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1.
Biomolecules ; 12(11)2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36358968

RESUMO

Ayahuasca is a psychoactive brew traditionally used in indigenous and religious rituals and ceremonies in South America for its therapeutic, psychedelic, and entheogenic effects. It is usually prepared by lengthy boiling of the leaves of the bush Psychotria viridis and the mashed stalks of the vine Banisteriopsis caapi in water. The former contains the classical psychedelic N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), which is thought to be the main psychoactive alkaloid present in the brew. The latter serves as a source for ß-carbolines, known for their monoamine oxidase-inhibiting (MAOI) properties. Recent preliminary research has provided encouraging results investigating ayahuasca's therapeutic potential, especially regarding its antidepressant effects. On a molecular level, pre-clinical and clinical evidence points to a complex pharmacological profile conveyed by the brew, including modulation of serotoninergic, glutamatergic, dopaminergic, and endocannabinoid systems. Its substances also interact with the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), and sigma-1 receptors. Furthermore, ayahuasca's components also seem to modulate levels of inflammatory and neurotrophic factors beneficially. On a biological level, this translates into neuroprotective and neuroplastic effects. Here we review the current knowledge regarding these molecular interactions and how they relate to the possible antidepressant effects ayahuasca seems to produce.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Banisteriopsis , Alucinógenos , Alucinógenos/farmacologia , N,N-Dimetiltriptamina/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Antidepressivos/farmacologia
4.
J Clin Psychopharmacol ; 42(6): 581-588, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36193898

RESUMO

PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: There has been resurgence of interest in the therapeutic use of serotonergic ("classic") psychedelics in major depressive disorder (MDD) and end-of-life distress. This commentary offers a critical appraisal of current evidence for antidepressant effects of classic psychedelics from contemporary clinical trials and highlights pitfalls that should be addressed before clinical translation. METHODS/PROCEDURES: A narrative review was conducted to identify clinical trials of serotonergic psychedelics for the treatment of MDD and end-of-life distress. Trials published between January 1990 and May 2022 were identified on PubMed using combinations of search terms. FINDINGS/RESULTS: Psilocybin, lysergic acid diethylamide, and ayahuasca have clinical trials to evaluate antidepressant effects. Two studies showed preliminary positive effects of single-dose ayahuasca for treatment-resistant depression. Similar results were seen in lysergic acid diethylamide for end-of-life distress. Small randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of psilocybin combined with psychotherapy showed superiority to waitlist controls and comparable efficacy and safety to an active comparator in MDD, with additional RCTs showing efficacy in end-of-life distress. Adverse events associated with psychedelics were reported as mild and transient. Small homogenous samples, expectancy bias, functional unblinding, and lack of consensus and standardization of psychotherapy are major limitations of all studies. IMPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS: Given the methodological limitations of published RCTs, the evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of serotonergic psychedelics for depression is currently of low level. Future research should assess the role of expectancy and psychedelic effects in moderating and mediating treatment response. Innovative trial designs are needed to overcome functional unblinding. For now, psychedelics should remain experimental interventions used within clinical trials.


Assuntos
Banisteriopsis , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Alucinógenos , Humanos , Alucinógenos/efeitos adversos , Psilocibina/efeitos adversos , Dietilamida do Ácido Lisérgico/efeitos adversos , Serotoninérgicos/efeitos adversos , Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Morte
5.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr (Engl Ed) ; 51(3): 236-239, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36075857

RESUMO

Psychosis induced by ayahuasca is a rare occurrence. However, due to an increase in the access and distribution of this substance, it is necessary to highlight the cases in which it occurs. We describe the case of a 26-year-old man who was admitted to the psychiatric service after seven months of changes in behaviour, delusions and the subsequent exacerbation of symptoms, after participating in a ritual ceremony during which he consumed an ayahuasca concoction for the first time. Initially, he required hospital treatment to control the acute psychotic episode, but after tolerating and responding well to the antipsychotic treatment, he was discharged with an outpatient follow-up.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Banisteriopsis , Transtornos Psicóticos , Adulto , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Psicóticos/etiologia
6.
Chem Biodivers ; 19(10): e202200409, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36163588

