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1.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 23(1): 9-17, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36633562

RESUMO

Background: Bartonella species are fastidious gram-negative vector-borne bacteria with a wide range of mammalian reservoirs. While it is understood that some species of Bartonella are human pathogens, the extent of human exposure to Bartonella species (both pathogenic and nonpathogenic) is yet to be fully understood. Materials and Methods: To this end, residual sera from participants enrolled in undifferentiated fever studies in Cambodia, Ghana, Laos, and Peru were screened for the presence of IgG antibodies against Bartonella quintana and Bartonella henselae, using the FOCUS diagnostics Dual Spot- Bartonella IgG Immunofluorescence assay. Forty-eight patients with suspected or confirmed Bartonella bacilliformis exposure or infection in Peru were screened to assess cross-reactivity of the FOCUS assay for IgG against other Bartonella species. Results: Ten of 13 patients with confirmed B. bacilliformis infection were Bartonella-specific IgG positive, and overall, 36/48 of the samples were positive. In addition, 79/206, 44/200, 101/180, and 57/100 of the samples from Peru, Laos, Cambodia, and Ghana, respectively, were Bartonella-specific IgG positive. Furthermore, ectoparasite pools from Cambodia, Laos, and Peru were tested using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for the presence of Bartonella DNA. Of the sand fly pools collected in Peru, 0/196 were qPCR positive; 15/140 flea pools collected in Cambodia were qPCR positive; while 0/105 ticks, 0/22 fleas, and 0/3 louse pools collected in Laos tested positive for Bartonella DNA. Conclusion: Evidence of Bartonella in fleas from Cambodia supports the possibility that humans are exposed to Bartonella through this traditional vector. However, Bartonella species were not found in fleas, ticks, or lice from Laos, or sand flies from Peru. This could account for the lower positive serology among the population in Laos and the strictly localized nature of B. bacilliformis infections in Peru. Human exposure to the Bartonella species and Bartonella as a human pathogen warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella , Bartonella , Infestações por Pulgas , Sifonápteros , Carrapatos , Humanos , Animais , Bartonella/genética , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Peru/epidemiologia , Laos/epidemiologia , Camboja/epidemiologia , Gana , Infestações por Pulgas/microbiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Sifonápteros/microbiologia , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Mamíferos
3.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278579, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36476750

RESUMO

Tick-borne zoonotic diseases pose a threat to public health; hence, identifying the pathogenic agents associated with them is critical. The prevalence of Bartonella and Rickettsia in Iran is unknown. This study aimed to detect Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella species in ticks in northeast Iran and conduct phylogenetic analysis on these bacteria. Ticks from the sample bank in the Research Center for Emerging and Re-emerging Diseases were included in this study. The ticks were collected in 2017 and 2018 from domestic animals (sheep, goats, cows, camels, horses, dogs, and donkeys) and rodents in Golestan, Mazandaran, and Guilan provinces. Molecular methods were used to examine the DNA extracted from these samples to detect Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella species. The study examined a total of 3999 ticks. Ixodes ricinus (46.4%), Rhipicephalus turanicus (26.3%), and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (17.1%) were the most prevalent species. Among 638 DNA pools, real-time-PCR detected Rickettsia spp. in 161 (25.2%), mostly belonging to Rh. sanguineus (48.9%) and Rh. turanicus (41.9%). Golestan Province had the highest number of positive pools (29.7%). No positive samples for Bartonella were detected in a 638 pooled samples. Eight distinct Rickettsia species were detected in 65 sequenced samples, the majority of which were R. massiliae (n = 32, 49.2%) and R. sibirica (n = 20, 30.8%). Other species included R. rhipicephali (n = 3), R. aeschlimannii (n = 5), R. helvetica (n = 5), R. asiatica (n = 4), R. monacensis (n = 6), and R. raoultii (n = 1). The research findings may provide helpful information about tick-borne Rickettsiae in Iran and help to clarify the role of these arthropods in maintaining these agents. Rickettsia species were found to be circulating in three Northern provinces; thus, it is recommended that this disease be considered in the differential diagnosis of febrile diseases caused by tick bites and febrile diseases with skin rashes such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF).


