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1.
Vínculo ; 18(3): 47-54, set.-dez. 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1347947

RESUMO

Este relato de experiência tenta abordar os emperramentos percebidos em quatro famílias, atendidas em consultório. Ao atender estas quatro famílias, cada uma com estrutura e problemas diferentes, percebemos contrastes. Uma família se coloca aglutinada, enquanto a outra, dispersada. Uma outra família é organizada e a outra, desestruturada. Estas diferenças percebidas despertaram o interesse para estudo do que ocorre com as famílias hoje. Quais mudanças e comportamentos permanecem, e quais se modificam?


This experience report attempts to address the perceived impairs in four families attended in a private practice Psychological Clinic. During the meetings with these four families, each one with different structure and problems, we perceive contrasts. One family stands agglutinated, the other scattered. Another family is organized, and the other family is unstructured. These perceived differences have aroused interest in studying what happens to families today. What changes and behaviors remain, and which ones change?


Este informe de experiencia intenta abordar los problemas percibidos en cuatro familias atendidas en una clínica privada de psicologia. Durante las reuniones con estas cuatro familias, cada una con diferentes estructuras y problemas, percibimos contrastes. Una familia está aglutinada, la otra dispersa. Otra familia está organizada y la otra familia no está estructurada. Estas diferencias percibidas han despertado interés en estudiar lo que les sucede a las familias hoy. ¿Qué cambios y comportamientos permanecen, y cuáles cambian?


Assuntos
Humanos , Comportamento , Família , Núcleo Familiar , Poder Familiar
2.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259658, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739532

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate nurses' behavioral intention toward caring for COVID-19 patients on mechanical ventilation, as well as the factors affecting their intention. BACKGROUND: COVID-19 patients undergoing mechanical ventilation have many care needs and pose more challenges for nurses, which might adversely affect nurses' intention toward caring behavior. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted by using simple random sampling to recruit 598 nurses from five tertiary hospitals in Sichuan Province, China. The participants responded to an online questionnaire that included questions on demographic characteristics; the Attitude, Subjective Norms, and Behavioral Intention of Nurses toward Mechanically Ventilated Patients (ASIMP) questionnaire; the Nursing Professional Identity Scale (NPIS); and the Compassion Fatigue-Short Scale (CF-Short Scale). ANOVA, Spearman correlation analysis, and multiple linear regression were performed to analyze the data. RESULTS: The mean total behavioral intention score was 179.46 (± 14.83) out of a total score of 189.00, which represented a high level of intention toward caring for patients on mechanical ventilation. Multiple linear regression revealed that subjective norms (ß = 0.390, P<0.001), perceived behavioral control (ß = 0.149, P<0.001), professional identity (ß = 0.101, P = 0.009), and compassion fatigue (ß = 0.088 P = 0.024) were significant predictors of nurses' behavioral intention. CONCLUSIONS: Most nurses have a positive behavioral intention to care for COVID-19 patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. The findings in this study provide some insight for developing effective and tailored strategies to promote nurses' behavioral intention toward caring for ventilated patients under the pandemic situation.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , COVID-19/terapia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Adulto , Comportamento , China/epidemiologia , Fadiga por Compaixão , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Pandemias , Análise de Regressão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20987, 2021 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697319

RESUMO

Acid suppressants are widely-used classes of medications linked to increased risks of aerodigestive infections. Prior studies of these medications as potentially reversible risk factors for COVID-19 have been conflicting. We aimed to determine the impact of chronic acid suppression use on COVID-19 infection risk while simultaneously evaluating the influence of social determinants of health to validate known and discover novel risk factors. We assessed the association of chronic acid suppression with incident COVID-19 in a 1:1 case-control study of 900 patients tested across three academic medical centers in California, USA. Medical comorbidities and history of chronic acid suppression use were manually extracted from health records by physicians following a pre-specified protocol. Socio-behavioral factors by geomapping publicly-available data to patient zip codes were incorporated. We identified no evidence to support an association between chronic acid suppression and COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio 1.04, 95% CI 0.92-1.17, P = 0.515). However, several medical and social features were positive (Latinx ethnicity, BMI ≥ 30, dementia, public transportation use, month of the pandemic) and negative (female sex, concurrent solid tumor, alcohol use disorder) predictors of new infection. These findings demonstrate the value of integrating publicly-available databases with medical data to identify critical features of communicable diseases.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/complicações , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Idoso , Comportamento , COVID-19/psicologia , California , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Gastroenterologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/tratamento farmacológico , Geografia , Antagonistas dos Receptores H2 da Histamina/farmacologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/farmacologia , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social
5.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684327

