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1.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118395, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687778

RESUMO

In this study, the organ distribution and exposure risk from dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were investigated for lotus collected from Ya-er Lake, a lake in Hubei Province, Central China that was historically polluted by the chlor-alkali industry. The highest concentrations of PCDD/Fs were found in the main and fibrous lotus roots, with mean values of 48.9 ± 90.1 pg/g and 94.6 ± 143 pg/g, respectively. In all the investigated samples, Octa-CDD (OCDD) and Octa-CDF (OCDF) were the predominant congeners, at 26% and 17% of Σ17 PCDD/Fs, respectively, followed by 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF (9%). The distribution ratios of PCDD/Fs in adjacent lotus organs indicated that PCDD/Fs accumulated easily in edible organs, such as lotus seeds, membrane and leaves. The WHO-TEQ in the edible lotus organs and the probable daily intake (PDI) of lotus products by residents were calculated: the toxic equivalents in the lotus fruit parts reached a mean of 2 pg WHO-TEQ2005/g dw, and the mean weekly intake of lotus products for adolescents living around Ya-er Lake was 2.3 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/week. These results suggested that long-term consumption of lotus products from Ya-er Lake presents a health hazard to residents.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos , Dioxinas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Álcalis , China , Dibenzofuranos , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Ingestão de Alimentos , Lagos
2.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 37(5): 557-560, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816673

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects of Butylphthalide (NBP) on airway mucus hypersecretion, interleukin-13 (IL-13) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in asthmatic mice. Methods: The mice were randomly divided into control group, asthma group, DEX group and high, medium and low doses of NBP (100, 50, 25 mg/kg) groups (n=12). Ovalbumin (OVA) injection was sensitized on the 1st, 8th, and 15th day of the experiment, and OVA was inhaled on the 22nd day to stimulate for 5 weeks to replicate the asthma model, and 20 mg/kg of NBP was given for intervention before the challenge. Finally, the asthma behavior, the secretion of goblet cells and Mucin 5ac (Muc5ac)were observed, and meanwhile the viscosity of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the levels of Muc5ac, IL-13 and TNF-α in BALF were measured by ELISA. Results: Compared with the control group, the degree of sneezing, nose scratching and asthma, the proliferation of airway epithelial goblet cells and secretion of Muc5ac in the asthma group were increased significantly (P<0.01), meanwhile, the viscosity of BALF and the contents of Muc5ac, IL-13 and TNF-α were also increased significantly (P<0.01). Compared with the asthma group, the above behavioral scores of asthma were decreased significantly (P<0.01) after the intervention of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg NBP, as well as the proliferation of airway epithelial goblet cells, secretion of Muc5ac, the viscosity of BALF and the contents of Muc5ac, IL-13 and TNF-α were significantly lower than those of the asthma group (P<0.05, 0.01). Conclusion: NBP has the effect of anti-asthma by inhibiting mucus hypersecretion, and one of its mechanisms is to alleviate the abnormal expressions of IL-13 and TNF-α.


Assuntos
Asma , Interleucina-13 , Animais , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Benzofuranos , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Pulmão , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Muco , Ovalbumina , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
3.
Waste Manag Res ; 39(12): 1480-1488, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766516

RESUMO

Chlorinated contaminants are a cause of significant concern in the development of municipal solid waste (MSW) thermal treatment techniques. This study investigates the efficacy of two calcium (Ca)-based in-furnace additives, calcium oxide (CaO), and calcined dolomite (CD), at reducing the levels of chlorinated contaminants during MSW thermal treatment. The results reveal that Ca-based additives could effectively reduce the chlorine (Cl) content by more than 76.8% and 37.3% in the gas and tar phases, respectively. The total concentration and the international total equivalent (I-TEQ) value of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-furans (PCDD/Fs) were significantly higher under the incineration condition than pyrolysis and gasification conditions. Adding CaO could reduce the total concentration and the I-TEQ value of PCDD/Fs by more than 43.4% and 36.7%, respectively. The reduction effect on PCDD/Fs was more significant in the gaseous phase and the tar phase than the solid phase. CD was more effective than CaO at reducing the chlorinated contaminants, including hydrogen chloride, Cl in the tar phase, and PCDD/Fs. Thus, adding Ca-based sorbents in the furnace during MSW pyrolysis and gasification can effectively reduce PCDD/Fs generation. Based on the experimental results, the mechanism of Ca-based sorbents on the high-temperature homogeneous reaction of PCDD/Fs formation was analysed.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Benzofuranos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Benzofuranos/análise , Cálcio , Dibenzofuranos , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Incineração , Resíduos Sólidos
4.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 497, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602607

