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2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430614

RESUMO

Progesterone is the ovarian steroid produced by the granulosa cells of follicles after the LH peak at mid-cycle. Its role is to sustain embryo endometrial implantation and ongoing pregnancy. Other biological effects of progesterone may exert a protective function in supporting pregnancy up to birth. Luteal phase support (LPS) with progesterone is the standard of care for assisted reproductive technology. Progesterone vaginal administration is currently the most widely used treatment for LPS. Physicians and patients have been reluctant to change an administration route that has proven to be effective. However, some questions remain open, namely the need for LPS in fresh and frozen embryo transfer, the route of administration, the optimal duration of LPS, dosage, and the benefit of combination therapies. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the uterine and extra-uterine effects of progesterone that may play a role in embryo implantation and pregnancy, and to discuss the advantages of the use of progesterone for LPS in the context of Good Medical Practice.


Assuntos
Início da Vida Humana , Progesterona , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Progesterona/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Fase Luteal , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida
4.
J Med Ethics ; 48(7): 485-487, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261804

RESUMO

William Simkulet has recently criticised Colgrove et al's defence against what they have called inconsistency arguments-arguments that claim opponents of abortion (OAs) act in ways inconsistent with their underlying beliefs about human fetuses (eg, that human fetuses are persons at conception). Colgrove et al presented three objections to inconsistency arguments, which Simkulet argues are unconvincing. Further, he maintains that OAs who hold that the fetus is a person at conception fail to act on important issues such as the plight of frozen embryos, poverty and spontaneous abortion. Thus, they are morally negligent. In response, we argue that Simkulet has targeted a very narrow group of OAs, and so his criticisms are inapplicable to most OAs. We then explain why his responses to each of Colgrove et al's objections do not succeed, even for this restricted group. Finally, we note that Simkulet fails to provide evidence for his claims regarding OAs' supposed failures to act, and we show that OAs veritably do invest resources into these important issues. We conclude that Colgrove et al's reasons for rejecting inconsistency arguments (en masse) remain intact.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Início da Vida Humana , Dissidências e Disputas , Feminino , Feto , Humanos , Masculino , Obrigações Morais , Pessoalidade , Gravidez , Valor da Vida
5.
J Med Ethics ; 48(7): 490-491, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789947

RESUMO

In 'Dilemma for Appeals to the Moral Significance of Birth', we argued that a dilemma is faced by those who believe that birth is the event at which infanticide is ruled out. Those who reject the moral permissibility of infanticide by appeal to the moral significance of birth must either accept the moral permissibility of a late-term abortion for a non-therapeutic reason or not. If they accept it, they need to account for the strong intuition that her decision is wrong as well as deny the underlying normative principle that killing a viable fetus requires good reason, and not wanting to care for the child when the child could be easily placed for adoption is not a good enough reason to abort. If they reject the moral permissibility of the late-term abortion, they need to explain why her decision is wrong. Doing so, however, will undermine their own project of denying infanticide by appeal to birth. Walter Veit argues that the dilemma relies too much on intuition and does not live up to biological continuity. We explain why his criticisms are unconvincing.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Início da Vida Humana , Criança , Feminino , Viabilidade Fetal , Humanos , Infanticídio , Obrigações Morais , Princípios Morais , Pessoalidade , Gravidez , Valor da Vida
6.
J Med Ethics ; 48(3): 194-195, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593870

RESUMO

This paper is a response to a recent paper by Bobier and Omelianchuk in which they argue that the critics of Giubilini and Minerva's defence of infanticide fail to adequately justify a moral difference at birth. They argue that such arguments would lead to an intuitively less plausible position: that late-term abortions are permissible, thus creating a dilemma for those who seek to argue that birth matters. I argue that the only way to resolve this dilemma, is to bite the naturalist bullet and accept that the intuitively plausible idea that birth constitutes a morally relevant event is simply mistaken and biologically misinformed.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Início da Vida Humana , Adoção , Feminino , Viabilidade Fetal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Infanticídio , Obrigações Morais , Pessoalidade , Gravidez , Valor da Vida
7.
J Med Ethics ; 47(10): 712-714, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112713

RESUMO

The 14-day rule restricts the culturing of human embryos in vitro for the purposes of scientific research for no longer than 14 days. Since researchers recently developed the capability to exceed the 14-day limit, pressure to modify the rule has started to build. Sophia McCully argues that the limit should be extended to 28 days, listing numerous potential benefits of doing so. We contend that McCully has not engaged with the main reasons why the Warnock Committee set such a limit, and these still remain valid. As a result, her case for an extension of the 14-day rule is not persuasive.