RESUMO

Although it has been postulated that eating disorders (EDs) and obesity form part of a broad spectrum of eating- and weight-related disorders, this has not yet been tested empirically. In the present study, we investigated interindividual differences in sensitivity to punishment, sensitivity to reward, and effortful control along the ED/obesity spectrum in women. We used data on 286 patients with eating disorders (44.6% AN-R, 24.12% AN-BP, and 31.82% BN), 126 healthy controls, and 640 Class II/III obese bariatric patients (32.81% Class II and 67.19% Class III) with and without binge eating. Participants completed the behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation scales, as well as the effortful control scale, to assess sensitivity to punishment and reward and effortful control. Results showed that patients with EDs scored significantly higher on punishment sensitivity (anxiety) compared to healthy controls and Class II/III obese patients; the different groups did not differ significantly on reward sensitivity. Patients with binge eating or compensatory behaviors scored significantly lower on effortful control than patients without binge eating. Differences in temperamental profiles along the ED/obesity spectrum appear continuous and gradual rather than categorical. This implies that it may be meaningful to include emotion regulation and impulse regulation training in the treatment of both EDs and obesity.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/psicologia , Punição/psicologia , Recompensa , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Comportamento , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19744, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611199

RESUMO

Infections produced by non-symptomatic (pre-symptomatic and asymptomatic) individuals have been identified as major drivers of COVID-19 transmission. Non-symptomatic individuals, unaware of the infection risk they pose to others, may perceive themselves-and be perceived by others-as not presenting a risk of infection. Yet, many epidemiological models currently in use do not include a behavioral component, and do not address the potential consequences of risk misperception. To study the impact of behavioral adaptations to the perceived infection risk, we use a mathematical model that incorporates the behavioral decisions of individuals, based on a projection of the system's future state over a finite planning horizon. We found that individuals' risk misperception in the presence of non-symptomatic individuals may increase or reduce the final epidemic size. Moreover, under behavioral response the impact of non-symptomatic infections is modulated by symptomatic individuals' behavior. Finally, we found that there is an optimal planning horizon that minimizes the final epidemic size.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas/psicologia , Comportamento , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19463, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593931

RESUMO

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, physical distancing behavior turned out to be key to mitigating the virus spread. Therefore, it is crucial that we understand how we can successfully alter our behavior and promote physical distancing. We present a framework to systematically assess the effectiveness of behavioral interventions to stimulate physical distancing. In addition, we demonstrate the feasibility of this framework in a large-scale natural experiment (N = 639) conducted during an art fair. In an experimental design, we varied interventions to evaluate the effect of face masks, walking directions, and immediate feedback on visitors' contacts. We represent visitors as nodes, and their contacts as links in a contact network. Subsequently, we used network modelling to test for differences in these contact networks. We find no evidence that face masks influence physical distancing, while unidirectional walking directions and buzzer feedback do positively impact physical distancing. This study offers a feasible way to optimize physical distancing interventions through scientific research. As such, the presented framework provides society with the means to directly evaluate interventions, so that policy can be based on evidence rather than conjecture.


