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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246440, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339395

RESUMO

Abstract Utilization of modern breeding techniques for developing high yielding and uniform plant types ultimately narrowing the genetic makeup of most crops. Narrowed genetic makeup of these crops has made them vulnerable towards disease and insect epidemics. For sustainable crop production, genetic variability of these crops must be broadened against various biotic and abiotic stresses. One of the ways to widen genetic configuration of these crops is to identify novel additional sources of durable resistance. In this regard crops wild relatives are providing valuable sources of allelic diversity towards various biotic, abiotic stress tolerance and quality components. For incorporating novel variability from wild relative's wide hybridization technique has become a promising breeding method. For this purpose, wheat-Th. bessarabicum amphiploid, addition and translocation lines have been screened in field and screen house conditions to get novel sources of yellow rust and Karnal bunt resistant. Stripe rust screening under field conditions has revealed addition lines 4JJ and 6JJ as resistant to moderately resistant while addition lines 3JJ, 5JJ, 7JJ and translocation lines Tr-3, Tr-6 as moderately resistant wheat-Thinopyrum-bessarabicum genetic stock. Karnal bunt screening depicted addition lines 5JJ and 4JJ as highly resistant genetic stock. These genetic stocks may be used to introgression novel stripe rust and Karnal bunt resistance from the tertiary gene pool into susceptible wheat backgrounds.


Resumo A utilização de técnicas modernas de melhoramento para o desenvolvimento de tipos de plantas uniformes e de alto rendimento, em última análise, estreitando a composição genética da maioria das culturas. A composição genética restrita dessas plantações tornou-as vulneráveis a doenças e epidemias de insetos. Para uma produção agrícola sustentável, a variabilidade genética dessas culturas deve ser ampliada contra vários estresses bióticos e abióticos. Uma das maneiras de ampliar a configuração genética dessas culturas é identificar novas fontes adicionais de resistência durável. A esse respeito, os parentes selvagens das culturas estão fornecendo fontes valiosas de diversidade alélica para vários componentes de qualidade e tolerância ao estresse abiótico e biótico. Para incorporar a nova variabilidade da ampla técnica de hibridização de parente selvagem tornou-se um método de reprodução promissor. Para esse efeito, trigo-Th. As linhas anfiploides, de adição e translocação de bessarabicum foram selecionadas em condições de campo e de casa de tela para obter novas fontes de ferrugem amarela e resistência ao bunt de Karnal. A triagem de ferrugem em faixas em condições de campo revelou as linhas de adição 4JJ e 6JJ como resistentes a moderadamente resistentes, enquanto as linhas de adição 3JJ, 5JJ, 7JJ e as linhas de translocação Tr-3, Tr-6 como estoque genético de trigo-Thinopyrum bessarabicum moderadamente resistente. A triagem Karnal bunt descreveu as linhas de adição 5JJ e 4JJ como estoque genético altamente resistente. Esses estoques genéticos podem ser usados para introgressão da nova ferrugem e resistência ao bunt de Karnal do pool genético terciário em origens de trigo suscetíveis.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/genética , Triticum/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Resistência à Doença/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247840, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278531

RESUMO

Abstract Calvatia is a genus of gasteroid fungi, comprising about 47 species worldwide. In this paper we report the second worldwide occurrence of two poorly known species of Calvatia, recorded in the Cerrado biome of Brazil: C. oblongispora and C. nodulata. Detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations, including scanning electron micrographs of hyphae and basidiospores are provided, as well a discussion on their taxonomy and geographic distribution.


