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1.
Enferm. intensiva (Ed. impr.) ; 33(2): 1-9, Abr-Jun 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-203600

RESUMO

Objetivo: El objetivo principal de la investigación fue analizar la especificidad y sensibilidad de la escala COMFORT Behavior Scale-Versión española (CBS-ES) en la determinación del grado de dolor, sedación y síndrome de abstinencia.Método: Se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional, analítico y transversal y multicéntrico en unidades de cuidados intensivos pediátricas de 5 hospitales españoles. Se valoró el grado de sedación del paciente crítico pediátrico de forma simultánea empleando para ello la CBS-ES y registrando los valores del Bispectral Index Sedation, una vez por turno durante un día. El grado de abstinencia se determinó una vez por turno, durante 3 días, empleando de forma simultánea la CBS-ES y la Withdrawal Assessment Tool-1.Resultados: Se incluyeron en el estudio un total de 261 pacientes críticos pediátricos con una mediana de 1,61 años (P25: 0,35-P75: 6,55). Por lo que a la capacidad predictiva de la CBS-ES se refiere se obtuvo un área bajo la curva de 0,84 (sensibilidad del 81% y especificidad del 76%) con relación al dolor; de 0,62 (sensibilidad del 27% y especificidad del 78%) en el caso de la sedación, y de 0,73 (sensibilidad del 40% y especificidad del 74%) en el del síndrome de abstinencia.Conclusiones: Se ha podido contrastar que la CBS-ES podría ser un instrumento sensible, útil y fácil de emplear para valorar el grado de dolor, sedación y síndrome de abstinencia farmacológico del paciente crítico pediátrico.


Aim: The main aim of this investigation was to analyse the specificity and sensibility of the COMFORT Behaviour Scale (CBS-S) in assessing grade of pain, sedation, and withdrawal syndrome in paediatric critical care patients.Method: An observational, analytical, cross-sectional and multicentre study conducted in Level III Intensive Care Areas of 5 children's university hospitals. Grade of sedation was assessed using the Spanish version of the CBS-S and the Bispectral Index on sedation, once per shift over one day. Grade of withdrawal was determined using the CBS-S and the Withdrawal Assessment Tool-1, once per shift over three days.Results: A total of 261 critically ill paediatric patients with a median age of 5.07 years (P25:0.9-P75:11.7) were included in this study. In terms of the predictive capacity of the CBS-S, it obtained a Receiver Operation Curve of .84 (sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 76%) in relation to pain; .62 (sensitivity of 21% and specificity of 78%) in relation to sedation grade, and .73% (sensitivity of 40% and specificity of 74%) in determining withdrawal syndrome.Conclusions: The Spanish version of the COMFORT Behaviour Scale could be a useful, sensible and easy scale to assess the degree of pain, sedation and pharmacological withdrawal of critically ill paediatric patients.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Behaviorismo , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Dor , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Enfermagem , Espanha , Cuidados Críticos , Criança
2.
Behav Brain Sci ; 45: e12, 2022 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35139939

RESUMO

Yarkoni makes a number of valid points in his critical analysis of psychology, but he misses an opportunity to expose the root of its problems. That root is the poor practice around the derivation of explanatory constructs. We make comment on this with an example from behaviorist history and relate this to the recent discussion of scientific understanding in the philosophy of science.


Assuntos
Behaviorismo , Filosofia , Humanos
5.
Cognition ; 213: 104761, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148649

RESUMO

Jacques Mehler and I started Cognition, to break the grip of empiricist associationist behaviorism and stultifying style requirements on scientific discourse, and to liberate Cognitive Psychology's contributions to social issues. The journal provided opportunities for upcoming generations to expand Cognitive Psychology, publishing new concepts unhindered by established topics and standard formats. As the journal matured, Jacques kept. it fresh for 4 decades, seeking young scientists, novel ideas, and elegant writing, as it midwifed the emergence from Reductionist Behaviorism through Cognitive Psychology to rationalist Cognitive Science. The journal now has opportunities to nurture further progress in the future of Cognitive Science. I speculate that the field will keep associationist processes but integrate them with a new kind of non-reductionist theory that eschews detailed predictions, and which which interprets the brain as an enactor of thought, but not its structural cause. Ideally it will provide a set of constraints on the action of brain and mind that subsume and explain behavioral regularities, the role of frequency, how the brain externalizes those constraints and how the externalization processes emerge developmentally as a function of innate factors, structures unique to the mind and brain, experience and natural law.


