultivate 0.63 million ha of salinity affected land and 10.05 million ha of drought affected land among wastelands in India to meet biofuel need.


Assuntos
Bambusa , Secas , Antioxidantes , Catalase/genética , Índia , Malondialdeído , Estresse Fisiológico , Superóxido Dismutase
11.
Food Chem ; 350: 128724, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293145

RESUMO

The physicochemical, structural properties and digestibility of rice starch treated by bamboo shoot dietary fiber (BSDF) combined with dynamic high-pressure microfluidization (DHPM) were investigated. Compared with starch modified by BSDF alone, the combination treatment decreased the pasting viscosity and viscoelasticity of starch. Furthermore, the pasting viscosity and viscoelasticity showed an increase from 50 to 100 MPa and then decreased after increasing the pressure to 150 and 200 MPa. The enthalpy of gelatinization and relative crystallinity of starch treated by BSDF and 100 MPa DHPM significantly increased by 17% and 63%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy images demonstrated that flaky BSDF coated on starch granules to form a protective layer. As a result, the fractions of resistant starch increased and the starch hydrolysis extent and rate decreased under 100 MPa DHPM. This study highlights an innovative and promising strategy for improving the properties of starch and facilitating its utilization.


Assuntos
Bambusa/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão , Oryza/química , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Amido/química , Configuração de Carboidratos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos
12.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 193(4): 1011-1022, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237555

RESUMO

A moderate two-step pretreatment method was investigated to improve the enzymatic saccharification of bamboo residues. SEM and FTIR were employed to characterize the structure changes. Fed-batch enzymatic saccharification was performed to obtain high concentration of fermentable sugar. Bamboo was impregnated at low severity of conditions (room temperature, 2% H2SO4 or 2% NaOH, 48 h) to initially alter the structure of bamboo, and then further pretreated by steam explosion at 1.0 MPa for 6 min. The highest delignification of 51% and the highest enzymatic hydrolysis of 47.1% were reached at 2% NaOH impregnation followed by steam explosion. The changes in the structural characteristics showed beneficial effects on the enzymatic hydrolysis. When a mixer of cellulase (30 FPU) and ß-glucosidase (10 CBU) was further used, the maximum enzymatic hydrolysis of 78.9% and total glucose yield of 68.2% were obtained. The maximum sugar release from the holocellulose was 500 mg/g bamboo, approximately 83.3% conversion efficiency based on monomeric sugar recovery. With fed-batch saccharification, a final substrate loading of 30% brought 107.7 g/L glucose, 35.81 g/L xylose, and 7.82 g/L arabinose release, respectively. This study provided an effective strategy for potential utilization of bamboo residues.


Assuntos
Bambusa/química , Celulase/química , Lignina/química , beta-Glucosidase/química , Hidrólise
13.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190730, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285554

RESUMO

Abstract Pyroligneous acid (PA) was obtained by condensation of the vapors produced in the thermal decomposition of culms residues from Guadua angustifolia Kunth (G. angustifolia) cultivated in Colombia, with and without previous preservation treatment with borax salts. Chemical characterization by GC-MS showed that PA extracts has high content of phenolic compounds. Mequinol, isocreosol, 4-ethylphenol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxytoluene and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol were the most abundant substances, identified. The total phenolic content (TPC) and DPPH free radical scavenging activity, were investigated. TPC showed a concentration of 1.959 mg GA g-1±0.010 and 3.844 mg GA g-1±0.027 to PAC and PAS samples. These samples also exhibited high DPPH activity of 70.975%±0.921 and, 16.667%±0.298, respectively. The chemical composition, TPC and DPPH results indicate that the PA extracts obtained from G. angustifolia may be used as a raw material in the food industry as natural preservative, in medicine as alternative to antibiotics and in agriculture as insect repellent and foliar fertilizer.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas , Bambusa/química , Cromatografia Gasosa , Ácido Acético , Antioxidantes/química
14.
Molecules ; 25(23)2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33266171

RESUMO

Phytochemical screening of nonpolar fractions from the methanol extract of the Bamboo shoot skin Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens resulted in the isolation of a new sterol-glucoside-fatty acid derivative (6'-O-octadeca-8'',11''-dienoyl)-sitosterol-3-O-ß-d-glucoside (1), together with six known compounds. The chemical structures of the pure isolated compounds were deduced based on different spectral data. The isolated compounds were assessed to determine their cytotoxic activity, and the results were confirmed by determining their apoptotic activity. Compound 1 was more cytotoxic against the MCF-7 cells (IC50 = 25.8 µM) compared to Fluorouracil (5-FU) (26.98 µM), and it significantly stimulated apoptotic breast cancer cell death with 32.6-fold (16.63% compared to 0.51 for the control) at pre-G1 and G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest and blocked the progression of MCF-7 cells. Additionally, RT-PCR results further confirmed the apoptotic activity of compound 1 by the upregulation of proapoptotic genes (P53; Bax; and caspases 3, 8, and 9) and downregulation of the antiapoptotic genes (BCL2). Finally, the identified compounds, especially 1, were found to have high binding affinity towards both tyrosine-specific protein kinase (TPK) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR-2) through the molecular docking studies that highlight its mode of action.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Bambusa/química , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Brotos de Planta/química , Esteróis/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Ciclo Celular , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Esteróis/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
15.
J Chromatogr A ; 1633: 461636, 2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160254