Resumo Calvatia é um gênero de fungos gasteroides que compreende cerca de 47 espécies em todo o mundo. Neste artigo relatamos a segunda ocorrência de duas espécies pouco conhecidas de Calvatia, registradas no bioma Cerrado do Brasil: C. oblongispora e C. nodulata. Descrições morfológicas detalhadas e ilustrações são fornecidas, incluindo micrografias eletrônicas de varredura de hifas e basidiósporos, bem como uma discussão sobre sua taxonomia e distribuição geográfica.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Agaricales , Esporos Fúngicos , Brasil , Ecossistema
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 684, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35945495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Papiliotrema flavescens is a rare environmental yeast, which has been isolated from air, trees, kernels of wheat and corn, fermenting soya sauce, and cerebrospinal fluid of patient with AIDS. Additionally, it is also reported to cause subcutaneous infection in a dog. In this case, we describe primary lung adenocarcinoma coexisting with Papiliotrema flavescens infection in a female patient diagnosed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique, which is the first such reported case. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was a 52-year-old female with recurrent cough for 3 months. Chest CT examination revealed a ground glass nodule of 17 * 23 * 18 mm in the right upper lung, and 3 new pulmonary nodules appeared around it 2 months later. The patient underwent right upper lobe lobectomy and pathology confirmed that the primary 2-cm-lesion in the right upper lobe was invasive lung adenocarcinoma, and two of the three surrounding lung nodules were pathologically suggestive of pulmonary fungal infection (not known in specific fungal types). Hence, the patient received empirical anti-fungal treatments with fluconazole 400 mg/day for a week and follow-up CT scanning showed no tumor progression and no relapse of fungal infection. The specific pathogen was eventually identified as Papiliotrema flavescens by the next-generation sequencing of pathogen. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: We first reported that lung cancer coexisting with Papiliotrema flavescens infection in a female patient. The diagnosis of lung cancer with typical CT imaging features is relatively simple, while the diagnosis of lung cancer coexisting with rare fungal infection is challenging. NGS technique is an effective supplementary technique for clinical diagnosis of bacterial or fungal infectious diseases, enabling precise clinical decision-making and appropriate treatment. In this case, the lung cancer may result in a degree of immune suppression, at least locally, resulting in the formation of pulmonary fungal nodular lesions around the tumor.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Micoses , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/complicações , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/diagnóstico , Animais , Basidiomycota , Cães , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Micoses/complicações , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/complicações
4.
BMC Microbiol ; 22(1): 191, 2022 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Huperzine A (Hup A) has attracted considerable attention as an effective therapeutic candidate drug used to treat Alzheimer's disease. Whereas, the production of Hup A from wild plants faced a major challenge, which is the wild Huperzia Serrata harbor a low Hup A content, has a long-life cycle, and has a small yield. At present, several reports showed that Hup A is produced by various endophytic fungal strains isolated from H. serrata, thereby providing an alternative method to produce the compound and reduce the consumption of this rare and endangered plant. However, till now, very few comprehensive studies are available on the biological diversity and structural composition of endophytic fungi and the effects of endophytic fungi on the Hup A accumulation in H. serrata. RESULTS: In this research, the composition and diversity of fungal communities in H. serrata were deciphered based on high-throughput sequencing technology of fungal internal transcribed spacer regions2 (ITS2). The correlation between endophytic fungal community and Hup A content was also investigated. Results revealed that the richness and the diversity of endophytic fungi in H. serrata was various according to different tissues and different ecological areas. The endophytic fungal communities of H. serrata exhibit species-specific, ecological-specific, and tissue-specific characteristics. There are 6 genera (Ascomycota_unclassified, Cyphellophora, Fungi_unclassified, Sporobolomyces, and Trichomeriaceae_unclassified) were significantly positively correlated with Hup A content in all two areas, whereas, there are 6 genera (Auricularia, Cladophialophora, Cryptococcus, Mortierella, and Mycena) were significantly negatively correlated with Hup A content of in all two areas. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated a different composition and diverse endophytic fungal communities in H. serrata from different organs and ecological areas. The current study will provide the realistic basis and theoretical significance for understanding the biological diversity and structural composition of endophytic fungal communities in H. serrata, as well as providing novel insights into the interaction between endophytic fungi and Hup A content.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Basidiomycota , Huperzia , Micobioma , Alcaloides , Biodiversidade , Endófitos , Fungos , Huperzia/microbiologia , Sesquiterpenos
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(15)2022 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35957233