Assuntos
Behaviorismo , Cognição , Encéfalo , Ciência Cognitiva , Humanos , Redação
6.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(4): 1214-1220, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125774

RESUMO

Behaviourism is the underpinning learning theory of many teaching and assessment tools utilised to enhance the effectiveness of learning. Feedback, reinforcements, motivation, learning outcomes and objectives are a few among many which are implied by the medical teachers while teaching both basic and clinical sciences to students. The claim of behaviourism being redundant or dead is not based on realities. The behaviourist approach is and will remain the most powerful theory to be implied in educational processes for gaining successful outcomes.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Estudantes de Medicina , Logro , Behaviorismo , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Motivação , Ensino
7.
Behav Brain Sci ; 44: e50, 2021 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899717

RESUMO

Ainslie's target article provides a map of distinct mechanisms relevant to self-control, potentially providing needed precision to the field. He also breaks new ground in characterizing the symbiotic relationship between suppression and resolve. In this commentary, I argue that one behaviorism-based feature of his framework, present-state independence, is unjustified and unnecessary for the broader claims of the theory.


Assuntos
Behaviorismo , Humanos
8.
Psicol. USP ; 32: e200015, 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1340399

RESUMO

Resumo O Ensaio Clínico Aleatorizado (ECA) é considerado o tipo de desenho metodológico com maior poder de verificação da eficácia das psicoterapias. Entretanto, especialmente a partir da segunda metade do século XX, muitas críticas direcionadas às concepções epistemológicas subjacentes às ditas "ciências duras" atingiram também, no âmbito das ciências da saúde, os estudos que adotavam esse desenho. Este artigo é uma reflexão crítica sobre algumas das objeções feitas aos ECAs, avaliando de que maneira e até que ponto estes poderiam se configurar como estratégia válida de investigação científica no contexto crítico apontado. Conclui-se que o ECA pode e deve ser utilizado - desde que em contexto crítico - por seu valor pragmático, enquanto produtor de predições e intervenções capazes de solucionar problemas clínicos, inevitavelmente definidos e estabelecidos a partir do ponto de vista particular de uma comunidade.


Abstract The randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) is considered the type of methodological design with the greatest power to verify the efficacy of psychotherapies. However, especially from the second half of the twentieth century, many criticisms directed at the epistemological conceptions underlying the so-called "hard sciences" have also affected the studies that adopted this design. This article is a critical reflection on some of the objections made to randomized clinical trials, evaluating how and to what extent these trials could be configured as a valid scientific research strategy in this critical context. We concluded that the RCT should be used - as long as it is performed in a critical context - due to its pragmatic value, as a producer of predictions and interventions capable of solving clinical problems, inevitably defined and established from the particular point of view of a community.


Résumé L'essai clinique randomisé est considéré comme le type de conception méthodologique ayant le plus puissant pour vérifier l'efficacité des psychothérapies. Cependant, surtout depuis la seconde moitié du XXe siècle, de nombreuses critiques adressées aux conceptions épistémologiques qui sous-tendent les sciences dites « dures ¼ ont également affecté, dans le cadre des sciences de la santé, les études qui ont adopté cette conception. Cet article est une réflexion critique sur certaines des objections faites aux essais cliniques randomisés, évaluant comment et dans quelle mesure ceux-ci pourraient être configurés comme une stratégie valide de recherche scientifique dans le contexte critique signalé. On en conclu que l'ECA peut et doit être utilisé - à condition que ce soit dans un contexte critique - pour sa valeur pragmatique, en tant que producteur de prédictions et d'interventions capables de résoudre des problèmes cliniques, inévitablement définies et établies du point de vue particulier d'une communauté.