RESUMO

Cognitive deficits commonly accompany psychiatric disorders but are often underrecognised, and difficult to treat. The 5-HT4 receptor is a promising potential treatment target for cognitive impairment because in animal studies 5-HT4 receptor agonists enhance hippocampal-dependent memory processes. To date, there has been little work translating these effects to humans. We tested whether short-term administration of the 5-HT4 partial agonist, prucalopride, modified behavioural and neural (fMRI) memory processing in 44 healthy human volunteers using an experimental medicine model. We found that participants who had received six days of prucalopride treatment were significantly better at recalling previously seen neutral images and distinguishing them from new images. At a neural level, prucalopride bilaterally increased hippocampal activity and activity in the right angular gyrus compared with placebo. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the potential of 5-HT4-receptor activation for cognitive enhancement in humans, and support the potential of this receptor as a treatment target for cognitive impairment.


Assuntos
Agonistas do Receptor 5-HT4 de Serotonina , Serotonina , Benzofuranos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Receptores 5-HT4 de Serotonina/metabolismo , Agonistas do Receptor 5-HT4 de Serotonina/farmacologia
5.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(5): 759-766, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622589

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the efficacy and mechanism of using 3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) in combination with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in the treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice. Methods: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55) was used for the induction and establishment of the EAE model in C57BL/6 mice. The mice were randomly assigned to the EAE group, which received intraperitoneal injection of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), the NBP-treated EAE group, or the NBP group, which received intraperitoneal injection of NBP, the BMSCs transplantion EAE group, or the BMSCs group, which received BMSCs injected into the lateral ventricle and intraperitoneal injection of PBS, and the BMSCs and NBP combination treatment EAE group, or the BMSCs+NBP group, which received BMSCs injected into the lateral ventricle and intraperitoneal injection of NBP. Each group had 10 mice, while ten normal mice were used as the blank control group receiving intraperitoneal injection of PBS. The neurological function scores were documented daily. The mice were sacrificed 22 days after EAE induction, and the demyelination state of of the spinal cords was observed through Luxol fast blue (LFB) staining. In addition, the levels of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, IL-17, IL-22 and transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) were examined with ELISA. The levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), microtubule associated protein-2 (MAP-2) and myelin basic protein (MBP) in the brain were examined with immunofluorescence staining. Western blot was used to check the expressions of nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway, phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB or Akt) pathway, IL-17 and forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) in the spinal cords. Results: The neurological function scores and average scores of each treatment group were significantly lower than those of the EAE group ( P<0.05). The scores of the BMSCs+NBP group decreased more significantly than those of the single treatment groups (the NBP group and the BMSCs group) ( P<0.05). LFB staining results of the spinal cords were consistent with the neurological function scores and the average scores. Compared with the EAE group, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, IL-17 and IL-22, significantly decreased ( P<0.05), and the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-ß significantly increased ( P<0.05). The change in cytokine expression was more significant in the BMSCs+NBP group ( P<0.05). The expressions of GFAP, MAP-2 and MBP in the BMSCs+NBP group were significantly higher than those of the BMSCs group ( P<0.05). Compared with the EAE group, the p-NF-κB/NF-κB ratio and the IL-17/Foxp3 ratio in NBP group, BMSCs group and BMSCs+NBP group decreased, while P-IκBα/IκBα, p-pI3k/PI3K and P-Akt/Akt ratios increased, especially in the BMSCs+NBP group( P<0.05). Conclusion: The combined treatment of NBP and BMSCs can help alleviate the symptoms of EAE model mice, showing better efficacy than treatment with NBP or BMSCs alone. The mechanism is related to the inhibition of the NF-κB pathway to regulate Th17/Foxp3 ratio and the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway to promote the neurogenic differentiation of BMSCs.