RESUMO

Ayahuasca is a psychoactive and psychedelic decoct composed mainly of Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis plant species. The beverage is rich in alkaloids and it is ritualistically used by several indigenous communities of South America as a natural medicine. There are also reports in the literature indicating the prophylaxis potential of Ayahuasca alkaloids against internal parasites. In the present study, Ayahuasca exhibited moderate in vitro activity against Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes (IC50 95.78 µg/mL) compared to the reference drug benznidazole (IC50 2.03 µg/mL). The ß-carboline alkaloid harmine (HRE), isolated from B. caapi, was considered active against the trypomastigotes forms (IC50 6.37), and the tryptamine N, N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), isolated from P. viridis was also moderately active with IC50 of 21.02 µg/mL. Regarding the in vivo evaluations, no collateral effects were observed. The HRE alone demonstrated the highest trypanocidal activity in a dose-responsive manner (10 and 100 mg/kg). The Ayahuasca and the association between HRE and DMT worsened the parasitaemia, suggesting a modulation of the immunological response during the T. cruzi infection, especially by increasing total Immunoglobulin (IgG) and IgG1 antibody levels. The in silico molecular docking revealed HRE binding with low energy at two sites of the Trypanothione reductase enzyme (TR), which are absent in humans, and thus considered a promissory target for drug discovery. In conclusion, Ayahuasca compounds seem to not be toxic at the concentrations of the in vivo evaluations and can promote trypanocidal effect in multi targets, including control of parasitaemia, immunological modulation and TR enzymatic inhibition, which might benefit the treatments of patients with Chagas' disease. Moreover, the present study also provides scientific information to support the prophylactic potential of Ayahuasca against internal parasites.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Banisteriopsis , Doença de Chagas , Alucinógenos , Humanos , Banisteriopsis/química , Alucinógenos/farmacologia , Harmina/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , N,N-Dimetiltriptamina/farmacologia , Carbolinas , Triptaminas , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoglobulina G , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
7.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 239(10): 3325-3336, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36069952

RESUMO

RATIONALE: To uncover whether psychedelic drugs attenuate fear memory responses would advance the development of better psychedelic-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Ayahuasca (AYA), a psychedelic brew containing indolamine N, N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and ß-carbolines, facilitates fear extinction and improves neural plasticity. Upon retrieval, fear memory undergoes labilization and reconsolidation; however, the effects of AYA on this memory stabilization phase are unknown. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the effects of AYA treatment on fear memory reconsolidation. METHODS: Fear-conditioned Wistar rats received AYA (60, 120, or 240 mg/kg) or H2O orally via gavage o.g. 20 min before, immediately, or 3 h after a short retrieval session. Analysis of AYA through liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to determine the content of DMT and ß-carbolines in AYA. RESULTS: AYA impaired fear memory reconsolidation when given 20 min before or 3 h after memory retrieval, with the dose of 60 mg/kg being effective at both moments. This dose of AYA was devoid of anxiolytic effect. Importantly, during retrieval, AYA did not change fear expression. The lack of retrieval abolished the reconsolidation impairing effect of AYA. The effects of AYA treatment 20 min before or 3 h after memory retrieval lasted at least 22 days, suggesting no spontaneous recovery of fear memory. Fear memory impairments induced by AYA treatment, at both moments, do not show reinstatement. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the view that a low dose of AYA treatment impairs early and late stages of memory reconsolidation instead of facilitating fear extinction.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos , Banisteriopsis , Alucinógenos , Animais , Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Carbolinas/farmacologia , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Alucinógenos/farmacologia , N,N-Dimetiltriptamina/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
8.
Molecules ; 27(18)2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36144509