RESUMO

The traditional preparation of cellulose microspheres always involves tedious synthetic procedures (e.g., dissolution, emulsification and regeneration) and inevitable organic solvents, which undergoes both high production cost and environmental contamination. To overcome these issues, a feasible and green synthesis strategy is proposed to construct porous cellulose microspheres (PCMs) via one-step spontaneous formation relying on sodium periodate oxidation of pure bamboo fibers. By this strategy, a cluster of robust cellulose microspheres grow up on the surface of bamboo fibers in aqueous phase through amorphous oxidized cellulose self-assembly accumulation and then drop out when their sizes increase to about 15 µm. After being immobilized with Cu(II), the prepared cellulose microspheres serve as metal affinity adsorbent for proteins adsorption, showing high adsorption capacity, good selectivity and excellent reusability for bovine hemoglobin (BHb). Together with green and easy synthesis, the novel cellulose microspheres show a promising alternative to commercially available adsorbent support.


Assuntos
Bambusa/química , Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Microesferas , Proteínas/isolamento & purificação , Adsorção , Animais , Bovinos , Celulose/química , Hemoglobinas/isolamento & purificação , Porosidade , Proteínas/química , Solventes/química , Água/química
16.
Zootaxa ; 4859(3): zootaxa.4859.3.9, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056194

RESUMO

A new species, Kermicus huizhouensis Wu Huang sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), is described and illustrated based on the adult female, second instar female and first-instar nymph. It was collected at Qianfeng village, Huiyang District, Huizhou City, Guangdong Province, P. R. China, inside the stem of bamboo Bambusa rigida (Poaceae) and attended by the ant Tetraponera binghami (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). It differs from K. wroughtoni Newstead, 1897 by the adult female lacking multilocular disc pores in the marginal region of the venter, and both the adult female and first-instar nymph having the anal ring bearing 16-20 setae. Keys to genera of legless mealybugs on bamboo based on adult females, and the immature stages of Kermicus, are provided.


Assuntos
Formigas , Bambusa , Hemípteros , Animais , China , Feminino , Ninfa
17.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 16(1): 63, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional bamboo weaving has been practiced for centuries in Sansui, a county dominated by the Miao people, in Guizhou province of Southwest China. Sansui bamboo weaving represents an intangible cultural heritage as defined by UNESCO, but, like many other traditional handicrafts in China, it has suffered a downfall in this period of rapid development. Sansui bamboo weaving is now experiencing a renaissance due to the joint efforts of the local government, bamboo weaving companies, and individual bamboo weavers. However, what bamboo species have supported the traditional bamboo weaving in Sansui keeps unknown up to now. The traditional knowledge and technology associated with bamboo weaving have not been reported. In addition, the resumption of the local bamboo industry may provide some valuable experiences for other downfallen traditional handicrafts or local communities. Thus, an ethnobotanical study on Sansui bamboo weaving has been carried out. METHODS: This study mainly used ethnobotanical methods, including key informant interviews and participatory observations. Different stakeholders were selected by applying the snowball method as our key informants including 6 officials, 37 bamboo weavers, and 17 bamboo and bamboo weaving product merchants. We also went into the local weavers' houses to visit the whole weaving process. The bamboo and dye plant species for bamboo weaving were identified by taxonomists and referring to online databases available. RESULTS: Based on field investigations, 17 bamboo species used for weaving were recorded. Different bamboo species were woven for different purposes based on their own characters. Phyllostachys heteroclada is the most popular species locally. Bamboo strips are usually dyed by using Platycarya strobilacea and Rubia cordifolia to be made for different images. In recent years, the size, functions, and materials of local bamboo weaving crafts as well as their market mode have been changed to adapt to new development trends and to cater to the market. In addition, the cooperation among bamboo weavers, bamboo companies, and household workshops has provided great support to the local bamboo industry and to reboot the economy of the local community. Some suggestions for the sustainable economic development of Sansui bamboo weaving and other Chinese traditional handicrafts are proposed. CONCLUSION: In the present study, the bamboo weaving-associated traditional knowledge was collected by means of ethnobotanical methods. The recent renaissance of the bamboo weaving business in Sansui can be attributed both to government support and the innovations of the bamboo weaving industry itself. The developing mode ("Internet + intangible cultural heritage + poverty alleviation"), which combined the internet, poverty alleviation, and intangible cultural heritage, is valid and worth being promoted.