Assuntos
Bartonella , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia , Rickettsia , Carrapatos , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Cavalos , Cães , Ovinos , Rickettsia/genética , Bartonella/genética , Filogenia
4.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 52(6): 1163-1192, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336416

RESUMO

The unique virulence factors of Bartonella spp make them stealth pathogens that evade the immune system and cause persistent infections that are often difficult to diagnose and treat. Understanding these pathogenic mechanisms allows clinicians to recognize when to pursue diagnostics, how to optimize diagnostic testing and treatment, and ultimately can lead to improved outcomes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella , Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Bartonella , Infecções por Bartonella/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/terapia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/terapia
5.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 398, 2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ctenocephalides felis, the cat flea, is the most common ectoparasite of cats and dogs worldwide. As a cause of flea allergy dermatitis and a vector for two genera of zoonotic pathogens (Bartonella and Rickettsia spp.), the effect of the C. felis microbiome on pathogen transmission and vector survival is of substantial medical importance to both human and veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to assay the pathogenic and commensal eubacterial microbial communities of individual C. felis from multiple geographic locations and analyze these findings by location, qPCR pathogen prevalence, and flea genetic diversity. METHODS: 16S Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) was utilized to sequence the microbiome of fleas collected from free-roaming cats, and the cox1 gene was used for flea phylogenetic analysis. NGS data were analyzed for 168 individual fleas from seven locations within the US and UK. Given inconsistency in the genera historically reported to constitute the C. felis microbiome, we utilized the decontam prevalence method followed by literature review to separate contaminants from true microbiome members. RESULTS: NGS identified a single dominant and cosmopolitan amplicon sequence variant (ASV) from Rickettsia and Wolbachia while identifying one dominant Bartonella clarridgeiae and one dominant Bartonella henselae/Bartonella koehlerae ASV. Multiple less common ASVs from these genera were detected within restricted geographical ranges. Co-detection of two or more genera (Bartonella, Rickettsia, and/or Wolbachia) or multiple ASVs from a single genus in a single flea was common. Achromobacter, Peptoniphilus, and Rhodococcus were identified as additional candidate members of the C. felis microbiome on the basis of decontam analysis and literature review. Ctenocephalides felis phylogenetic diversity as assessed by the cox1 gene fell within currently characterized clades while identifying seven novel haplotypes. NGS sensitivity and specificity for Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. DNA detection were compared to targeted qPCR. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm the widespread coinfection of fleas with multiple bacterial genera and strains, proposing three additional microbiome members. The presence of minor Bartonella, Rickettsia, and Wolbachia ASVs was found to vary by location and flea haplotype. These findings have important implications for flea-borne pathogen transmission and control.


Assuntos
Bartonella , Coinfecção , Ctenocephalides , Rickettsia , Animais , Gatos , Bartonella/genética , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Ctenocephalides/microbiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Filogenia , Rickettsia/genética
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 443, 2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36434644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) serve as natural reservoirs for many zoonotic pathogens worldwide, including vector-borne pathogens. However, bat-associated parasitic arthropods and their microbiota are thus far not thoroughly described in many regions across the globe, nor is their role in the spillover of pathogens to other vertebrate species well understood. Basic epidemiological research is needed to disentangle the complex ecological interactions among bats, their specific ectoparasites and microorganisms they harbor. Some countries, such as Ukraine, are particularly data-deficient in this respect as the ectoparasitic fauna is poorly documented there and has never been screened for the presence of medically important microorganisms. Therefore, the aims of this study were to provide first data on this topic. METHODS: A total of 239 arthropod specimens were collected from bats. They belonged to several major groups of external parasites, including soft ticks, fleas, and nycteribiid flies from six chiropteran species in Northeastern Ukraine. The ectoparasites were individually screened for the presence of DNA of Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp., Bartonella spp., Borrelia spp., and Babesia spp. with conventional PCRs. Positive samples were amplified at several loci, sequenced for species identification, and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: Rickettsia DNA was detected exclusively in specimens of the soft tick, Carios vespertilionis (7 out of 43 or 16.3%). Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed high similarity to sequences from Rickettsia parkeri and several other Rickettsia species. Bacteria from the family Anaplasmataceae were detected in all groups of the ectoparasites (51%, 122/239 samples), belonging to the genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Wolbachia. The detection of Bartonella spp. was successful only in fleas (Nycteridopsylla eusarca) and bat flies (Nycteribia koleantii, N. pedicularia), representing 12.1% (29/239) of the collected ectoparasites. No DNA of Babesia or Borrelia species was identified in the samples. CONCLUSIONS: We report for the first time in Ukraine the molecular detection of several bacterial agents in bat ectoparasites collected from six species of bats. The data presented extend the knowledge on the distribution of ectoparasite species in bats and their involvement in potentially circulating agents pathogenic for humans and vertebrate animals.