RESUMO

Ayahuasca is an Amazonian drink, which contains ß-carboline alkaloids and N,N-dimethyltryptamine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing potential of decoctions of a commercial mixture, four individual plants and four mixtures of two plants used in the ayahuasca preparation. Thus, the cytotoxic potential of the samples was evaluated and a wound-healing assay was performed with a NHDF cell line. Subsequently, a parallel artificial membrane permeability assay was also performed, to verify if any psychoactive compound could be absorbed by skin fibroblasts. The integrity and permeability of the cell layer were also evaluated, using the transepithelial electrical resistance assay and Lucifer yellow permeability assay, respectively. The compounds absorbed by the cell layer were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector. The results showed that only one sample showed cytotoxicity and all the others promoted the migration of skin fibroblasts. Additionally, it was also verified that ß-carbolynic alkaloids and N,N-dimethyltriptamine were not absorbed by the cell layer, and in general, did not interfere with its permeability and integrity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study where ayahuasca's wound-healing potential was evaluated.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Banisteriopsis , Alcaloides/análise , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Banisteriopsis/química , Carbolinas/análise , Carbolinas/farmacologia , Membranas Artificiais , N,N-Dimetiltriptamina/química , N,N-Dimetiltriptamina/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
9.
J Psychopharmacol ; 36(10): 1100-1117, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36017784

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Small-scale clinical studies with psychedelic drugs have shown promising results for the treatment of several mental disorders. Before psychedelics become registered medicines, it is important to know the full range of adverse events (AEs) for making balanced treatment decisions. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the presence of AEs during and after administration of serotonergic psychedelics and 3,4-methyenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in clinical studies. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and ClinicalTrials.gov for clinical trials with psychedelics since 2000 describing the results of quantitative and qualitative studies. RESULTS: We included 44 articles (34 quantitative + 10 qualitative), describing treatments with MDMA and serotonergic psychedelics (psilocybin, lysergic acid diethylamide, and ayahuasca) in 598 unique patients. In many studies, AEs were not systematically assessed. Despite this limitation, treatments seemed to be overall well tolerated. Nausea, headaches, and anxiety were commonly reported acute AEs across diagnoses and compounds. Late AEs included headaches (psilocybin, MDMA), fatigue, low mood, and anxiety (MDMA). One serious AE occurred during MDMA administration (increase in premature ventricular contractions requiring brief hospitalization); no other AEs required medical intervention. Qualitative studies suggested that psychologically challenging experiences may also be therapeutically beneficial. Except for ayahuasca, a large proportion of patients had prior experience with psychedelic drugs before entering studies. CONCLUSIONS: AEs are poorly defined in the context of psychedelic treatments and are probably underreported in the literature due to study design (lack of systematic assessment of AEs) and sample selection. Acute challenging experiences may be therapeutically meaningful, but a better understanding of AEs in the context of psychedelic treatments requires systematic and detailed reporting.


Assuntos
Banisteriopsis , Alucinógenos , N-Metil-3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina , Cefaleia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Dietilamida do Ácido Lisérgico , N-Metil-3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina/efeitos adversos , Psilocibina/uso terapêutico
10.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271926, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36001643

RESUMO

Both psychedelic drug experiences and near-death experiences can occasion changes in perspectives on death and dying, but there have been few direct comparisons of these phenomena. This study directly compared psychedelic occasioned and non-drug experiences which altered individuals' beliefs about death. Individuals who reported an experience that altered their beliefs about death occasioned by either a psychedelic drug or a near-death or other non-ordinary experience completed an online survey. Circumstances of the experience, mystical and near-death subjective features, changes in attitudes about death, and other persisting effects were evaluated. The study sample (n = 3192) included five groups: non-drug near-death or other non-ordinary experiences (n = 933), and drug experiences occasioned by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) (n = 904), psilocybin (n = 766), ayahuasca (n = 282), or N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) (n = 307). Analyses of differences in experiences were adjusted statistically for demographic differences between groups. Compared to the psychedelic groups, the non-drug group was more likely to report being unconscious, clinically dead, and that their life was in imminent danger. The groups were remarkably similar in the reported changes in death attitudes attributed to the experience, including a reduced fear of death and high ratings of positive persisting effects and personal meaning, spiritual significance, and psychological insight. Although both psychedelic and non-drug participants showed robust increases on standardized measures of mystical and near-death experiences, these measures were significantly greater in the psychedelic participants. Non-drug participants were more likely to rate their experiences as the single most meaningful of their lives. Comparing across psychedelic substances, ayahuasca and DMT groups tended report stronger and more positive enduring consequences of the experience than the psilocybin and LSD groups, which were largely indistinguishable. These data provide a detailed characterization and comparison of psychedelic occasioned and non-drug experiences that changed attitudes about death and suggest the importance of future prospective psychedelic administration studies.


