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2.
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep ; 21(11): 63, 2021 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705122

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Behavioral therapies are proven treatments for many neurologic conditions. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has posed significant challenges for conducting behavioral research. This article aims to (1) highlight the challenges of running behavioral clinical trials during the pandemic, (2) suggest approaches to maximize generalizability of pandemic-era studies, and (3) offer strategies for successful behavioral trials beyond the pandemic. RECENT FINDINGS: Thousands of clinical trials have been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, from undergoing protocol revisions to suspension altogether. Furthermore, for ongoing trials, recruitment of diverse populations has suffered, thereby exacerbating existing inequities in clinical research. Patient adherence and retention have been affected by a myriad of pandemic-era restraints, and medical, psychiatric, and other complications from the pandemic have the potential to have long-term effects on pandemic-era study results. In the development of post-pandemic study protocols, attention should be given to designing studies that incorporate successful aspects of pre-pandemic and pandemic-era strategies to (1) broaden recruitment using new techniques, (2) improve access for diverse populations, (3) expand protocols to include virtual and in-person participation, and (4) increase patient adherence and retention.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neurologia , Pesquisa Comportamental , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics ; 16(4): 356-363, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533383

RESUMO

Given its popularity among youth ages 13-17, social media is a promising avenue for engaging and retaining historically hard-to-reach youth in longitudinal research. Social media use in longitudinal research involving youth, however, has preceded development of best practices for ethical use. This article describes the ethical challenges and considerations of using social media to engage and retain youth within the context of a randomized controlled trial of a group-based adolescent substance use intervention. Best practices for addressing ethical challenges are also provided using the Belmont Principle as a guiding framework. As social media becomes more commonly used to engage and retain youth in clinical research studies, researchers must address emerging ethical concerns within project protocols.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Pesquisa Comportamental , Humanos , Pesquisadores , Justiça Social
5.
AIDS Behav ; 25(Suppl 3): 233-236, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390434

RESUMO

The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief introduction to and description of the contents of this special issue of AIDS and Behavior. The article begins with a description of the rationale for the special issue and the origin of its compilation. This background information is followed by a brief description of the main articles that are included in the special issue, which is structured by Gaist and Stirrat's [4] definitions of types of behavioral and social science research for HIV-AIDS research. The "bookend" article to this introduction is by Robert Freeman and identifies future directions for research and clinical practice that the special issue articles' content suggests.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Pesquisa Comportamental , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Ciências Sociais
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13720, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215758

RESUMO

Human behaviors from toolmaking to language are thought to rely on a uniquely evolved capacity for hierarchical action sequencing. Testing this idea will require objective, generalizable methods for measuring the structural complexity of real-world behavior. Here we present a data-driven approach for extracting action grammars from basic ethograms, exemplified with respect to the evolutionarily relevant behavior of stone toolmaking. We analyzed sequences from the experimental replication of ~ 2.5 Mya Oldowan vs. ~ 0.5 Mya Acheulean tools, finding that, while using the same "alphabet" of elementary actions, Acheulean sequences are quantifiably more complex and Oldowan grammars are a subset of Acheulean grammars. We illustrate the utility of our complexity measures by re-analyzing data from an fMRI study of stone toolmaking to identify brain responses to structural complexity. Beyond specific implications regarding the co-evolution of language and technology, this exercise illustrates the general applicability of our method to investigate naturalistic human behavior and cognition.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comportamental/métodos , Evolução Biológica , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Comportamento de Utilização de Ferramentas/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
13.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ; 50(4): 443-449, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096811

RESUMO

Clinical psychological scientists have spent decades attempting to understand "what works for whom" in the context of youth psychotherapy, toward the longstanding goal of personalizing psychosocial interventions to fit individual needs and characteristics. However, as the articles in this Special Issue jointly underscore, more than 50 years of psychotherapy research has yet to help us realize this goal. In this introduction to the special issue, we outline how and why "aspiration-method mismatches" have hampered progress toward identifying moderators of youth psychotherapy; emphasize the need to embrace etiological complexity and scientific humility in pursuing new methodological solutions and propose individual and structural strategies for better-aligning clinical research methods with the goal of personalizing mental health care for youth with diverse identities and treatment needs.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comportamental , Aprendizagem , Psicoterapia , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos
14.
Behav Neurosci ; 135(5): 601-609, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096743

RESUMO

Understanding the brain requires us to answer both what the brain does, and how it does it. Using a series of examples, I make the case that behavior is often more useful than neuroscientific measurements for answering the first question. Moreover, I show that even for "how" questions that pertain to neural mechanism, a well-crafted behavioral paradigm can offer deeper insight and stronger constraints on computational and mechanistic models than do many highly challenging (and very expensive) neural studies. I conclude that purely behavioral research is essential for understanding the brain-especially its cognitive functions-contrary to the opinion of prominent funding bodies and some scientific journals, who erroneously place neural data on a pedestal and consider behavior to be subsidiary. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comportamental , Encéfalo , Cognição
15.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ; 50(3): 301-310, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086511

RESUMO

Although firearm violence is universally recognized as a paramount public health problem in the United States, for nearly two decades a Congressional budget amendment prevented federal agencies from funding research aimed at understanding the antecedents and consequences of gun violence. These restrictions have been lifted in recent years; however, the field is struggling to overcome a considerable lapse in developmentally-informed longitudinal research on adolescent gun involvement. Some key areas in need of further investigation include: (a) examining developmental and gender differences in risk factors for adolescent gun carrying, (b) clarifying the mechanisms through which socio-economic disadvantage confers risk for engaging in adolescent gun violence, (c) identifying proximal risk and protective factors that are associated with engagement in adolescent gun violence among high risk youth, and (d) delineating the unique effect the exposure to gun violence has on adolescents' emotional and behavioral problems. This special section was organized in an attempt to revitalize research on these issues using a diverse array of longitudinal data sets consisting of both epidemiological and juvenile justice samples. Collectively, the findings from these studies are based upon repeated assessments conducted from childhood through early adulthood, making this set of papers uniquely positioned to advance our understanding of adolescent gun involvement from a developmental perspective.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Pesquisa Comportamental , Armas de Fogo , Violência com Arma de Fogo , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ; 50(3): 367-384, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086512