RESUMO

Wheat stripe rust (WSR) is a foliar disease that causes destructive damage in the wheat production context. Accurately estimating the severity of WSR in the autumn growing stage can help to objectively monitor the disease incidence level of WSR and predict the nationwide disease incidence in the following year, which have great significance for controlling its nationwide spread and ensuring the safety of grain production. In this study, to address the low accuracy and the efficiency of disease index estimation by traditional methods, WSR-diseased areas are segmented based on Segformer, and the macro disease index (MDI) is automatically calculated for the measurement of canopy-scale disease incidence. The results obtained with different semantic segmentation algorithms, loss functions, and data sets are compared for the segmentation effect, in order to address the severe class imbalance in disease region segmentation. We find that: (1) The results of the various models differed significantly, with Segformer being the best algorithm for WSR segmentation (rust class F1 score = 72.60%), based on the original data set; (2) the imbalanced nature of the data has a significant impact on the identification of the minority class (i.e., the rust class), for which solutions based on loss functions and re-weighting of the minority class are ineffective; (3) data augmentation of the minority class or under-sampling of the original data set to increase the proportion of the rust class greatly improved the F1-score of the model (rust class F1 score = 86.6%), revealing that re-sampling is a simple and effective approach to alleviating the class imbalance problem. Finally, the MDI was used to evaluate the models based on the different data sets, where the model based on the augmented data set presented the best performance (R2 = 0.992, RMSE = 0.008). In conclusion, the deep-learning-based semantic segmentation method, and the corresponding optimization measures, applied in this study allow us to achieve pixel-level accurate segmentation of WSR regions on wheat leaves, thus enabling accurate assessment of the degree of WSR disease under complex backgrounds in the field, consequently providing technical support for field surveys and calculation of the disease level.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Triticum , Resistência à Doença , Doenças das Plantas , Folhas de Planta
6.
Microb Cell Fact ; 21(1): 158, 2022 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35953829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Itaconic acid (IA) is a versatile platform chemical widely used for the synthesis of various polymers and current methods for IA production based on Aspergillus terreus fermentation are limited in terms of process efficiency and productivity. To construct more efficient IA production strains, A. niger was used as a chassis for engineering IA production by assembling the key components of IA biosynthesis pathways from both A. terreus and Ustilago maydis. RESULTS: Recombinant A. niger S1596 overexpressing the A. terreus IA biosynthesis genes cadA, mttA, mfsA produced IA of 4.32 g/L, while A. niger S2120 overexpressing the U. maydis IA gene cluster adi1, tad1, mtt1, itp1 achieved IA of 3.02 g/L. Integration of the two IA production pathways led to the construction of A. niger S2083 with IA titers of 5.58 g/L. Increasing cadA copy number in strain S2083 created strain S2209 with titers of 7.99 g/L and deleting ictA to block IA degradation in S2209 created strain S2288 with IA titers of 8.70 g/L. Overexpressing acoA to enhance the supply of IA precursor in strain S2288 generated strain S2444 with IA titers of 9.08 g/L in shake flask. CONCLUSION: Recombinant A. niger overexpressing the U. maydis IA biosynthesis pathway was capable of IA accumulation. Combined expression of the two IA biosynthesis pathways from A. terreus and U. maydis in A. niger resulted in much higher IA titers. Furthermore, increasing cadA copy number, deleting ictA to block IA degradation and overexpressing acoA to enhance IA precursor supply all showed beneficial effects on IA accumulation.


Assuntos
Aspergillus niger , Succinatos , Aspergillus , Aspergillus niger/genética , Aspergillus niger/metabolismo , Basidiomycota , Succinatos/metabolismo
7.
Biomolecules ; 12(8)2022 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35892327

RESUMO

The unique ability of basidiomycete white rot fungi to degrade all components of plant cell walls makes them indispensable organisms in the global carbon cycle. In this study, we analyzed the proteomes of two closely related white rot fungi, Obba rivulosa and Gelatoporia subvermispora, during eight-week cultivation on solid spruce wood. Plant cell wall degrading carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) represented approximately 5% of the total proteins in both species. A core set of orthologous plant cell wall degrading CAZymes was shared between these species on spruce suggesting a conserved plant biomass degradation approach in this clade of basidiomycete fungi. However, differences in time-dependent production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes may be due to differences among initial growth rates of these species on solid spruce wood. The obtained results provide insight into specific enzymes and enzyme sets that are produced during the degradation of solid spruce wood in these fungi. These findings expand the knowledge on enzyme production in nature-mimicking conditions and may contribute to the exploitation of white rot fungi and their enzymes for biotechnological applications.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Lignina , Fungos/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Polyporales
8.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(13-16): 4921-4927, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35831455