Assuntos
Banisteriopsis , Alucinógenos , Humanos , Dietilamida do Ácido Lisérgico , N,N-Dimetiltriptamina , Transtornos Fóbicos , Psilocibina
11.
Behav Brain Res ; 434: 114007, 2022 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35843462

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavioral response of ayahuasca in rats submitted to neuroinflammation through the intraperitoneal application of lipopolysaccharide (0.63 mg/kg/mL). Eighty animals, male, about 90 days old, were divided into control and LPS groups and later into prevention and treatment subgroups. The prevention subgroup was administered ayahuasca or saline solution, via gavage, at a dose of 4 mL/kg one hour before applying LPS or saline, while the treatment subgroup received the same dose of the respective substances 24 h after intraperitoneal applications. Behavioral parameters were evaluated using open field (anxiety-like) and forced swimming (depressive-like) tests. A decrease in LPS/AYA rats in the prevention and treatment subgroups regarding anxiety-like behavior was observed. As for the depressive-like behavior, there was a decrease in the group induced to the disease model, both in the prevention subgroup (when compared to the SAL/SAL, SAL/AYA, and LPS/AYA with LPS/SAL groups) and in the treatment (when comparing SAL/SAL and LPS/AYA with LPS/SAL). This study concludes the anxiolytic and antidepressant potential of ayahuasca in an animal model of neuroinflammation, possibly due to the antineuroinflammatory effects already reported of the compound.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos , Banisteriopsis , Animais , Antidepressivos , Comportamento Animal , Depressão , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Lipopolissacarídeos , Masculino , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Ratos
12.
Molecules ; 27(8)2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458698

RESUMO

Banisteriopsis caapi is used to prepare the psychoactive beverage ayahuasca, and both have therapeutic potential for the treatment of many central nervous system (CNS) conditions. This study aimed to isolate new bioactive compounds from B. caapi extract and evaluate their biological activity, and that of the known ß-carboline components of the plant (harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine), in BV-2 microglial cells, the in vivo activation of which is implicated in the physiopathology of CNS disorders. B. caapi extract was fractionated using semipreparative liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) and the exact masses ([M + H]+m/z) of the compounds in the 5 isolated fractions were determined by high-resolution LC-MS/MS: F1 (174.0918 and 233.1289), F2 (353.1722), F3 (304.3001), F4 (188.1081), and F5 (205.0785). Harmine (75.5-302 µM) significantly decreased cell viability after 2 h of treatment and increased the number of necrotic cells and production of reactive oxygen species at equal or lower concentrations after 24 h. F4 did not impact viability but was also cytotoxic after 24 h. Most treatments reduced proinflammatory cytokine production (IL-2, IL-6, IL-17, and/or TNF), especially harmaline and F5 at 2.5 µM and higher concentrations, tetrahydroharmine (9.3 µM and higher), and F5 (10.7 µM and higher). The results suggest that the compounds found in B. caapi extract have anti-inflammatory potential that could be explored for the development of treatments for neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Banisteriopsis , Banisteriopsis/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Harmalina , Harmina/farmacologia , Microglia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
13.
Behav Brain Res ; 427: 113878, 2022 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35378111