Assuntos
Argas , Argasidae , Babesia , Bartonella , Borrelia , Infestações por Pulgas , Sifonápteros , Animais , Humanos , Filogenia , Ucrânia/epidemiologia , Argas/genética , Bartonella/genética , Ehrlichia/genética , Anaplasma/genética , Babesia/genética
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 366, 2022 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36229832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bartonella are intracellular bacteria that are transmitted via animal scratches, bites and hematophagous arthropods. Rodents and their associated fleas play a key role in the maintenance of Bartonella worldwide, with > 22 species identified in rodent hosts. No studies have addressed the occurrence and diversity of Bartonella species and vectors for small mammals in Arctic and Subarctic ecosystems, which are increasingly impacted by invasive species and climate change. METHODS: In this study, we characterized the diversity of rodent fleas using conventional PCR targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase II gene (COII) and Bartonella species in rodents and shrews (n = 505) from northern Canada using conventional PCR targeting the ITS (intergenic transcribed spacer) region and gltA (citrate synthase) gene. Metagenomic sequencing of a portion of the gltA gene was completed on a subset of 42 rodents and four rodent flea pools. RESULTS: Year, total summer precipitation the year prior to sampling, average minimum spring temperature and small mammal species were significant factors in predicting Bartonella positivity. Occurrence based on the ITS region was more than double that of the gltA gene and was 34% (n = 349) in northern red-backed voles, 35% (n = 20) in meadow voles, 37% (n = 68) in deer mice and 31% (n = 59) in shrews. Six species of Bartonella were identified with the ITS region, including B. grahamii, B. elizabethae, B. washoensis, Candidatus B. rudakovii, B. doshiae, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and subsp. arupensis. In addition, 47% (n = 49/105) of ITS amplicons had < 97% identity to sequences in GenBank, possibly due to a limited reference library or previously unreported species. An additional Bartonella species (B. heixiaziensis) was detected during metagenomic sequencing of the gltA gene in 6/11 rodents that had ITS sequences with < 97% identity in GenBank, highlighting that a limited reference library for the ITS marker likely accounted for low sequence similarity in our specimens. In addition, one flea pool from a northern red-backed vole contained multiple species (B. grahamii and B. heixiaziensis). CONCLUSION: Our study calls attention to the usefulness of a combined approach to determine the occurrence and diversity of Bartonella communities in hosts and vectors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella , Bartonella , Infestações por Pulgas , Sifonápteros , Animais , Arvicolinae , Bartonella/genética , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Citrato (si)-Sintase/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Intergênico , Ecossistema , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Roedores/microbiologia , Musaranhos , Sifonápteros/microbiologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36240663