Resumen El ensayo clínico aleatorizado (ECA) se considera el tipo de diseño metodológico con mayor poder para verificar la eficacia de las psicoterapias. Sin embargo, especialmente desde la segunda mitad del siglo XX, muchas críticas dirigidas a las concepciones epistemológicas subyacentes a las llamadas "ciencias duras" también han afectado, dentro del alcance de las ciencias de la salud, los estudios que adoptan este diseño. Este artículo es una reflexión crítica sobre algunas de las objeciones hechas a los ECA, evaluando cómo y en qué medida podrían configurarse como una estrategia de investigación científica válida en este contexto crítico. Se concluye que el ECA puede y debe usarse, siempre y cuando se encuentre en un contexto crítico, por su valor pragmático como productor de predicciones e intervenciones capaces de resolver los problemas clínicos inevitablemente definidos y establecidos desde el punto de vista particular de una comunidade.


Assuntos
Psicoterapia/métodos , Behaviorismo , Eficácia , Conhecimento , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Julgamento
9.
Psicol. Estud. (Online) ; 26: e47074, 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1346769

RESUMO

RESUMO. A Psicoterapia Analítica Funcional é uma abordagem clínica baseada em uma análise funcional comportamental do ambiente terapêutico típico. Seus objetivos e técnicas terapêuticas podem ser descritos em diferentes termos, privilegiando ou não a linguagem utilizada na análise experimental do comportamento. Na formulação original, é destinada a diminuir a frequência de comportamentos clinicamente relevantes (CCRs) problemáticos e aumentar a dos de progresso e de interpretação pela técnica das cinco regras: observar CCRs, evocar CCRs, reforçar CCRs, observar os efeitos da intervenção e implementar a generalização. Sob a influência da Ciência Contextual Comportamental, estes mesmos elementos passaram a ser descritos com o rótulo de 'Modelo Consciência, Coragem e Amor' (ACL, do inglês Awareness, Courage and Love). O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar se a linguagem da nova proposição era compatível com a usada por B. F. Skinner. O método foi uma revisão destes termos, ou seus sinônimos, em importantes livros da obra de B. F. Skinner, notadamente uma literatura caracterizada por sua derivação dos achados de laboratório em pesquisas sobre o comportamento operante. Os livros consultados foram Ciência e comportamento humano, Sobre o behaviorismo, O comportamento verbal, Walden II e Questões recentes na análise comportamental. A revisão permitiu concluir que os termos consciência, coragem e amor já haviam sido explorados na literatura skinneriana, oferecendo análises funcionais e mostrando que seu uso é compatível com o sistema comportamental.


RESUMEN. La Psicoterapia Analítica Funcional es un enfoque clínico basado en un análisis funcional del comportamiento del ambiente terapéutico típico. Sus objetivos y técnicas terapéuticas pueden ser descritos en diferentes términos, privilegiando o no el lenguaje utilizado en el análisis experimental del comportamiento. En la formulación original, está destinada a disminuir la frecuencia de comportamientos clínicamente relevantes (CCR) problemáticos y aumentar la de los de progreso y de interpretación por la técnica de las cinco reglas: observar CCRs, evocar CCRs, reforzar CCRs, observar los efectos de la intervención e implementar la generalización. Bajo la influencia de la Ciencia Contextual Comportamental, estos mismos elementos pasaron a ser descritos con el rótulo 'Modelo Consciencia, Coraje y Amor' (ACL, del inglés Awareness, Courage and Love). El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar si el lenguaje de la nueva proposición era compatible con la usada por B. F. Skinner. La metodología fué una revisión de estos términos, o sus sinónimos, en importantes libros de la obra de B. F. Skinner, notable por ser una literatura caracterizada por su derivación de los hallazgos de laboratorio en investigaciones sobre el comportamiento operante. Los libros consultados fueron Ciencia y comportamiento humano, Sobre el conductismo, El comportamiento verbal, Walden II y Cuestiones recientes en el análisis de la conducta. La revisión permitió concluir que los términos conciencia, coraje y amor ya habían sido explorados en la literatura skinneriana, ofreciendo análisis funcionales y demostrando que su uso es compatible con el sistema conductual.