RESUMO

The nonconventional yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is an established platform for genetic pathway modification. A genetic tool box is available and can be used extensively to select from for different engineering strategies. Due to the diploid nature of X. dendrorhous, genetic transformation typically results in heterozygous lines. They are genetically unstable and lose their phenotypes caused by mitotic recombination. In addition, targeted integration for inactivation of genes of the carotenoid pathway resulted in an intermediary phenotype of incomplete pathway disruption. This issue is the main scope of this review. It is illustrated by using genetic modification of the carotenoid pathway of X. dendrorhous as a model system with a focus on the demonstration of how to solve these problems by generation of homozygous lines. They can be selected from heterozygous transformants after spontaneous mitotic recombination and selection or after induced meiotic recombination. Corresponding methods of how to proceed including the initiation of a sexual cycle are described. The selected segregated lines are stable in fermenter cultures without the need of selection pressure. This is an essential requirement for any industrial application. KEY POINTS: • Genetic interventions of diploid yeasts result in heterozygous transformants that are unstable without selection pressure. • This is due to mitotic recombination leading to the elimination of inserted DNA. • Stable homozygous lines can be obtained and selected after either meiotic or mitotic recombination.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Diploide , Basidiomycota/genética , Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Leveduras/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35806373

RESUMO

Wheat leaf rust (caused by Puccinia triticina Erikss.) is among the major diseases of common wheat. The lack of resistance genes to leaf rust has limited the development of wheat cultivars. Wheat-Agropyron cristatum (A. cristatum) 2P addition line II-9-3 has been shown to provide broad-spectrum immunity to leaf rust. To identify the specific A. cristatum resistance genes and related regulatory pathways in II-9-3, we conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis of inoculated and uninoculated leaves of the resistant addition line II-9-3 and the susceptible cultivar Fukuhokomugi (Fukuho). The results showed that there were 66 A. cristatum differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 1389 wheat DEGs in II-9-3 during P. triticina infection. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that the DEGs of II-9-3 were associated with plant-pathogen interaction, MAPK signaling pathway-plant, plant hormone signal transduction, glutathione metabolism, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Furthermore, many defense-related A. cristatum genes, such as two NLR genes, seven receptor kinase-encoding genes, and four transcription factor-encoding genes, were identified. Our results indicated that the key step of resistance to leaf rust involves, firstly, the gene expression of chromosome 2P upstream of the immune pathway and, secondly, the effect of chromosome 2P on the co-expression of wheat genes in II-9-3. The disease resistance regulatory pathways and related genes in the addition line II-9-3 thus could play a critical role in the effective utilization of innovative resources for leaf rust resistance in wheat breeding.


Assuntos
Agropyron , Basidiomycota , Agropyron/genética , Basidiomycota/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Resistência à Doença/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Transcriptoma , Triticum/genética
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35806459

RESUMO

The study of molecular interactions, especially the inter-species protein-protein interactions, is crucial for understanding the disease infection mechanism in plants. These interactions play an important role in disease infection and host immune responses against pathogen attack. Among various critical fungal diseases, the incidences of Karnal bunt (Tilletia indica) around the world have hindered the export of the crops such as wheat from infected regions, thus causing substantial economic losses. Due to sparse information on T. indica, limited insight is available with regard to gaining in-depth knowledge of the interaction mechanisms between the host and pathogen proteins during the disease infection process. Here, we report the development of a comprehensive database and webserver, TritiKBdb, that implements various tools to study the protein-protein interactions in the Triticum species-Tilletia indica pathosystem. The novel 'interactomics' tool allows the user to visualize/compare the networks of the predicted interactions in an enriched manner. TritiKBdb is a user-friendly database that provides functional annotations such as subcellular localization, available domains, KEGG pathways, and GO terms of the host and pathogen proteins. Additionally, the information about the host and pathogen proteins that serve as transcription factors and effectors, respectively, is also made available. We believe that TritiKBdb will serve as a beneficial resource for the research community, and aid the community in better understanding the infection mechanisms of Karnal bunt and its interactions with wheat. The database is freely available for public use at http://bioinfo.usu.edu/tritikbdb/.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Triticum , Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Triticum/metabolismo
11.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(7): e1010702, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35881621