Assuntos
Início da Vida Humana , Pesquisas com Embriões , Embrião de Mamíferos , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Humanos
8.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(Suppl 3): S257-S279, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010252

RESUMO

One of the most controversial topics in modern bioethics, science, and philosophy is the beginning of individual human life. In the seemingly endless debate, strongly stimulated by recent technologic advances in human reproduction, a synthesis between scientific data and hypothesis, philosophical thought, and issues of humanities has become a necessity to deal with ethical, juridical, and social problems. Furthermore, in this field there is a temptation to ask science to choose between opinions and beliefs, which neutralize one another. The question of when human life begins requires the essential aid of different forms of knowledge. Here we become involved in the juncture between science and religion, which needs to be carefully explored. Modern bioethics and science are strongly concerned for the respect of human life at both ends of its existence (birth and death), but other sciences (eg. Philosophy, technology, psychology, sociology, law, and politics) consider the beginning of human life according to different points of view. However, bioethical topics like this one cannot be treated from only one perspective (eg. Biological, philosophical, or religious) because conclusions might be not good enough or reductive. This reality should be regarded in all its richness: An embryo gives a biologist and a geneticist substance for consideration, but because we are talking about the beginning of human life, it requires philosophical-anthropological consideration and confrontation with theology; in its protection we have to include ethics and law. In experiencing and investigating social behavior, other disciplines, such as the history of medicine and sociology, have to be included. It is hard to answer the question when human life should be legally protected. At the time of conception? At the time of implantation? At the time of birth? In all countries (except Ireland and Liechtenstein) juridical considerations are based on Roman law. Roman civil law says that the fetus has right when it is born or if it is born-nasciterus. Few countries agree with definition of beginning of human personality at the time of conception. The majority does not grant legal status to the human embryo in vitro (i.e., during the 14 days after fertilization). Thus, even in the absence of legal rights, there is no denying that the embryo constitutes the beginning of human life, a member of the human family. Therefore, whatever the attitude, every country has to examine which practices are compatible with the respect of that dignity and the security of human genetic material.The question when a human life begins and how to define it, could be answered only through the inner-connecting pathways of history, philosophy, medical science and religion. It has not been easy to determine where to draw the fine line between the competence of science and methaphysics in this delicate philosophical field. To a large extent the drawing of this line depends on one's fundamental philosophical outlook. The point at which human life begins will always be seen differently by different individuals, groups, cultures, and religious faiths. In democracy there are always at least two sides, and the center holds only when the majority realizes that without a minority democracy itself is lost. The minority in turn must realize its best chance lies in persuasion by reason and thoughtfulness rather than fanaticism.


Assuntos
Início da Vida Humana , Bioética , Humanos , Irlanda , Filosofia , Religião , Religião e Ciência
10.
Bioethics ; 35(7): 672-679, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529422

RESUMO

This account of the moral status of the human fetus makes four interlocking claims, which together comprise the Fetal Life Moral Status Thesis: (1) life as a human organism begins at the fetal stage of development; (2) the non-organismal life of the human embryo begins at fertilization; (3) the human fetus has intrinsic moral status as a human being; and (4) the human embryo has extrinsic moral status as a non-organismal human individual. The somatic integration definition of human life functions as a premise in two supporting arguments: the Fetal Life Argument and the Fetal Moral Status Argument. These arguments are articulated, objections are considered, and the resulting account of the moral status of the human fetus is applied to the problem of abortion.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Status Moral , Início da Vida Humana , Ética Médica , Feminino , Feto , Humanos , Gravidez
11.
J Relig Health ; 60(2): 663-683, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32318960