Assuntos
Comportamento , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Distanciamento Físico , Adulto , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Política Pública , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6036, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654804

RESUMO

Identical physical inputs do not always evoke identical percepts. To investigate the role of stimulus history in tactile perception, we designed a task in which rats had to judge each vibrissal vibration, in a long series, as strong or weak depending on its mean speed. After a low-speed stimulus (trial n - 1), rats were more likely to report the next stimulus (trial n) as strong, and after a high-speed stimulus, they were more likely to report the next stimulus as weak, a repulsive effect that did not depend on choice or reward on trial n - 1. This effect could be tracked over several preceding trials (i.e., n - 2 and earlier) and was characterized by an exponential decay function, reflecting a trial-by-trial incorporation of sensory history. Surprisingly, the influence of trial n - 1 strengthened as the time interval between n - 1 and n grew. Human subjects receiving fingertip vibrations showed these same key findings. We are able to account for the repulsive stimulus history effect, and its detailed time scale, through a single-parameter model, wherein each new stimulus gradually updates the subject's decision criterion. This model points to mechanisms underlying how the past affects the ongoing subjective experience.


Assuntos
Julgamento/fisiologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Redes Neurais de Computação , Neurônios/fisiologia , Ratos , Recompensa , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Vibração , Vibrissas/fisiologia
9.
Rev. psiquiatr. Urug ; 85(1): 43-62, oct. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1343162

RESUMO

La empatía es un fenómeno multifacético necesario para la interacción social. La complejidad de su estudio se origina en la multiplicidad de definiciones teóricas y en los distintos niveles de análisis. Aunque existen numerosas revisiones metodológicas, son escasas las que comprenden la autopercepción, el comportamiento y los mecanismos neurobiológicos. Por este motivo, el objetivo de este artículo es realizar un análisis crítico de las metodologías mayormente utilizadas, agrupadas en distintos niveles de análisis. El nivel de autopercepción incluye escalas de autorreporte; el comportamental contempla modelos de simulaciones, presentación de imágenes, filmaciones y narrativas; y el neurobiológico comprende indicadores del sistema nervioso periférico (electrocardiograma, actividad electrodérmica y electromiograma) y central (electroencefalograma y resonancia magnética funcional), y abordajes farmacológicos, neuroquímicos y génicos. Analizamos los procesos afectivos, cognitivos y motivacionales, así como las ventajas y desventajas de cada metodología. Por último, planteamos propuestas integrativas y formulamos preguntas que podrían guiar investigaciones futuras.


Empathy is a multifaceted phenomenon necessary for social interaction. The complexity of its study resides in the multiplicity of theoretical definitions and in the different levels of analysis. Even though there are numerous methodological reviews, those that take into account self-perceived and behavioral levels together with neurobiological mechanisms are scarce. For this reason, the aim of this revision is to perform a critical analysis of different methodologies within different levels of analysis. The self-perception level included self reported scales, the behavioral level comprises simulation models, images or film presentations and narratives, and the neurobiological level included peripheral (electrocardiogram, electrodermal activity and electromyogram) and central nervous system (electroencephalogram and functional magnetic resonance imaging) indicators, and pharmacological, neurochemical and genic approaches. We analysed the affective, cognitive and motivational processes as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each methodology. Finally, we pose some integrative proposals and questions that could guide future research.


Assuntos
Humanos , Autoimagem , Comportamento , Empatia , Técnicas Psicológicas
10.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258335, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618866

RESUMO

Speech production gives rise to distinct auditory and somatosensory feedback signals which are dynamically integrated to enable online monitoring and error correction, though it remains unclear how the sensorimotor system supports the integration of these multimodal signals. Capitalizing on the parity of sensorimotor processes supporting perception and production, the current study employed the McGurk paradigm to induce multimodal sensory congruence/incongruence. EEG data from a cohort of 39 typical speakers were decomposed with independent component analysis to identify bilateral mu rhythms; indices of sensorimotor activity. Subsequent time-frequency analyses revealed bilateral patterns of event related desynchronization (ERD) across alpha and beta frequency ranges over the time course of perceptual events. Right mu activity was characterized by reduced ERD during all cases of audiovisual incongruence, while left mu activity was attenuated and protracted in McGurk trials eliciting sensory fusion. Results were interpreted to suggest distinct hemispheric contributions, with right hemisphere mu activity supporting a coarse incongruence detection process and left hemisphere mu activity reflecting a more granular level of analysis including phonological identification and incongruence resolution. Findings are also considered in regard to incongruence detection and resolution processes during production.