Assuntos
Comércio , Etnobotânica , Conhecimento , Poaceae , Bambusa , China , Cultura , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12324, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704000

RESUMO

It has been shown that bamboo leaf flavone (BLF) displays biological and pharmacological activities in mammals. However, the effects of BLF on broiler gut microbiota and related immune function have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to test our hypothesis that BLF can improve the health status of broilers by modulating the gut microbiota. A total of 300 one-day-old Arbor Acres (AA) broilers were used to characterize their gut microbiota and immune status after feeding diet supplemented with BLF. The V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene from cecal bacteria was sequenced via the Illumina MiSeq platform. The Immune status and related parameters were assessed, including the immune organ index (the spleen, thymus, and bursa), serum concentrations of IL-2 and INF-γ, and spleen IL-2 and INF-γ gene expressions. The results showed the BLF diet had an Immune enhancement effect on broilers. In addition, BFL caused the changes of the gut microbial community structure, resulting in greater proportions of bacterial taxa belonging to Lactobacillus, Clostridiales, Ruminococcus, and Lachnospiraceae. These bacteria have been used as probiotics for producing short chain fatty acids in hosts. These results indicate that BLF supplement improves immune function in chicken via modulation of the gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Bambusa/química , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/imunologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Flavonas/farmacologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/química , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Biodiversidade , Ceco/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Interferon gama/sangue , Interferon gama/genética , Interleucina-2/sangue , Interleucina-2/genética , Masculino , Filogenia , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/metabolismo
19.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(4): 1261-1273, 01-06-2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147239

RESUMO

Bamboo species are an alternative for the composition of forest plantations. However, their potential has not been explored due to the hard time in producing large-scale clonal plants. Thus, the aim this work was to evaluate the in vitro establishment, bud multiplication and ex vitro rooting of Bambusa vulgaris. The first experiment tested different systemic and contact fungicide solutions, based on exposure time, during the establishment phase. Established explants were subjected to evaluation of residual fungicide effect on subcultures during the multiplication and elongation phases. The second experiment evaluated the influence of activated carbon on ex vitro survival and on adventitious rooting. Explant immersion in liquid culture medium added with 1.0 mL of fungicide for 120 hours has favored the in vitro establishment and reduced fungal contamination. On the other hand, it favored the shoot emission of shoots per explant during the multiplication phase. Both rooting induction culture medium and mini-incubator system use were effective in enabling adventitious root formation. The presence of activated carbon in the rooting induction culture medium resulted in a higher clonal plant survival rate.


As espécies de bambus são uma alternativa para a composição de plantios florestais. Entretanto, esse potencial não tem sido explorado devido à dificuldade de produção de mudas clonais em larga escala. Assim, objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o estabelecimento in vitro, a multiplicação e o enraizamento ex vitro de Bambusa vulgaris. No primeiro experimento foram testadas diferentes soluções de fungicida sistêmico e de contato em relação ao tempo de exposição durante a fase de estabelecimento. Os explantes estabelecidos foram avaliados quanto ao efeito residual do fungicida durante subcultivos nas fases de multiplicação e alongamento. No segundo experimento, foi avaliada a influência do carvão ativado sobre a sobrevivência e enraizamento ex vitro. Durante o estabelecimento in vitro, a imersão de explantes em meio de cultura líquido contendo alíquota de 1,0 mL de fungicida durante 120 horas favoreceu o estabelecimento e reduziu a contaminação fúngica, enquanto na fase de multiplicação, houve o favorecimento da emissão de brotos por explante. O meio de cultura de indução ao enraizamento e uso de sistema de mini-estufim foram efetivos para a formação de raízes adventícias e a presença de carvão ativado resultou em uma maior sobrevivência das mudas clonais.


Assuntos
Técnicas In Vitro , Bambusa
20.
Protein Expr Purif ; 174: 105665, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416131

RESUMO

Malate dehydrogenase (MDH), which is ubiquitously occurred in nature, catalyzes the interconversion of malate and oxaloacetate. Higher plants contain multiple forms of MDH that differ in coenzyme specificity, subcellular localization and physiological function. A putative Bambusa oldhamii BoMDH cDNA was screened with the specific probe from the bamboo cDNA library. Sequence alignment shows that there's a high homology between the deduced amino acid sequence of BoMDH and MDH protein in Oryza sativa glyoxysome (92%). A 57 kDa fusion protein was expressed by IPTG induction in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and an obvious MDH activity was detected in the recombinant protein. The molecular mass of recombinant BoMDH was estimated to be 120 kDa, and the subunit form was 57 kDa by denatured SDS-PAGE, indicating that BoMDH presents as a homodimer. The optimum temperature and pH for BoMDH activity were 40 °C and 9.5, respectively. The Km values of BoMDH for malate and NAD+ were 5.2 mM and 0.52 mM. The kcat/Km values of BoMDH for malate and NAD+ were 163 min-1 mM-1 and 3060 min-1 mM-1.


Assuntos
Bambusa , Clonagem Molecular , Malato Desidrogenase , Proteínas de Plantas , Bambusa/enzimologia , Bambusa/genética , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Malato Desidrogenase/biossíntese , Malato Desidrogenase/química , Malato Desidrogenase/genética , Malato Desidrogenase/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação
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