RESUMO

The main purpose of this article and this special section is to encourage greater attention to the key gaps that exist in our understanding of the epidemiology of adolescent firearm violence and to provide a pathway forward for future longitudinal research that will inform prevention efforts. This increased attention is especially salient given: (a) firearms are the leading cause of death for adolescents and emerging adults in the United States, with the majority of these deaths due to interpersonal violence; (b) significant health and social disparities with regards to the populations that are most affected by interpersonal firearm violence have been documented; and, (c) limitations in federal research funding during the past 30 years have created a deficit of knowledge about key risk and protective factors necessary to inform evidence-based prevention efforts. We discuss the implications of the articles in this special edition for existing and novel prevention programs. We also identify key considerations for future epidemiological research, including the need for a greater focus on collecting longitudinal data among nationally representative samples enriched with subgroups of at-risk youth, the need to examine the role of protective factors and mediating variables within existing and novel theoretical models of firearm risk behaviors, the need to examine key factors across all levels of the socio-ecological model, and the need to incorporate novel and innovative research designs, methods and analyses.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comportamental/tendências , Armas de Fogo , Violência/prevenção & controle , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Proteção , Assunção de Riscos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Violência/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Appl Behav Anal ; 54(4): 1300-1316, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144631

RESUMO

Obtaining assent from potential research participants is an important component of research for reasons related to ethics compliance, self-determination, and choice. However, unique issues arise when working with populations who cannot assent through traditional means, such as individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and related developmental disabilities (DD). The purpose of this paper is to review and discuss assent practices within behavior-analytic research to identify strategies that can be used to obtain assent from potential participants with ASD and DDs. We began with a descriptive literature review of behavior-analytic articles that included the term "assent" to identify what practices behavior analysts have used to obtain assent from participants. In short, very few articles that clearly addressed assent procedures were identified. Thus, we propose a model for gaining assent when working with individuals with ASD and DDs.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Pesquisa Comportamental , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento , Humanos
18.
J Fam Psychol ; 35(7): 983-993, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939453

RESUMO

Social scientists have long utilized observations of human behavior in research designs. For researchers studying couples, observation of romantic partners has led to important discoveries about how such behavior is associated with physical, mental, and family health. Historically, these methods have been used in in-person laboratory paradigms that place notable limitations on reach and inclusion. This has, in turn, restricted the generalizability of such research to couples who may not attend an in-person laboratory assessment. Transferring the observational laboratory into an online format has the potential to expand the capabilities of these methods to include more diverse couples. This article presents two empirical studies that used online methods to conduct observational behavioral research with sexual and gender minority couples, populations that could be difficult to reach using traditional methods in many places. We demonstrate that we were able to reach, recruit, and enroll diverse couples that more closely resemble the population of same-sex couples in the United States than likely would have been reached in-person. Further, we show that the quality of the observational data collected via the internet allowed for over 94% of collected data to be coded, with acceptable interrater reliabilities and convergent validity. These studies provide a proof-of-concept of online observational methods, accompanied by a tutorial for using such methods. We discuss possible extensions of these online methods, their limitations, and the potential to help further the field of close relationships by reaching more diverse relationships and increasing the generalizability of our research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento/métodos , Pesquisa Comportamental/métodos , Coleta de Dados , Internet , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
19.
AIDS Behav ; 25(Suppl 3): 365-380, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33987783

RESUMO

HIV secondary prevention focuses on averting onward HIV transmission, which can be realized when people living with HIV enact requisite HIV care continuum-related behaviors to achieve viral suppression, and engage in condom-protected sex when virally unsuppressed. Alcohol has been detrimentally linked to all aspects of HIV secondary prevention, and although a growing number of behavioral interventions account for and address alcohol use within this realm, further efforts are needed to fully realize the potential of such initiatives. The present article proposes a series of targeted priorities to inform the future design, implementation, and evaluation of alcohol-related behavioral intervention research within the scope of HIV secondary prevention. These priorities and corresponding approaches account for the challenges of resource-constrained clinic environments; capitalize on technology; and address key comorbidities. This framework provides the foundation for a range of alcohol-related behavioral interventions that could potentially enhance global HIV secondary prevention efforts in the years ahead.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Pesquisa Comportamental , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Sexo Seguro , Prevenção Secundária
20.
Nat Hum Behav ; 5(5): 550-556, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986518

RESUMO

Human activities are degrading ecosystems worldwide, posing existential threats for biodiversity and humankind. Slowing and reversing this degradation will require profound and widespread changes to human behaviour. Behavioural scientists are therefore well placed to contribute intellectual leadership in this area. This Perspective aims to stimulate a marked increase in the amount and breadth of behavioural research addressing this challenge. First, we describe the importance of the biodiversity crisis for human and non-human prosperity and the central role of human behaviour in reversing this decline. Next, we discuss key gaps in our understanding of how to achieve behaviour change for biodiversity conservation and suggest how to identify key behaviour changes and actors capable of improving biodiversity outcomes. Finally, we outline the core components for building a robust evidence base and suggest priority research questions for behavioural scientists to explore in opening a new frontier of behavioural science for the benefit of nature and human wellbeing.


Assuntos
Ciências do Comportamento , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Pesquisa Comportamental , Humanos
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