RESUMO

Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) secretes an array of specific effector proteins to manipulate host immunity and promote pathogen colonization. In a previous study, we functionally characterized a glycine-serine-rich effector PstGSRE1 with a glycine-serine-rich motif (m9). However, the mechanisms of glycine-serine-rich effectors (GSREs) remain obscure. Here we report a new glycine-serine-rich effector, PstGSRE4, which has no m9-like motif but inhibits the enzyme activity of wheat copper zinc superoxide dismutase TaCZSOD2, which acts as a positive regulator of wheat resistance to Pst. By inhibiting the enzyme activity of TaCZSOD2, PstGSRE4 reduces H2O2 accumulation and HR areas to facilitate Pst infection. These findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of GSREs of rust fungi in regulating plant immunity.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Triticum , Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Cobre/metabolismo , Glicina/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Puccinia , Serina/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia , Zinco/metabolismo
12.
Theor Appl Genet ; 135(8): 2655-2664, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35781583

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A new adult plan resistance gene YrBm for potentially durable resistance to stripe rust was mapped on wheat chromosome arm 4BL in landrace Baimangmai. SSR markers closely flanking YrBm were developed and validated for use in marker-assisted selection. The wheat stripe rust pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) frequently acquires new virulences and rapidly adapts to environmental stress. New virulences in Pst populations can cause previously resistant varieties to become susceptible. If those varieties were widely grown, consequent epidemics can lead to yield losses. Identification and deployment of genes for durable resistance are preferred method for disease control. The Chinese winter wheat landrace Baimangmai showed a high level of adult plant resistance (APR) to stripe rust in a germplasm evaluation trial at Langfang in Hebei province in 2006 and has continued to confer high resistance over the following 15 years in field nurseries in Hebei, Sichuan and Gansu. A recombinant inbred line population of 200 F10 lines developed from a cross of Baimangmai and a susceptible genotype segregated for APR at a single locus on chromosome 4BL; the resistance allele was designated YrBm. Allelism tests of known Yr genes on chromosome 4B and unique closely flanking marker alleles Xgpw7272189 and Xwmc652164 among a panel of Chinese wheat varieties indicated that YrBm was located at a new locus. Moreover, those markers can be used for marker-assisted selection in breeding for stripe rust resistance.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Triticum , China , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Resistência à Doença/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética
13.
Org Lett ; 24(31): 5669-5673, 2022 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35904977

RESUMO

Tremulane sesquiterpenoids are key secondary metabolites of the basidiomycete Irpex lacteus, which displays structural diversity and various bioactivities. However, tremulane sesquiterpene synthases have not been reported to date. The tremulane sesquiterpene synthase of I. lacteus was characterized by genome mining, heterologous expression, an in vitro assay, and substrate feeding. Moreover, the structures of the corresponding products were elucidated by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Polyporales , Sesquiterpenos , Polyporales/química , Polyporales/genética , Polyporales/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/química
14.
Cell ; 185(16): 2961-2974.e19, 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35839760

RESUMO

Wheat crops are frequently devastated by pandemic stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst). Here, we identify and characterize a wheat receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase gene, TaPsIPK1, that confers susceptibility to this pathogen. PsSpg1, a secreted fungal effector vital for Pst virulence, can bind TaPsIPK1, enhance its kinase activity, and promote its nuclear localization, where it phosphorylates the transcription factor TaCBF1d for gene regulation. The phosphorylation of TaCBF1d switches its transcriptional activity on the downstream genes. CRISPR-Cas9 inactivation of TaPsIPK1 in wheat confers broad-spectrum resistance against Pst without impacting important agronomic traits in two years of field tests. The disruption of TaPsIPK1 leads to immune priming without constitutive activation of defense responses. Taken together, TaPsIPK1 is a susceptibility gene known to be targeted by rust effectors, and it has great potential for developing durable resistance against rust by genetic modifications.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Triticum , Basidiomycota/genética , Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia , Virulência/genética
15.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807311