Assuntos
Cérebro/fisiologia , Córtex Sensório-Motor/fisiologia , Gravação em Vídeo , Comportamento , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Componente Principal , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0255531, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613975

RESUMO

Some evidence suggests that people behave more cooperatively and generously when observed or in the presence of images of eyes (termed the 'watching eyes' effect). Eye images are thought to trigger feelings of observation, which in turn motivate people to behave more cooperatively to earn a good reputation. However, several recent studies have failed to find evidence of the eyes effect. One possibility is that inconsistent evidence in support of the eyes effect is a product of individual differences in sensitivity or susceptibility to the cue. In fact, some evidence suggests that people who are generally more prosocial are less susceptible to situation-specific reputation-based cues of observation. In this paper, we sought to (1) replicate the eyes effect, (2) replicate the past finding that people who are dispositionally less prosocial are more responsive to observation than people who are more dispositionally more prosocial, and (3) determine if this effect extends to the watching eyes effect. Results from a pre-registered study showed that people did not give more money in a dictator game when decisions were made public or in the presence of eye images, even though participants felt more observed when decisions were public. That is, we failed to replicate the eyes effect and observation effect. An initial, but underpowered, interaction model suggests that egoists give less than prosocials in private, but not public, conditions. This suggests a direction for future research investigating if and how individual differences in prosociality influence observation effects.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Olho/fisiopatologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684388

RESUMO

Chronic constipation (CC) is one of the most common gastroenterological diagnoses in clinical practice. Treatment includes several steps, depending on the severity of symptoms. Lifestyle modifications and increased intake of fiber and water are suggested by most health professionals. Unfortunately, the recommendations in this regard are the most varied, often conflicting with each other and not always based on solid scientific arguments. This paper aims to clarify this topic by providing practical indications for the management of these patients in every day clinical practice. The literature available on this topic is scarce, and dietary studies have important methodological biases. However, fiber, mainly by binding water and acting as bulking agents and/or as prebiotics for the intestinal microbiota, and mineral water, especially if rich in magnesium and/or bicarbonate, are useful tools. An adequate, well-designed diet should be a cornerstone of any effective treatment for chronic constipation. High-quality studies on larger samples are mandatory to give scientific validity to the role of the food in CC therapy and to enable professionals to choose the best approach for their patients, combining nutritional and pharmacological agents.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/terapia , Terapia Nutricional , Comportamento , Doença Crônica , Constipação Intestinal/diagnóstico , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Humanos
13.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684642

RESUMO

Dehydration is common in the elderly, especially when hospitalised. This study investigated the impact of interventions to improve hydration in acutely unwell or institutionalised older adults for hydration and hydration linked events (constipation, falls, urinary tract infections) as well as patient satisfaction. Four databases were searched from inception to 13 May 2020 for studies of interventions to improve hydration. Nineteen studies (978 participants) were included and two studies (165 participants) were meta-analysed. Behavioural interventions were associated with a significant improvement in hydration. Environmental, multifaceted and nutritional interventions had mixed success. Meta-analysis indicated that groups receiving interventions to improve hydration consumed 300.93 mL more fluid per day than those in the usual care groups (95% CI: 289.27 mL, 312.59 mL; I2 = 0%, p < 0.00001). Overall, there is limited evidence describing interventions to improve hydration in acutely unwell or institutionalised older adults. Behavioural interventions appear promising. High-quality studies using validated rather than subjective methods of assessing hydration are needed to determine effective interventions.