RESUMO

Considering the long-lasting effects of ayahuasca on the brain and emotional processing, the objective of this study was to evaluate the behavioural and neurobiological effects of repeated ayahuasca administration in an animal model of exploratory behaviour related to novel-environment anxiety. Male Wistar rats received water, 120, 240, 480 or 3600 mg/kg of resuspended freeze-dried ayahuasca by gavage once a day for 30 days; there was also a non-manipulated homecage group. One hour after the last administration, animals were placed individually in the open field for 20 min. We analysed the weight gain, the behavioural response through a stochastic analysis, and c-Fos immunoreactive levels in the hippocampus, amygdala, pre-frontal and barrel field cortex. Ayahuasca at 120 mg/kg increased ambulation, and at 3600 mg/kg decreased vertical exploration and reduced weight gain. Aya3600 had higher c-Fos expression in regions of the hippocampus and infralimbic cortex than homecage, water or aya120 groups. Water-receiving animals had less c-Fos expression in the anterior basolateral amygdala than others groups. Our results show different behavioural effects of ayahuasca: a stimulant-like effect in small doses, and decreased activity in extreme high-dose, probably due to adverse effects. Higher activation of areas involved in emotional processing and the serotonergic pathway adds to the neurobiological literature on repeated/chronic ingestion of ayahuasca. Our data do not support an anxiolytic effect of repeated ayahuasca related to exploring new anxiogenic-environment but suggest that low ayahuasca doses should be further studied. The absence of severe impairment and behavioural syntax alteration reinforce ayahuasca safety.


Assuntos
Banisteriopsis , Animais , Banisteriopsis/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Água , Aumento de Peso
14.
Subst Use Misuse ; 57(7): 1072-1081, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35466853

RESUMO

Background: Preliminary evidence suggests that long-term ayahuasca use is associated with better psychosocial outcomes and less drug use; however, available data on the association between ayahuasca intake frequency and psychosocial outcomes is limited. Objectives: We sought to characterize and investigate the association of regular ayahuasca use, as compared to non-regular use, on licit (alcohol and tobacco) and illicit (cannabis, psychostimulants, psychedelics, and non-medical opioids) drug use and psychosocial outcomes. Methods: An online-based cross-sectional survey was taken among people who use ayahuasca in Brazil assessing sociodemographic, drug and ayahuasca use, anxiety and depression (HAD-S), intrinsic religiosity (IRI), negative and positive affects (PANAS), satisfaction with life (SWLS), and five quality of life domains (WHOQOL-Brief). Multivariate regressions for each psychosocial outcome and drug use were performed comparing regular to non-regular ayahuasca users while correcting for sociodemographic variables. Results: A total of 286 valid answers were retrieved, divided into people with regular (n = 101) and non-regular (n = 185) ayahuasca use. Groups had similar sociodemographic profiles and lifetime use of drugs. In the multivariate analysis, regular use of ayahuasca was associated with lower anxiety (B: -0.97), negative affect (B: -2.62), general (B: 0.22) and physical (B: 0.17) quality of life, higher intrinsic religiosity scores (B: 4.16), and less past-month licit (OR = 0.30) and illicit (OR = 0.49) use of substances. Conclusions: Our results show that ceremonial regular ayahuasca compared to non-regular use is associated with better psychosocial and mental health outcomes and less drug use. Studies with repeated ayahuasca administration and extended follow-ups are essential to clarify the nature of ayahuasca's therapeutic effects and to guide future clinical research.


Assuntos
Banisteriopsis , Alucinógenos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Internet , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
15.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 149: 112845, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35339828

RESUMO

There has been a renewed interest in the potential use of psychedelics for the treatment of psychiatric conditions. Nevertheless, little is known about the mechanism of action and molecular pathways influenced by ayahuasca use in humans. Therefore, for the first time, our study aims to investigate the human metabolomics signature after consumption of a psychedelic, ayahuasca, and its connection with both the psychedelic-induced subjective effects and the plasma concentrations of ayahuasca alkaloids. Plasma samples of 23 individuals were collected both before and after ayahuasca consumption. Samples were analysed through targeted metabolomics and further integrated with subjective ratings of the ayahuasca experience (i.e., using the 5-Dimension Altered States of Consciousness Rating Scale [ASC]), and plasma ayahuasca-alkaloids using integrated network analysis. Metabolic pathways enrichment analysis using diffusion algorithms for specific KEGG modules was performed on the metabolic output. Compared to baseline, the consumption of ayahuasca increased N-acyl-ethanolamine endocannabinoids, decreased 2-acyl-glycerol endocannabinoids, and altered several large-neutral amino acids (LNAAs). Integrated network results indicated that most of the LNAAs were inversely associated with 9 out of the 11 subscales of the ASC, except for tryptophan which was positively associated. Several endocannabinoids and hexosylceramides were directly associated with the ayahuasca alkaloids. Enrichment analysis confirmed dysregulation in several pathways involved in neurotransmission such as serotonin and dopamine synthesis. In conclusion, a crosstalk between the circulating LNAAs and the subjective effects is suggested, which is independent of the alkaloid concentrations and provides insights into the specific metabolic fingerprint and mechanism of action underlying ayahuasca experiences.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos Neutros , Banisteriopsis , Endocanabinoides/farmacologia , Alucinógenos , Banisteriopsis/química , Endocanabinoides/química , Alucinógenos/farmacologia , Humanos , Metabolômica
17.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 239(6): 1679-1687, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35253069