RESUMO

The cat flea "Ctenocephalides felis" has veterinary and medical importance since it is a vector for numerous important pathogens. In this study, a total of 249 flea samples were collected from goats bred in eight different farms (located in Izmir and Sanliurfa provinces of Turkey) and morphologically identified under microscopy. Later, the genetic diversity was investigated in 117 of C. felis samples that were morphologically identified by sequencing the mitochondrial cox1 gene, followed by phylogenetic tree, haplotype, genetic differentiation and gene flow analyses. In addition, Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. which are zoonoses were screened in 27 pools comprising 249 flea samples by PCR. The phylogenetic tree showed that 117 flea samples were clustered in Clade 1 together with isolates from Australia, New Zealand, the Czech Republic, and India. Four haplotypes (haplotypes I, II, III and IV) were detected within the C. felis species. The most prevalent haplotype was haplotype I (57/117; 48.7 %). Among the population of flea samples in Izmir and Sanliurfa, the Fst and Nm values were 0.16261 and 2.57, respectively, indicating a moderate genetic differentiation and high gene flow. Rickettsia spp. was detected in four of C. felis pool samples whereas Bartonella spp. was detected in 25 of them. BLAST analysis identified R. raoultii as well as B. henselae and B. elizabethae. In conclusion, the findings showed that C. felis samples collected from goats in Turkey were classified within Clade 1 representing four different haplotypes with a moderate genetic diversity for the first time. Also, R. raoultii, B. henselae and B. elizabethae were demonstrated for the first time in cat flea samples collected in Turkey.


Assuntos
Bartonella , Ctenocephalides , Infestações por Pulgas , Doenças das Cabras , Rickettsia , Sifonápteros , Animais , Bartonella/genética , Ctenocephalides/genética , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Infestações por Pulgas/microbiologia , Variação Genética , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Filogenia , Rickettsia/genética , Sifonápteros/microbiologia , Turquia/epidemiologia
9.
J Vector Ecol ; 47(2): 195-201, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36314674

RESUMO

The genus Bartonella contains facultative Gram-negative intracellular bacteria from the family Bartonellaceae that can cause diseases in humans and animals. Various Bartonella species have been detected in rodents' ectoparasites, such as fleas, ticks, mites, and lice. However, the role of laelapid mites (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) as carriers of Bartonella spp. needs to be confirmed. We aimed to investigate the presence of Bartonella spp. in laelapid mites collected from small rodents in Lithuania using real-time PCR targeting the transfer-messenger RNA/tmRNA (ssrA) gene and to characterize Bartonella strains using nested PCR and sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region (ITS). A total of 271 laelapid mites of five species (Laelaps agilis, Haemogamasus nidi, Eulaelaps stabularis, Myonyssus gigas, and Hyperlaelaps microti) were collected from five rodent species (Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus agrarius, Clethrionomys glareolus, Micromys minutus, and Microtus oeconomus) during 2015-2016. Bartonella DNA was detected in three mite species L. agilis, M. gigas, and Hg. nidi with an overall prevalence of 11.4%. Sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA ITS region revealed the presence of Bartonella taylorii in L. agilis, Hg. nidi, and M. gigas, and Bartonella grahamii in L. agilis. Our results suggest that laelapid mites are involved in the maintenance of rodent-associated Bartonella spp. in nature. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the presence of Bartonella spp. DNA in laelapid mites from small rodents.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella , Bartonella , Mercúrio , Ácaros , Humanos , Animais , Ácaros/genética , Ácaros/microbiologia , Lituânia/epidemiologia , RNA Ribossômico 23S , Bartonella/genética , Murinae , Arvicolinae , DNA Intergênico , Filogenia
10.
Syst Appl Microbiol ; 45(6): 126372, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36279689

RESUMO

Bartonella is one of the noncore bacterial genera in the honey bee (Apis mellifera) gut. So far, only one species, Bartonella apis, has been described from the honey bee gut. Previous analyses based on the genomic information of isolates and metagenome-assembled genomes suggested the existence of multiple Bartonella species in the bee guts. Here, 10 strains were isolated and characterized from the gut of A. mellifera from Jilin Province, China. New isolates shared >95% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with other species of the genus Bartonella. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that new isolates clustered with other type strains of Bartonella, and the bee gut Bartonella could be classified into three clades. The in silico DDH and average nucleotide identity values between strains of different clusters from the honey bee gut are 29.1-32.5% and 87.6-89.3%, all below the recommended 70.0% and 95% cutoff points. Cells are Gram-staining-negative rods and can grow on the surface of Brain Heart Infusion agar plates supplemented with defibrinated sheep blood in an aerobic environment with 5% CO2 at 35-37 °C. Strains from different species varied in both phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characterizations. Comparative genomic analysis indicated that B. choladocola had unique sets of genes encoding invasin, representing the potential for this species to both live as a gut symbiont and also as an erythrocytic pathogen. Thus, we propose two novel species Bartonella choladocola sp. nov. whose type strain is W8125T(=JCM 35030T = ACCC 62057T), and Bartonella apihabitans sp. nov. whose type strain is W8097T(=JCM 35029T = ACCC 62056T).