RESUMO

Freshly harvested Boletus edulis mushrooms are subjected to rapid loss of quality due to the high moisture content and enzymatic activity. Drying time, quality characteristics, microstructural and thermal properties were studied in mushrooms ground to puree subjected to hot air drying (HAD), freeze drying (FD) and centrifugal vacuum drying (CVD). The influence of hot water blanching and UV-C pretreatments was additionally investigated. The rehydration ability of mushroom powders was improved by FD, especially without pretreatment or combined to UV-C exposure. The HAD and CVD, with no pretreatment or combined to UV-C, ensured good preservation of phenolics and antioxidant activity of dried mushrooms. The total difference in color of mushroom pigments extracted in acetone was lower in samples dried by CVD and higher in ones by FD. Blanching before HAD produced whiter product probably due to the reduced polyphenoloxidase activity. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis showed fewer physical changes in FD-samples. Heat-induced structural changes were noticed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetry (TG) and Derivative Thermogravimetry (DTG) analysis, in particular of biopolymers, confirmed by ATR-FTIR analysis. Based on our complex approach, the UV pretreatment of mushrooms could be a better alternative to water blanching. Centrifugal vacuum emerged as a new efficient drying method in terms of bioactive compounds, color and thermal stability, while FD led to better rehydration ability and microstructure.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Antioxidantes/química , Basidiomycota , Dessecação/métodos , Liofilização , Vácuo , Água/química
16.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807519

RESUMO

In this study, we evaluated bioinspired titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) that elicited biochemical and proteome modifications in wheat plants under the biotic stress caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst). Biosynthesis of TiO2 NPs was confirmed using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We found that the nanoparticles with crystalline nature were smaller than 100 nm. The results of FTIR analysis showed the presence of potential functional groups exhibiting O-H, N-H, C-C, and Ti-O stretching. The TiO2 NPs of different concentrations (20, 40, 60, and 80 mg L-1) were exogenously applied to wheat plants under the biotic stress caused by Pst, which is responsible for yellow stripe rust disease. The results of the assessment of disease incidence and percent disease index displayed time- and dose-dependent responses. The 40 mg L-1 TiO2 NPs were the most effective in decreasing disease severity. The bioinspired TiO2 NPs were also evaluated for enzymatic (superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT)), and nonenzymatic metabolites (total proline, phenolic, and flavonoid contents) in wheat plants under stripe rust stress. The 40 mg L-1 TiO2 NPs were effective in eliciting biochemical modifications to reduce biotic stress. We further evaluated the effects of TiO2 NPs through gel- and label-free liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) proteome analysis. We performed proteome analysis of infected wheat leaves and leaves treated with 40 mg L-1 TiO2 NPs under stripe rust stress. The functional classification of the proteins showed downregulation of proteins related to protein and carbohydrate metabolism, as well as of photosynthesis in plants under biotic stress. An upregulation of stress-related proteins was observed, including the defense mechanisms and primary metabolic pathways in plants treated with 40 mg L-1 TiO2 NPs under stress. The experimental results showed the potential of applying biogenic TiO2 NPs to combat fungal diseases of wheat plants and provided insight into the protein expression of plants in response to biotic stress.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Nanopartículas , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteoma , Puccinia , Estresse Fisiológico , Titânio , Triticum/microbiologia
17.
Plant Signal Behav ; 17(1): 2096785, 2022 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35811563

RESUMO

Piriformospora indica is a root endophyte having a vast host range in plants. Plant growth promotion is a hallmark of the symbiotic interaction of P. indica with its hosts. As a plant growth-promoting microorganism, it is important to know the mechanisms involved in growth induction. Hitherto, multiple reports have demonstrated various molecular mechanisms of P. indica-mediated growth promotion, including protein kinase-mediated pathway, enhanced nutrient uptake and polyamine-mediated growth phytohormone elevation. Here, we briefly present a discussion on the state-of-the-art molecular mechanisms of P. indica-mediated growth promotion in host plants, in order to obtain a future prospect on utilization of this microorganism for sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Raízes de Plantas , Endófitos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35806057