Assuntos
Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comportamento , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Satisfação do Paciente , Viés de Publicação , Risco
15.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258258, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing number of parents refuse vaccination due to concerns about side effects. Influenza vaccine is no exception and remains one of the most controversial vaccines. Data regarding influenza vaccine uptake and parental knowledge, attitude and practice towards vaccination in the Lebanese population is lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the rate of vaccination refusal and potential associated factors among Lebanese parents of school-aged children, in general and with a focus on influenza vaccine. METHODS: A parent questionnaire was distributed in randomly selected 2 public and 2 private schools from the greater Beirut area during the school year 2017-2018. Questionnaires covered knowledge, attitude (including themes of efficacy, hesitancy and trust), and practice of vaccination in general and influenza vaccine in particular. RESULTS: The response rate was 76.5% (306/400). Overall, 29.4% parents reported vaccinating their children against influenza (62.2% in private and 37.7% in public schools). Younger age, paternal employment and higher household income were associated with higher vaccination rates (p = 0.01, 0.02 and <0.0001 respectively). Lack of vaccine recommendation by the physician was the most common reason for not taking it (47%). Parents who accepted influenza vaccination had higher scores in efficacy, hesitancy and trust and were more compliant with other vaccinations. CONCLUSION: One third of parents of school aged children in the greater Beirut area vaccinate their children against influenza. This rate is likely lower in rural remote areas. Physician's recommendation is the single most important predictor of such vaccination. Future studies tackling physicians' attitude and practice are needed to help improve influenza vaccination rates in the Lebanese population.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Pais , Vacinação , Adolescente , Comportamento , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Líbano , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas , Confiança
16.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258177, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648542

RESUMO

The role of emotional factors in maintaining cognitive control is one of the most intriguing issues in understanding emotion-cognition interactions. In the current experiment, we assessed the role of emotional factors (valence, arousal, and subjective significance) in perceptual and conceptual inhibition processes. We operationalised both processes with the classical cognitive paradigms, i.e., the flanker task and the emotional Stroop task merged into a single experimental procedure. The procedure was based on the presentation of emotional words displayed in four different font colours flanked by the same emotional word printed with the same or different font colour. We expected to find distinct effects of both types of interference: earlier for perceptual and later for emotional interference. We also predicted an increased arousal level to disturb inhibitory control effectiveness, while increasing the subjective significance level should improve this process. As we used orthogonal manipulations of emotional factors, our study allowed us for the first time to assess interactions within emotional factors and between types of interference. We found on the behavioural level the main effects of flanker congruency as well as effects of emotionality. On the electrophysiological level, we found effects for EPN, P2, and N450 components of ERPs. The exploratory analysis revealed that effects due to perceptual interference appeared earlier than the effects of emotional interference, but they lasted for an extended period of processing, causing perceptual and emotional interference to partially overlap. Finally, in terms of emotional interference, we showed the effect of subjective significance: the reduction of interference cost in N450 for highly subjective significant stimuli. This study is the first one allowing for the investigation of two different types of interference in a single experiment, and provides insight into the role of emotion in cognitive control.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Emoções/fisiologia , Teste de Stroop , Adulto , Comportamento , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684366

RESUMO

Improving our understanding of what physical activities are enjoyed and the factors that are associated with physical activity liking can promote participation in regular physical activity. We aimed to study physical activity (PA) liking in college women by modelling interactions between body size perception and dietary behaviors on PA liking, and by examining discrepancies between PA liking versus engagement on body size perception and dietary behaviors. Women (n = 251; 74% white) utilized an online survey to report their level of liking for PA types (scored into a PA liking index) and frequency of PA participation. They also reported their perceived body size, level of dietary restraint, and frequency of consuming foods (scored into a diet quality index). In multivariate analyses, a greater perceived body size was directly associated with lower PA liking and indirectly through greater dietary restraint but lower diet quality. Healthiest dietary behaviors were reported by women who both liked and engaged in PA. Women who reported high PA liking but low PA participation reported a higher dietary restraint and lower diet quality. These findings support the empowerment of women across all body sizes to identify physical activities that they enjoy. Health promotion efforts should encourage women to couple physical activity liking and engagement with a healthy level of dietary restraint and consumption of a healthy diet.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento , Imagem Corporal , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684535