Assuntos
Bartonella , Abelhas , Animais , Ovinos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Filogenia , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Bartonella/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise
11.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(3): e010422, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36134779

RESUMO

Bartonellosis is a vector-borne zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution that infect a broad spectrum of mammalian species. Despite the recent studies carried out in Brazil, information regarding Bartonella in dogs are scarce. Therefore, we performed a retrospective study to investigate the exposure to Bartonella sp. in dogs by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Three hundred and thirty-five archived serum samples from dogs previously tested for vector-borne pathogens, Toxoplasma gondii, and Neospora caninum were screened for the presence of IgG antibodies to Bartonella sp. All dogs originated from the Metropolitan region of Ribeirão Preto, northeast of the State of São Paulo. Twenty-eight samples (8.3%) were positive for Bartonella sp. at the cut-off of 64. Among the 28 seropositive samples for Bartonella sp., 16 (57.1%) were also seropositive for Ehrlichia canis, 12 (42.8%) for Babesia vogeli, five (17.8%) for T. gondii and three (10.7%) for L. infantum and N. caninum. Our results demonstrated that dogs sampled were exposed to Bartonella sp. Since all the animals sampled in the present study were from private owners, our findings demonstrate that these people may also be exposed to Bartonella sp. Further studies designed to assess whether the infection by other arthropod-borne pathogens such as B. vogeli and E. canis are risk factors for Bartonella infection are needed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella , Bartonella , Doenças do Cão , Toxoplasmose , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores , Animais , Infecções por Bartonella/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Mamíferos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/veterinária
12.
Parasitol Res ; 121(11): 3341-3345, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109383

RESUMO

Bats are an important reservoir for many viral pathogens in humans. However, their role in the transmission of bacterial pathogens is neglected, as is that of their ectoparasites. This study focuses on the molecular detection of Bartonella spp. in bat bugs Cimex pipistrelli using partial sequences of gltA (citrate synthase), ssrA (transfer messenger RNA, tmRNA), and the 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as targets. Bartonella DNA was detected in 2/112 (1.79% prevalence) samples from bat bugs. Due to the fact that bat bugs can sporadically bite humans, more extensive surveillance and vector competence studies are needed to ascertain zoonotic risk of bat-associated Bartonella spp.


Assuntos
Bartonella , Quirópteros , Cimicidae , Animais , Bartonella/genética , Quirópteros/parasitologia , Cimicidae/microbiologia , Citrato (si)-Sintase/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro
13.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(5): 306, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112255

RESUMO

Tick and tick-borne pathogens constitute a growing veterinary and public health concern around the world. Ticks are considered natural reservoirs for tick-borne related pathogens and are equally responsible for the spread of infections in animals as well as humans. In this study, the presence of Rickettsia, Bartonella, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum was investigated in hard ticks collected from reptiles, birds, and wild mammalian animals. The sample collection was carried out between December 2020 and September 2021. Adult ticks (male and female) were collected from wild animals in six districts of southern Benin. Molecular analysis was used to verify the presence of pathogens in all the ticks collected from wild animals. A total of 504 ticks were collected and grouped into 115 different tick pools. The PCR analysis detected 19 out of 115 tick pools which turn out positive for Rickettsia spp. and 9/115 tick pools positive for Bartonella spp., while Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was not detected in any tick. Several of the tick species collected from our studied reptiles/wild mammalian animals could be potential sources of zoonotic pathogens when subjected to further investigation. Therefore, stringent attention should be established for tick infestation of reptiles/wild mammalian animals in order to put in place proper control and prevention measures for tick-borne diseases in the wild, which could serve as reservoirs in the infestation of domestic animals/humans in the event of any possible contact.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum , Bartonella , Ixodidae , Rickettsia , Carrapatos , África Ocidental , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/genética , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Bartonella/genética , Benin/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mamíferos , Rickettsia/genética
14.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 89: 101879, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116272