ABSTRACT. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy is a clinical approach based on a behavioral functional analysis of the typical therapeutic setting. Its objectives and therapeutic techniques can be described in different terms, privileging or not the language used in the experimental analysis of behavior. In its original formulation, this approach aims to decrease the frequency of problematic clinically relevant behaviors (CRBs) and to increase those of progress and interpretation by the five-rules technique: observe CRBs, evoke CRBs, reinforce CRBs, observe the effects of the intervention, and implement generalization. Under the influence of the Behavioral Contextual Science, these same elements came to be described with the label 'Awareness, Courage and Love Model' (ACL Model). The goal of this study was to identify whether the language of this new proposition was compatible with that used by B. F. Skinner. The method was a review of these terms, or their synonyms, using important books of the work of B. F. Skinner, notably a literature characterized by its derivation of laboratory findings in research on operant behavior. The books consulted were Science and human behavior, About behaviorism, Verbal behavior, Walden II and Recent issues in the analysis of behavior. This review made it possible to conclude that the terms awareness, courage and love had already been explored in the Skinnerian literature, offering functional analyses and showing that their use is compatible with the behavioral system.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Behaviorismo , Coragem , Amor , Psicoterapia , Ciência/educação , Terapêutica/psicologia , Comportamento Verbal , Comportamento , Terapeutas Ocupacionais/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Humano , Relações Interpessoais
10.
Behav Res Ther ; 135: 103732, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007544

RESUMO

This special issue celebrates the 100th anniversary of the Little Albert study, published in February 1920, which marked the birth of human fear conditioning research. The collection of papers in this special issue provides a snapshot of the thriving state of this field today. In this Editorial, we first trace the historical roots of the field and then provide a conceptual analysis of the many ways in which human fear conditioning is currently used in theory and treatment development, with special reference to the contributions in this special issue. Ivan P. Pavlov allegedly claimed that "If you want new ideas, read old books". We could not agree more; it is our conviction that tracing the roots of our field illuminates current trends and will contribute to shaping new directions for the next 100 years of research.


Assuntos
Behaviorismo/história , Psicologia Experimental/história , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Condicionamento Psicológico , Medo , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Terapia Implosiva , Pesquisa
11.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 26(5): 2849-2866, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557007

RESUMO

This paper critically assesses John Danaher's 'ethical behaviourism', a theory on how the moral status of robots should be determined. The basic idea of this theory is that a robot's moral status is determined decisively on the basis of its observable behaviour. If it behaves sufficiently similar to some entity that has moral status, such as a human or an animal, then we should ascribe the same moral status to the robot as we do to this human or animal. The paper argues against ethical behaviourism by making four main points. First, it is argued that the strongest version of ethical behaviourism understands the theory as relying on inferences to the best explanation when inferring moral status. Second, as a consequence, ethical behaviourism cannot stick with merely looking at the robot's behaviour, while remaining neutral with regard to the difficult question of which property grounds moral status. Third, not only behavioural evidence ought to play a role in inferring a robot's moral status, but knowledge of the design process of the robot and of its designer's intention ought to be taken into account as well. Fourth, knowledge of a robot's ontology and how that relates to human biology often is epistemically relevant for inferring moral status as well. The paper closes with some concluding observations.


Assuntos
Behaviorismo , Robótica , Animais , Humanos , Intenção , Status Moral , Princípios Morais
12.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 40: 1-17, jan.-maio 2020. graf, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1130137