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Ayahuasca has been proposed as a potential treatment of alcohol (ethanol) use disorder (AUD). The serotonin 5-HT2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is the main psychoactive component of ayahuasca, suggesting that its therapeutic effects may be mediated by 5-HT2A receptors. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ayahuasca on the expression of ethanol self-administration using a two-bottle choice procedure and the role of 5-HT2A receptors in those effects. METHODS: Male mice had intermittent access to ethanol (10% v/v) in a two-bottle choice procedure for 30 days. Animals were then submitted to 3 treatment phases, each followed by ethanol re-exposure tests. During the treatment phase, every 3 days, animals received i.p. injections of either vehicle or the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 (M100, 1 mg/kg) followed by an i.g. (gavage) administration of vehicle or ayahuasca (100 mg/kg) and were exposed to the self-administration apparatus with no ethanol availability. During re-exposure tests, animals were submitted to the same conditions as during acquisition, with no treatments prior to those sessions. RESULTS: Treatment with ayahuasca blocked the expression of ethanol self-administration, decreasing ethanol intake and preference during re-exposure tests. Pretreatment with M100 blocked the effects of ayahuasca on ethanol drinking without significantly attenuating ethanol self-administration. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with ayahuasca during alcohol abstinence blocked the expression of alcohol self-administration in mice, and 5-HT2A receptor activation is critical for those effects to emerge. Our findings support a potential for ayahuasca and other 5-HT2A receptor agonists as adjunctive pharmacotherapies for the treatment of AUD.


Assuntos
Banisteriopsis , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Etanol/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , N,N-Dimetiltriptamina , Receptor 5-HT2A de Serotonina , Serotonina
20.
J Psychopharmacol ; 36(3): 295-308, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35253514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that psychedelic-assisted therapy carries transdiagnostic efficacy in the treatment of mental health conditions characterized by low mood and the use of avoidance coping strategies. AIMS: While preliminary evidence suggests that psychological flexibility and emotion regulation processes play an important role within psychedelic therapy, this prospective study addressed methodological gaps in the literature and examined the ability of ayahuasca to stimulate acute states of cognitive reappraisal and long-term changes in psychological flexibility and mood. The study also explored whether moderating factors predisposed participants to experience therapeutic changes. METHODS: Participants (N = 261) were recruited from three Shipibo ayahuasca retreat centers in Central and South America and completed assessments on mood, psychological flexibility, and acute ceremonial factors. Expectancy, demand characteristics, and invalid responding were controlled for with several validity scales. RESULTS/OUTCOMES: Participants reported significant reductions in negative mood after three months, as well as increases in positive mood and psychological flexibility. Acute experiences of reappraisal during the ayahuasca ceremony exerted the strongest moderating effects on increases in positive mood and psychological flexibility. Increases in psychological flexibility statistically mediated the effects of acute psychological factors, including reappraisal, on changes in positive mood. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These results highlight the role of acute psychological processes, such as reappraisal, and post-acute increases in psychological flexibility as putative mechanisms underlying positive outcomes associated with psychedelics. These results also provide support for the integration of third-wave and mindfulness-based therapy approaches with psychedelic-assisted interventions.


Assuntos
Banisteriopsis , Alucinógenos , Atenção Plena , Cognição , Alucinógenos/farmacologia , Alucinógenos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
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