RESUMO

Suboptimal dietary intake is a critical cause of poor maternal nutrition, with several adverse consequences both for mothers and for their children. This study aimed to (1) assess maternal dietary patterns in India; (2) examine enablers and barriers in adopting recommended diets; (3) review current policy and program strategies to improve dietary intakes. We used mixed methods, including empirical analysis, compiling data from available national and subnational surveys, and reviewing literature, policy, and program strategies. Diets among pregnant women are characterized by low energy, macronutrient imbalance, and inadequate micronutrient intake. Supply- and demand-side constraints to healthy diets include food unavailability, poor economic situation, low exposure to nutrition counselling, food restrictions and taboos, adverse family influence and gender norms, and gaps in knowledge. Intervention strategies with potential to improve maternal diets include food-based programs, behavior change communication, and nutrition-sensitive agriculture interventions. However, strategies face implementation bottlenecks and limited effectiveness in real-world at-scale impact evaluations. In conclusion, investments in systems approaches spanning health, nutrition, and agriculture sectors, with evaluation frameworks at subnational levels, are needed to promote healthy diets for women.


Assuntos
Dieta , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Agricultura , Comportamento , Ingestão de Alimentos , Escolaridade , Família , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Alimentos Fortificados , Humanos , Renda , Índia , Masculino , Micronutrientes/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684541

RESUMO

The study's purpose was to evaluate an intervention to reduce fruit and vegetable food neophobia and influence attitudes and behaviors among children using a four-month, non-experimental, before-and-after intervention. Participants were children aged 5-11 years in an intervention school (IS) and a control school (CS). Children were offered fruit or vegetable samples weekly utilizing school-specific psychosocial and educational practices to encourage participation. The outcomes of interest included attitudes measured using a written survey-based food neophobia scale (FNS), behavioral observations, and an oral survey. The post-intervention IS FNS score was significantly lower compared to pre-intervention (p = 0.04). Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a statistically significant overall effect of time (p = 0.006). School type-time interaction was not significant (p = 0.57). Pre-intervention observational data showed the proportions finishing and taking another fruit and vegetable sample were higher in the CS (p < 0.001 for both). Post-intervention, the proportions taking the vegetable (p = 0.007) and the fruit (p < 0.001) were higher in the IS. The percentage tasting the vegetable was higher in the CS (p = 0.009). Offering samples of produce in school lunchrooms may reduce food neophobia. This intervention is an inexpensive program that volunteers can quickly implement.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Evitação ou Restrição da Ingestão de Alimentos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Comportamento , Criança , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684543

RESUMO

Behavioral disinhibition is observed to be an important characteristic of many neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Recent studies have linked dietary quality to levels of behavioral inhibition. However, it is currently unclear whether brain factors might mediate this. The current study investigates whether cortical and subcortical brain volumes mediate part of the association between dietary composition and behavioral disinhibition. A total of 15,258 subjects from the UK Biobank project were included in the current study. Dietary composition and behavioral disinhibition were based on Principle Component Analyses of self-reported dietary composition). As a further data reduction step, cortical and subcortical volume segmentations were input into an Independent Component Analysis. The resulting four components were used as mediator variables in the main mediation analyses, where behavioral disinhibition served as the outcome variable and dietary components as predictors. Our results show: (1) significant associations between all dietary components and brain volume components; (2) brain volumes are associated with behavioral disinhibition; (3) the mediation models show that part of the variance in behavioral disinhibition explained by dietary components (for healthy diet, restricted diet, and high-fat dairy diet) is mediated through the frontal-temporal/parietal brain volume component. These results are in part confirming our hypotheses and offer a first insight into the underlying mechanisms linking dietary composition, frontal-parietal brain volume, and behavioral disinhibition in the general adult population.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Dieta , Comportamento Impulsivo , Adulto , Idoso , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Dieta Saudável , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , Reino Unido
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