RESUMO

Islam gives legal precedence to purity of lineage and known parenthood of all children. In Islam treatment to infertility using IVF is permitted within validity of marriage contract with no genes mixing. The paper shows that the Qur'an, the word of Allah, and science, the deeds of Allah are not in major conflicts in defining the start of human life. The Holy Qur'an provides an elegant description of origin, developmental stages of intra-uterine life. The Hadith explains two positions one that believes human embryo get ensouled at conception and the other after 40 days of conception. The paper aims to find that Islam confers moral respect to human embryo, but it also clarifies the absence of full human rights to a developing foetus. In Islam, human embryonic use is probably permissible for therapeutic and reproductive purpose keeping intact the principles of Shari'ah.


Assuntos
Infertilidade , Islamismo , Início da Vida Humana , Criança , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Princípios Morais
12.
Bioethics ; 35(2): 207-213, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583546

RESUMO

Common-sense morality seems to dictate that newborn babies strictly outrank non-human animals on an ordered list of subjects of moral consideration. This is best described as the view that newborn babies have a higher moral status than any non-human animal. In this article, I will argue that this common-sense claim about the special moral status of newborn babies makes it hard to avoid the conclusion that fetuses, including pre-conscious fetuses, also have a higher moral status than any non-human animal-indeed, as high as newborn babies. While this conclusion does not quite entail that abortion is generally seriously immoral, it does seem to follow that it would be no less difficult to justify (even relatively early) abortion than it would be to justify killing a newborn.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Valor da Vida , Animais , Início da Vida Humana , Feminino , Feto , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Obrigações Morais , Pessoalidade , Gravidez
13.
Sleep ; 44(3)2021 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832981

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Evidence for the association between screen time and insufficient sleep is bourgeoning, and recent findings suggest that these associations may be more pronounced in younger compared to older children, and for portable compared to non-portable devices. However, these effects have yet to be investigated within the beginning of life. Importantly, there are no data for the relationship between screen exposure and objectively measured infant sleep. This study examined the moderating role of age for both touchscreens' and television's relationship with sleep, using auto-videosomnography within a big-data sample of infants. METHODS: The sleep of 1074 infants (46% girls) aged 0-18 months was objectively assessed using computer-vision technology in this cross-sectional study. Sleep was additionally reported by parents in an online survey, as was infant exposure to screens. RESULTS: Age significantly moderated the relationship between daytime touchscreen exposure and sleep with a distinct pattern for younger infants, in which screen exposure was associated with decreased daytime sleep, but with a proposed compensatory increase in nighttime sleep consolidation. Compared to touchscreens, television exposure was less likely to be associated with sleep metrics, and age moderated this relationship only for daytime and 24-hour sleep duration. CONCLUSIONS: In young infants, a daytime-nighttime sleep "trade-off" emerged, suggesting that the displacement of daytime sleep by screens may lead to greater accumulation of sleep homeostatic pressure, which in turn facilitates more consolidated nighttime sleep.


Assuntos
Início da Vida Humana , Ciência de Dados , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Sono , Televisão , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Clin Ter ; 171(5): e407-e411, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901783

RESUMO

The amazing and almost unimaginable advances that have unfolded over the past decades in biotechnologies (heritable germline editing in particular) have brought bioethical issues to the forefront, sparking public debate and increasing attention worldwide. Such mind-blowing progress has already resulted in major improvement and enhancements for humans, and holds the potential for even more. Technology and bioengineering have begun to take over in the life sciences industry. Man's capacity to genetically engineer the biological world is nothing short of mind-boggling in its current magnitude, and may even evolve, in a not too distant future, into attempts to fuse man and machine into a cohesive bioengineered entity; a "super human being", endowed with enhanced cognitive and physical capabilities and impervious to disease, may be not too far down the road. That will not come without caveats, however. In fact, scientific advancements at such an accelerated pace have already negatively affected our cultural, ethical, and legal values and our ability to harness the opportunities and face the dangers posed by such developments. As a matter of fact, science seems to consistently outpace public morals, ethics and policymaking, which calls for a high degree of caution and common answers.