RESUMO

Frequentemente, o behaviorismo radical e a análise do comportamento são apresentados na mídia por meio de estereótipos negativos, possivelmente atravancando a difusão de suas propostas aos potenciais beneficiários. Com base nisso, o objetivo deste trabalho é caracterizar as publicações do jornal Folha de S.Paulo sobre behaviorismo radical e análise do comportamento desde a sua fundação em 192, até 2015. Para tal, 227 parágrafos presentes no jornal que continham os termos Skinner ou behaviorismo foram selecionados para análise. De forma geral, foram encontrados trechos contendo críticas ao behaviorismo radical que expuseram equívocos históricos e conceituais, problematizaram o este campo de estudo, apresentaram algum aspecto correto e/ou apresentaram o termo "behaviorismo" de forma genérica. Foram identificados tópicos especialmente mal compreendidos: a análise do comportamento como legitimadora do controle, ultrapassada pelas teorias cognitivistas, capaz de explicar apenas comportamentos simples ou de animais não-humanos e interessada apenas em comportamentos observáveis. Recomenda-se que behavioristas radicais comuniquem suas propostas com ênfase em seu caráter de denúncia do controle como uma característica inerente às relações comportamentais de uma ciência viva em constante desenvolvimento e de uma abordagem interessada em lidar com quaisquer comportamentos, que aconteçam dentro ou fora da pele...(AU)


Often radical behaviorism and behavior analysis are presented in the media by means of negative stereotypes, thus possibly making harder the diffusion of its proposals to potential target audience. Taking that into account, this paper categorized publications from the newspaper Folha de S.Paulo since its foundation, in 1921, until 2015, regarding radical behaviorism and behavior analysis. To reach such goal, 227 paragraphs were selected containing the terms Skinner or behaviorism from the newspaper. In general, excerpts that criticized radical behaviorism, parts that exposed historical and conceptual misconception, that problematized radical behaviorism, that showed some correct aspect and that presented the term behaviorism in a generic way were found. Some specially misunderstood topics were identified: the view of behavior analysis as an approach that defends control, outdated and overcome by cognitive theories, is only capable of explaining simple human or non-human behavior and interested in observable behavior. We recommend behavior analysts that communicate their proposals with an emphasis on control as an inherent characteristic of behavioral relations to take into account it is a constantly evolving science and an approach interested in dealing with any behavior, whether occurring over or under the skin...(AU)


El análisis conductual y el conductismo radical son presentados a menudo en los medios de comunicación mediante estereotipos negativos, posiblemente dificultando la difusión de sus propuestas a los potenciales beneficiarios. Basándose en esto, el objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar las publicaciones del diario Folha de S.Paulo sobre el análisis conductual y el conductismo radical desde su fundación, en 1921, hasta 2015. Para ello, se seleccionaran para análisis 227 párrafos presentes en el diario, que contenían las palabras Skinner o conductismo. En general, se encontraron extractos que hicieron críticas al conductismo radical, que expusieron equívocos históricos y conceptuales, que problematizaron el conductismo radical, que presentaron algún aspecto correcto y que presentaron el término "conductismo" de manera genérica. Se identificó tópicos especialmente incomprendidos: la perspectiva de análisis de la conducta como un enfoque psicológico defensor del control, ultrapasada y superada por las teorías cognitivistas, capaz de explicar solo los comportamientos simples o de animales no humanos e interesada solamente en comportamientos observables. Se recomienda que conductistas radicales comuniquen sus propuestas con énfasis en su carácter de denuncia del control como una característica inherente a las relaciones comportamentales, de una ciencia viva, en desarrollo continuo, y de un enfoque psicológico interesado en tratar cualquier comportamiento, que ocurra dentro o fuera de la piel...(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Comportamento , Behaviorismo , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Jornais como Assunto , Publicações , Ciência , Comportamento e Mecanismos Comportamentais , Meios de Comunicação
14.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 26(4): 2023-2049, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222612

RESUMO

Can robots have significant moral status? This is an emerging topic of debate among roboticists and ethicists. This paper makes three contributions to this debate. First, it presents a theory-'ethical behaviourism'-which holds that robots can have significant moral status if they are roughly performatively equivalent to other entities that have significant moral status. This theory is then defended from seven objections. Second, taking this theoretical position onboard, it is argued that the performative threshold that robots need to cross in order to be afforded significant moral status may not be that high and that they may soon cross it (if they haven't done so already). Finally, the implications of this for our procreative duties to robots are considered, and it is argued that we may need to take seriously a duty of 'procreative beneficence' towards robots.