RESUMO

Bartonella species are emerging vector-borne zoonotic pathogens which infect a wide range of domestic and wild animals as well as humans. Cats are the primary reservoir hosts for several zoonotic Bartonella spp., the most common being B. henselae the causative agent of cat scratch disease. Despite the important role of cats in the epidemiology of bartonellosis, there is limited information about the prevalence and species infecting cats in Iran. The aim of present study was molecular detection and identification of Bartonella species in cats from two western provinces Hamedan and Kermanshah. From December 2018 to February 2021, 87 cats (n = 26 from Hamedan, n = 61 from Kermanshah) were examined clinically, their bodies were searched for collection of ectoparasites, and cephalic or saphenous blood specimens were collected. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood specimens and conventional PCRs targeting the rpoB, and ITS regions of Bartonella spp. were performed. Positive samples were sequenced and analysed phylogenetically. Bartonella DNA was detected in 11/87 cats (12.64 %). Sequencing results revealed the presence of B. henselae in cats from Hamedan, and B. clarridgeiae and B. henselae in cats from Kermanshah. A statistical association between cat origin and the prevalence of Bartonella spp. was observed in the studied population. This study confirms for the first time the circulation of Bartonella spp. in cats in two western Iranian provinces. Prevention strategies e.g. ectoparasites control, and regular examination of pet and urban cats are suggested for minimising Bartonella infection in cats and subsequently in humans.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella , Bartonella henselae , Bartonella , Doenças do Gato , Animais , Bartonella/genética , Infecções por Bartonella/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella henselae/genética , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
15.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(5): e0211722, 2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36165788

RESUMO

Adhesion to host cells is the first and most crucial step in infections with pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria and is often mediated by trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs). Bartonella henselae targets the extracellular matrix glycoprotein fibronectin (Fn) via the Bartonella adhesin A (BadA) attaching the bacteria to the host cell. The TAA BadA is characterized by a highly repetitive passenger domain consisting of 30 neck/stalk domains with various degrees of similarity. To elucidate the motif sequences mediating Fn binding, we generated 10 modified BadA constructs and verified their expression via Western blotting, confocal laser scanning, and electron microscopy. We analyzed their ability to bind human plasma Fn using quantitative whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and fluorescence microscopy. Polyclonal antibodies targeting a 15-mer amino acid motif sequence proved to reduce Fn binding. We suggest that BadA adheres to Fn in a cumulative effort with quick saturation primarily via unpaired ß-strands appearing in motifs repeatedly present throughout the neck/stalk region. In addition, we demonstrated that the length of truncated BadA constructs correlates with the immunoreactivity of human patient sera. The identification of BadA-Fn binding regions will support the development of new "antiadhesive" compounds inhibiting the initial adherence of B. henselae and other TAA-expressing pathogens to host cells. IMPORTANCE Trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) are important virulence factors and are widely present in various pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. TAA-expressing bacteria cause a wide spectrum of human diseases, such as cat scratch disease (Bartonella henselae), enterocolitis (Yersinia enterocolitica), meningitis (Neisseria meningitis), and bloodstream infections (multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii). TAA-targeted antiadhesive strategies (against, e.g., Bartonella adhesin A [BadA], Yersinia adhesin A [YadA], Neisseria adhesin A [NadA], and Acinetobacter trimeric autotransporter [Ata]) might represent a universal strategy to counteract such bacterial infections. BadA is one of the best characterized TAAs, and because of its high number of (sub)domains, it serves as an attractive adhesin to study the domain-function relationship of TAAs in the infection process. The identification of common binding motifs between TAAs (here, BadA) and their major binding partner (here, fibronectin) provides a basis toward the design of novel "antiadhesive" compounds preventing the initial adherence of Gram-negative bacteria in infections.