RESUMO

Fusarium head blight (Fhb), powdery mildew, and stripe rust are major wheat diseases globally. Aegilops geniculata Roth (UgUgMgMg, 2n = 4x = 28), a wild relative of common wheat, is valuable germplasm of disease resistance for wheat improvement and breeding. Here, we report the development and characterization of two substitution accessions with high resistance to powdery mildew, stripe rust and Fhb (W623 and W637) derived from hybrid progenies between Ae. geniculata and hexaploid wheat Chinese Spring (CS). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), Genomic in situ hybridizations (GISH), and sequential FISH-GISH studies indicated that the two substitution lines possess 40 wheat chromosomes and 2 Ae. geniculata chromosomes. Furthermore, compared that the wheat addition line parent W166, the 2 alien chromosomes from W623 and W637 belong to the 7Mg chromosomes of Ae. geniculata via sequential FISH-GISH and molecular marker analysis. Nullisomic-tetrasomic analysis for homoeologous group-7 of wheat and FISH revealed that the common wheat chromosomes 7A and 7B were replaced in W623 and W637, respectively. Consequently, lines W623, in which wheat chromosomes 7A were replaced by a pair of Ae. geniculata 7Mg chromosomes, and W637, which chromosomes 7B were substituted by chromosomes 7Mg, with resistance to Fhb, powdery mildew, and stripe rust. This study has determined that the chromosome 7Mg from Ae. geniculata exists genes resistant to Fhb and powdery mildew.


Assuntos
Aegilops , Basidiomycota , Fusarium , Aegilops/genética , Basidiomycota/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Erysiphe , Fusarium/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética
19.
Rev Iberoam Micol ; 39(2): 54-56, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35788316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trichosporon asahii, an emerging fungal pathogen, has been frequently associated with invasive infections in critically ill patients. CASE REPORT: A 74-year-old male patient diagnosed with COVID-19 was admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). During hospitalization, the patient displayed episodes of bacteremia by Staphylococcus haemolyticus and a possible urinary tract infection by T. asahii. While the bacterial infection was successfully treated using broad-spectrum antibiotics, the fungal infection in the urinary tract was unsuccessfully treated with anidulafungin and persisted until the patient died. CONCLUSIONS: With the evolving COVID-19 pandemic, invasive fungal infections have been increasingly reported, mainly after taking immunosuppressant drugs associated with long-term broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. Although Candida and Aspergillus are still the most prevalent invasive fungi, T. asahii and other agents have emerged in critically ill patients. Therefore, a proper surveillance and diagnosing any fungal infection are paramount, particularly in COVID-19 immunocompromised populations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Micoses , Trichosporon , Tricosporonose , Infecções Urinárias , Idoso , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Basidiomycota , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Masculino , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/microbiologia , Pandemias , Tricosporonose/diagnóstico , Tricosporonose/tratamento farmacológico , Tricosporonose/microbiologia , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11170, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35778516

RESUMO

A laccase-producing hyper performer, Schizophyllum commune, a white-rot fungus, was evaluated for its ability to selectively degrade lignin of diverse crop residues in vitro. Relative analysis of crop residue treatment using laccase obtained from immobilized cells demonstrated degradation of 30-40% in finger millet straw and sorghum stover, 27-32% in paddy straw, 21% in wheat straw, and 26% in maize straw, while 20% lignin degradation was observed when purified and recombinant laccase was used. Further investigations into in vitro dry matter digestibility studies gave promising results recording digestibility of 54-59% in finger millet straw 33-36% in paddy straw and wheat straw, 16% in maize straw for laccase obtained from cell immobilization method, whereas 14% digestibility was observed when purified and recombinant laccase was used. Sorghum stover recorded digestibility of 13-15% across all straws treated with laccase. The results obtained elucidated the positive influence of laccase treatment on lignin degradation and in vitro dry matter digestibility. The present research gave encouraging figures confirming the production of laccase using the cell immobilization method to be an efficient production method commensurate with purified and recombinant laccase under conditions of submerged cultivation, proclaiming a cost-effective, environmentally safe green technology for effectual lignin depolymerization.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Schizophyllum , Animais , Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Lacase/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Ruminantes/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
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