Assuntos
Obrigações Morais , Robótica , Behaviorismo , Beneficência , Análise Ética , Teoria Ética
15.
Pap. psicol ; 40(3): 174-181, sept.-dic. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186991

RESUMO

En este artículo se presenta una breve revisión de las teorías más relevantes utilizadas para explicar el comportamiento proambiental. Las teorías científicas permiten captar relaciones complejas, claves para entender los problemas del mundo real, y facilitan la identificación de los componentes más importantes implicados en la explicación de tales problemas, con el fin de poder predecirlos en el futuro. El comportamiento ambiental, es abordado desde las denominadas teorías de largo alcance, es decir, marcos conceptuales como el conductismo, la psicología evolucionista y el cognitivismo, que sirven para explicar cualquier tipo de comportamiento, así como por teorías más específicas centradas en analizar los comportamientos con impacto ambiental, entre las que se encuentran los escenarios de conducta, la teoría de lasaffordances, y las teorías sobre la relación persona-ambiente. En este trabajo se expone resumidamente cada uno de estos planteamientos teóricos junto a sus principales modelos explicativos


The aim of this paper is to present a brief review of the most relevant theories used to explain pro-environmental behavior. Scientific theories allow us to capture complex relationships, key to understanding real-world problems, and they facilitate the identification of the most important components involved in the explanation of these problems, in order to predict them in the future. Environmental behavior is approached based on what are known as long-range theories, that is, conceptual frameworks such as behaviorism, evolutionary psychology and cognitivism, which explain any type of behavior, as well as more specific theories focused on analyzing behaviors with environmental impact, including behavioral settings theory, the theory of affordances, and theories about the person-environment relationship. This paper summarizes each of these theoretical approaches together with their main explanatory models


Assuntos
Humanos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Psicologia Ambiental/organização & administração , Behaviorismo , Psicologia Ambiental/normas , Condicionamento Psicológico , Meio Ambiente , Autoeficácia , Homeostase
16.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e217, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775949

RESUMO

Pointing to similarities between challenges encountered in today's neural coding and twentieth-century behaviorism, we draw attention to lessons learned from resolving the latter. In particular, Perceptual Control Theory posits behavior as a closed-loop control process with immediate and teleological causes. With two examples, we illustrate how these ideas may also address challenges facing current neural coding paradigms.


Assuntos
Behaviorismo , Metáfora , Encéfalo
17.
J Hist Behav Sci ; 55(2): 122-138, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786037

RESUMO

In recent decades, various studies have challenged the traditional view that John Broadus Watson's Behaviorist Manifesto prompted a psychological revolution. However, methodological hindrances underlie all these attempts to evaluate the impact of Watson's study, such as the absence of comparative parameters. This article remedies this problem by conducting a comparative citation analysis involving Watson and eight other representative psychologists of the time: J. R. Angell, H. Carr, J. M. Cattell, J. Dewey, G. S. Hall, W. James, E. L. Thorndike, and E. B. Titchener. Eight important American journals were scrutinized for the period between 1903 and 1923, a decade before and a decade after the publication of Watson's Manifesto. The results suggest that even if Watson's study cannot be taken as revolutionary, it had an impact between 1914 and 1923 that was close to Dewey's, Titchener's, and Thorndike's and higher than Angell's, Carr's, Cattell's, and Hall's, although distant from James's. Finally, some methodological implications of this study are discussed.


Assuntos
Behaviorismo/história , Psicologia/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Estados Unidos
18.
Psicol. USP ; 29(3): 374-384, set.-dez. 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-976546

RESUMO

Resumo Uma crítica comum encontrada em manuais e livros didáticos de psicologia é que a análise do comportamento não seria capaz de explicar fenômenos psicológicos complexos. Estes seriam melhor abordados por explicações cognitivistas baseadas em mecanismos internos ao organismo. Este ensaio tem como objetivo avaliar a pertinência dessa crítica à luz de exemplos da literatura analítico-comportamental. A partir da análise de pesquisas que tratam de formação de self, insight e linguagem, argumenta-se que a "complexidade" foi importada para os laboratórios de análise do comportamento, assim como floresceu em diversas linhas de pesquisa de tradição behaviorista radical. Em adição, são discutidos cinco significados possíveis dados à "complexidade" extraídos da literatura consultada. Conclui-se que não há significado útil do termo e que, por essa razão, talvez seja pertinente abandoná-lo como critério de classificação de comportamentos. Como consequência, "comportamento complexo" seria simplesmente "comportamento" e nada mais.