Assuntos
Bartonella henselae , Bartonella , Humanos , Bartonella henselae/genética , Bartonella henselae/metabolismo , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo V/metabolismo , Aderência Bacteriana , Adesinas Bacterianas/genética , Adesinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 305, 2022 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36038877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bartonella spp. are vector-borne pathogens that cause zoonotic infections in humans. One of the most well-known of these is cat-scratch disease caused by Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae, with cats being the major reservoir for these two bacteria. Izmir, Turkey is home to many stray cats, but their potential role as a reservoir for the transmission of Bartonella to humans has not been investigated yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Bartonella species and their genetic diversity in stray cats living in Izmir. METHODS: Molecular prevalence of Bartonella spp. in stray cats (n = 1012) was investigated using a PCR method targeting the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer gene (ITS), species identification was performed by sequencing and genetic diversity was evaluated by haplotype analysis. RESULTS: Analysis of the DNA extracted from 1012 blood samples collected from stray cats revealed that 122 samples were Bartonella-positive, which is a molecular prevalence of 12.05% (122/1012; 95% confidence interval [CI] 10.1-14.2%). Among the Bartonella-positive specimens, 100 (100/122; 81.96%) were successfully sequenced, and B. henselae (45/100; 45%), B. clarridgeiae (29/100; 29%) and Bartonella koehlerae (26/100; 26%) were identified by BLAST and phylogenetic analyses. High genetic diversity was detected in B. clarridgeiae with 19 haplotypes, followed by B. henselae (14 haplotypes) and B. koehlerae (8 haplotypes). CONCLUSIONS: This comprehensive study analyzing a large number of samples collected from stray cats showed that Bartonella species are an important source of infection to humans living in Izmir. In addition, high genetic diversity was detected within each Bartonella species.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella , Bartonella henselae , Bartonella , Doenças do Gato , Animais , Bartonella/genética , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella henselae/genética , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Prevalência , Turquia/epidemiologia
17.
Acta Trop ; 235: 106634, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932842

RESUMO

Ticks, as obligate blood-sucking ectoparasites, feed on a broad range of vertebrates and transmit a great diversity of pathogenic microorganisms. Some tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) are endemic in China, whereas epidemiological studies are limited in Jiangxi, a forest province located in eastern China. Here, we have determined the positivity rates of TBPs in humans, rodents, dogs, goats and ticks, and performed the molecular characterization of TBPs in Jiangxi province. We found a high positivity rate of TBPs in the collected samples, demonstrating 23 (12.92%) samples positive for more than one TBPs. Of those, 11 (6.18%) samples were positive for Rickettsia spp., six (3.37%) Ehrlichia spp./Anaplasma spp., one (0.56%) Bartonella spp., two (1.12%) Borrelia spp., and five (2.81%) Babesia spp. The positivity rates of TBPs varied among ticks, animals, and humans as follow: goats (14/37, 37.84%), ticks (8/35, 22.86%), and dogs (1/11, 9.09%). Humans and rodents were negative for TBP presence. Phylogenetic analyses of these TBP sequences revealed the presence of Rickettsia japonica, Ehrlichia minasensis, and an unclassified Babesia spp. in goats, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia valaisiana, and an unclassified Bartonella spp. in ticks. Furthermore, R. japonica infection was exclusively found in goats with the positivity rate of 29.73%. Our study is the first report of R. japonica in goats around the world. These findings suggest high TBP positivity rates among goats, ticks, and dogs, and diverse TBPs in goats and ticks in the studied sites. Therefore, our results underscore the urgent need to assess TBP-tick-vertebrate-environment interactions and the risk of tick borne disease exposure in humans in the future.