Assuntos
Início da Vida Humana , Temas Bioéticos , Biotecnologia/ética , Edição de Genes/ética , Terapia Genética/ética , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Formulação de Políticas
15.
Monash Bioeth Rev ; 38(2): 181-196, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737832

RESUMO

Recent scientific advances have indicated that it may be technically feasible to sustain human embryos in vitro beyond 14 days. Research beyond this stage is currently restricted by a guideline known as the 14-day rule. Since the advances in embryo culturing there have been calls to extend the current limit. Much of the current debate concerning an extension has regarded the 14-day rule as a political compromise and has, therefore, focused on policy concerns rather than assessing the philosophical foundations of the limit. While there are relevant political considerations, I maintain that the success of extension arguments will ultimately depend on the strength of the justifications supporting the current 14-day limit. I argue that the strongest and most prevalent justifications for the 14-day rule-an appeal to individuation and neural development-do not provide adequate support for the limit of 14 days. I instead suggest that an alternative justification based on sentience would constitute a more defensible basis for embryo protection and that a consideration of such grounds appears to support an amendment to the current limit, rather than the retention of it. While these conclusions do not establish conclusively that the current limit should be extended; they do suggest that an extension may be warranted and permissible. As such, this paper offers grounds on which a reassessment of the 14-day rule may be justified.


Assuntos
Início da Vida Humana , Pesquisas com Embriões/ética , Embrião de Mamíferos , Status Moral , Pessoalidade , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Humanos , Obrigações Morais , Políticas
17.
EMBO Rep ; 21(8): e50984, 2020 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715543

RESUMO

New techniques to generate and culture embryo-like structures from stem cells require a more fine-grained distinction of potential to define the moral status of these structures.


Assuntos
Início da Vida Humana , Pesquisas com Embriões , Embrião de Mamíferos , Humanos , Obrigações Morais , Status Moral
18.
J Med Philos ; 45(3): 371-386, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437577

RESUMO

When did we begin to exist? Barry Smith and Berit Brogaard argue that a new human organism comes into existence neither earlier nor later than the moment of gastrulation: 16 days after conception. Several critics have responded that the onset of the organism must happen earlier; closer to conception. This article makes a radically different claim: if we accept Smith and Brogaard's ontological commitments, then human organisms start, on average, roughly nine months after conception. The main point of contention is whether the fetus is or is not part of the maternal organism. Smith and Brogaard argue that it is not; I demonstrate that it is. This claim in combination with Smith and Brogaard's own criteria commits to the view that human organisms begin, precisely, at birth.


Assuntos
Início da Vida Humana/ética , Pessoalidade , Filosofia Médica , Embrião de Mamíferos/fisiologia , Feto/fisiologia , Humanos , Parto/fisiologia , Parto/psicologia
19.
Georgian Med News ; (298): 169-174, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141873

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to study the initial moment of a person's life, which is important for a clear determination of when it begins to be protected by the legislation of Ukraine, and differentiation from legal or illegal abortions, as well as to propose an approach to determine the initial moment of life that is more consistent with the logic than exists in the current one the legislation of Ukraine. Today, the initial moment of life in Ukraine determines the beginning of childbirth, and the final - death of the brain, that is, the criteria for determining the beginning and end of life are different - the beginning of childbirth and brain death; we offer to connect the initial and final moments of life with the brain - from the formation and beginning of the functioning of the human brain to his death, that is, the only criterion is the brain) and a more humane approach to determining the initial moment of life than exists now (life if we take into account our proposals the legislator will be protected at earlier stages - from the 12th week of pregnancy). We examined the results obtained by other scientists, as well as normative acts, in particular, the Law of Ukraine «Basics of the Legislation of Ukraine on Health Protection¼ № 2801-XII of November 19, 1992. As a result of the study, individual proposals were made to improve the legislation of Ukraine in the field of protecting the human right to life. It is proposed to amend Part 1 of Art. 50 of the Law of Ukraine «Basics of the Legislation of Ukraine on Health Protection¼, in particular, replace in the text «The operation of artificial termination of pregnancy (abortion) can be performed at the request of a woman in health facilities during pregnancy for a period not exceeding 12 weeks¼.


Assuntos
Início da Vida Humana , Direitos Humanos , Pessoalidade , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Ucrânia
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