Résumé Une critique généralement trouvée dans les manuels et les livres de psychologie est que l'analyse de comportement ne serait pas capable d'expliquer les phénomènes psychologiques complexes. Ceux-ci seraient mieux abordées par des explications cognitives basées sur des mécanismes internes à l'organisme. Cet article vise à discuter la pertinence de cette critique à la lumière d'exemples de la littérature sur l'analyse de comportement. En analysant la recherche sur la formation du "self", "Insight" et du langage, on soutient que la "complexité" a été importé pour les laboratoires d'analyse comportementale, mais a aussi prospéré dans des nombreux domaines de recherche de la tradition béhavioriste radical. En outre, cinq significations possibles de "complexité" extraites de la littérature consultée sont discutés. On conclut qu'il n'y a pas de sens utile à ce terme et que, par conséquent, il peut être abandonné en tant que critère de classification des comportements. En conséquence, "comportement complexe" serait tout simplement "comportement" et rien de plus.


Resumen Una de las críticas a la Análisis de la Conducta, que se encuentran en los manuales y libros didácticos de psicología, es que esta no sería capaz de explicar los fenómenos psicológicos complejos. Estos serían mejor abordados por las explicaciones cognitivas basadas en los mecanismos internos del organismo. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo evaluar la relevancia de esta crítica a la luz de ejemplos de la literatura. A partir de investigaciones acerca del "self", "insight" y lenguaje, se argumenta que se importó la "complejidad" tanto para los laboratorios de análisis del comportamiento, como también floreció en varias líneas de investigación en la tradición conductista radical. Además, se discuten cinco posibles significados al término "complejidad". Llegamos a la conclusión de que no hay un significado útil y que, por esto, se puede abandonarlo como criterio de clasificación de comportamientos. Como resultado, "comportamiento complejo" haría simplemente "comportamiento" y nada más.


Abstract A criticism usually found in Psychology textbooks and manuals is that Behavior Analysis would not be able to explain complex psychological phenomena. These would be better approached by cognitivist explanations based on mechanisms internal to the organism. This study aims to discuss the relevance of this criticism in light of examples gathered from behavior-analytic literature. By analyzing researches about the formation of "self", "insight" and language, we argue that "complexity" was imported to behavior-analytic laboratories as well as it flourished in numerous fields of research of radical behaviorism tradition. Additionally, five meanings of "complexity" extracted from the consulted literature are discussed. It is concluded that there is no useful meaning to this term and, for that reason, it can be abandoned as a criterion for classifying behaviors. As a consequence, "complex behavior" should be viewed only as "behavior" and nothing else.


Assuntos
Humanos , Behaviorismo , Cognição , Intuição , Ego
19.
Radiol Technol ; 90(2): 172-175, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420574
20.
J Exp Anal Behav ; 110(3): 302-322, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30302758

RESUMO

In the context of evolutionary theory, behavior is the interaction between the organism and its environment. Two implications follow: (a) behavior takes time; and (b) behavior is defined by its function. That behavior takes time implies that behavioral units are temporally extended patterns or activities. An activity functions as an integrated whole composed of parts that are themselves smaller-scale activities. That behavior is defined by its function implies that behavior functions to change the environment in ways that promote reproductive success. Phylogenetically important events (PIEs) are enhanced or mitigated by activities they induce as a result of natural selection. Induction explains all the phenomena that have traditionally been explained by reinforcement. This multiscale view replaces discrete responses and contiguity with multiscale activities and covariance. A PIE induces operant activity as a result of covariance in the form of a feedback relation between the activity and the PIE. A signal (conditional inducer) induces PIE-induced activities as a result of covariance between the PIE and the signal. In an ontological perspective, behavior is a process, and an activity is a process individual. For example, ontological considerations clarify the status of delay and probability discounting. A true natural science of behavior is possible.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Behaviorismo , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Condicionamento Operante , Meio Ambiente , Humanos
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