Assuntos
Babesia , Bartonella , Rickettsia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Carrapatos , Animais , Babesia/genética , Bartonella/genética , China/epidemiologia , Cães , Florestas , Cabras , Humanos , Filogenia , Rickettsia/genética , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Carrapatos/microbiologia
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(8): 1659-1663, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35876624

RESUMO

We investigated the effects of culling on Bartonella spp. bacteria carriage among urban rats in Canada. We found that the odds of Bartonella spp. carriage increased across city blocks except those in which culling occurred. Removing rats may have prevented an increase in Bartonella spp. prevalence, potentially lowering human health risks.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella , Bartonella , Doenças dos Roedores , Animais , Bartonella/genética , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/microbiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
19.
Acta Trop ; 234: 106599, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35810831

RESUMO

This review presents updated knowledge on the main tick-borne bacteria infecting one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) around the world. Camels are increasingly the subject of several scientific investigations, showing that they are receptive and carriers of several zoonotic bacteria. An appraisal is also given of the relative public health importance of these bacterial infections according to One Health concept. Microscopic, serologic and molecular findings are appropriately generated in order to exploit epidemiological data, and phylogeographic specificities associated to each vector-borne bacterium. Indeed, camels and their ticks harbour similar species and genotypes of pathogenic bacteria commonly identified in other animals, e.g., Anaplasma spp.,Ehrlichia spp., Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella spp. and hemotrophic mycoplasmas. This evidence suggests an epidemiological role of camels in the spread of these pathogens in their natural habitats. However, these infections are commonly asymptomatic in camels resulting in underestimation of the impact of these infections. Furthermore, camels have recently been proven to have their own specific unclassified strains, such as Candidatus Anaplasma camelii and Candidatus Bartonella camelii, implying that possible interactions may lead to the emergence of pathogenic and zoonotic bacteria. In camel-rearing areas of the world, spatial and temporal spread of these infections, due to climatic and ecological changes and human activities such as development projects and urbanization, is expected. Hence the data presented herein provides a basis for strategic frameworks for the research and the development of novel diagnosis and control strategies worldwide, which are needed to protect camels, other livestock, and people in contact with dromedaries from threats that arthropod-borne pathogens can pose.


Assuntos
Bartonella , Rickettsia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Carrapatos , Anaplasma/genética , Animais , Bartonella/genética , Camelus/microbiologia , Ehrlichia/genética , Humanos , Rickettsia/genética , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária
20.
J Vet Intern Med ; 36(4): 1287-1294, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35816034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reference intervals for platelets and white blood cell (WBCs) counts are lower in greyhounds than other breeds. Proteinuria is common. Vector-borne diseases (VBD) cause thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and proteinuria. Racing greyhounds are commonly exposed to vectors that carry multiple organisms capable of chronically infecting clinically healthy dogs. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Vector-borne disease prevalence is higher in retired racing greyhounds than in show-bred greyhounds. Occult infection contributes to breed-related laboratory abnormalities. ANIMALS: Thirty National Greyhound Association (NGA) retired racing and 28 American Kennel Club (AKC) show-bred greyhounds. METHODS: Peripheral blood was tested for Anaplasma, Babesia, Bartonella, Ehrlichia, hemotropic Mycoplasma, and Rickettsia species using PCR. Antibodies to Anaplasma, Babesia, Bartonella, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia species and Borrelia burgdorferi were detected using immunofluorescence and ELISA assays. Complete blood counts, semiquantitative platelet estimates, and microalbuminuria concentration were determined. RESULTS: Seven of 30 NGA and 1/28 AKC greyhounds tested positive for ≥1 VBD (P = .05). More positive tests were documented in NGA (10/630) than in AKC dogs (1/588; P = .02). Exposure to Bartonella species (3/30), Babesia vogeli (2/30), Ehrlichia canis (1/30), and infection with Mycoplasma hemocanis (3/30) occurred in NGA dogs. Platelet counts or estimates were >170 000/µL. White blood cell counts <4000/µL (4/28 AKC; 5/30 NGA, P > .99; 1/8 VBD positive; 8/51 VBD negative, P = .99) and microalbuminuria (10/21 AKC; 5/26 NGA, P = .06; 1/8 VBD positive; 14/25 VBD negative, P = .41) were not associated with VBD. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: The prevalence of thrombocytopenia and B. vogeli exposure was lower than previously documented. Larger studies investigating the health impact of multiple VBD organisms are warranted.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Proteinúria , Trombocitopenia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores , Anaplasma , Animais , Babesia , Bartonella , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Ehrlichia canis , Mycoplasma , Proteinúria/veterinária , Trombocitopenia/epidemiologia , Trombocitopenia/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/veterinária
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