Assuntos
Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Animais , Benzofuranos , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/terapia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(41): 12314-12322, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612625

RESUMO

Phytoferritin has a natural cagelike architecture for carrying bioactive molecules, and it is uniquely suited to function as a carrier due to its multiple interfaces and channels. In this study, a novel approach was proposed to prepare ferritin-salvianolic acid B-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) three-layer nanoparticles (FSE) through the steric hindrance of ferritin channels. Urea (30 mM) could expand the ferritin channel size evidenced by the improved iron release rate vo and promote the EGCG penetration into the ferritin cavity without disassembly of the ferritin cage. The encapsulation ratio of EGCG was 16.0 ± 0.14% (w/w). Salvianolic acid B attached to the outer interface of ferritin through weak bonds with a binding constant of (2.91 ± 0.04) × 105 M-1. The FSE maintained a spherical structure with a diameter of 12 nm. Moreover, when subjected to heat (40-70 °C) there was a significant increase in the stability of EGCG in the FSE due to the binding of salvianolic acid B. Through this interesting approach, two molecules are simultaneously attached and encapsulated in ferritin in a multilayer form under moderate conditions, which is conducive to the protection of unstable molecules for potential encapsulation and delivery utilization.


Assuntos
Catequina , Nanopartículas , Benzofuranos , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Ferritinas
7.
Acta Gastroenterol Belg ; 84(3): 429-434, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599567

RESUMO

Background: Intestinal pseudo obstruction both acute and chronic is an uncommon severe motility disorder that affect both children and adults, can lead to significant morbidity burden and have no standard management strategy. Prucalopride a highly selective serotonin receptor agonist is an effective laxative with reported extra colon action. We aim to report our experience in children with acute and chronic intestinal pseudo obstruction who responded to prucalopride and systemically review the use of prucalopride in intestinal pseudo obstruction. Methods: A report of clinical experience and systemic review of the relevant medical databases to identify the outcome of usage of prucalopride in patients with acute and chronic intestinal pseudo obstruction. Studies meeting the selection criteria were reviewed including abstract only and case reports. Results: All reported cases showed clinical response to prucalopride. There were three full text, two abstracts only and three case reports all reporting clinical improvement with prucalopride. Conclusion: Prucalopride appears to show promising results in children and adults with acute and chronic intestinal pseudo obstruction.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos , Pseudo-Obstrução Intestinal , Adulto , Benzofuranos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Colo , Humanos , Laxantes/uso terapêutico
8.
Korean J Gastroenterol ; 78(4): 219-226, 2021 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697276

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Constipation is a common gastrointestinal disorder. Prucalopride is a dihydrobenzofurancarboxamide derivative with gastrointestinal prokinetic activities and is recommended as an appropriate choice in patients unresponsive to laxatives. This study assessed the safety and efficacy of prucalopride in Korean patients with chronic constipation, in whom laxatives were ineffective. Methods: This prospective, non-interventional post-marketing surveillance of prucalopride was conducted from 2012 to 2018 at 28 hospitals in Korea. Adults who received prucalopride for the symptomatic treatment of chronic constipation were included. The patients received 2 mg of prucalopride once daily or 1 mg once daily in patients older than 65 years. The baseline characteristics, adverse events (AEs), and seven-point scale of Clinical Global Impression-Improvement were collected. Results: Of 601 patients, 67.7% were female, and the mean age was 62.3 years. Three hundred patients (49.9%) were older than 65 years. At the baseline, 70.0% of patients reported less than two instances of spontaneous complete bowel movements per week. AEs were reported in 107 patients (17.7%), including headache (3.2%) and diarrhea (2.8%). Seven serious AEs (SAEs) were reported in five patients (0.8%). The SAEs were resolved without complications; there were no cases of death. All SAEs were assessed as 'unlikely' causality with prucalopride. In 72.7% of patients, chronic constipation was improved by the prucalopride treatment during the study period. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the promising safety and efficacy profile of prucalopride in clinical practice. Thus, prucalopride should be considered in patients with chronic constipation when bowel symptoms are refractory to simple laxatives.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal , Laxantes , Adulto , Benzofuranos , Doença Crônica , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Laxantes/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Cell Rep ; 37(2): 109806, 2021 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644561

RESUMO

Tactical disruption of protein synthesis is an attractive therapeutic strategy, with the first-in-class eIF4A-targeting compound zotatifin in clinical evaluation for cancer and COVID-19. The full cellular impact and mechanisms of these potent molecules are undefined at a proteomic level. Here, we report mass spectrometry analysis of translational reprogramming by rocaglates, cap-dependent initiation disruptors that include zotatifin. We find effects to be far more complex than simple "translational inhibition" as currently defined. Translatome analysis by TMT-pSILAC (tandem mass tag-pulse stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture mass spectrometry) reveals myriad upregulated proteins that drive hitherto unrecognized cytotoxic mechanisms, including GEF-H1-mediated anti-survival RHOA/JNK activation. Surprisingly, these responses are not replicated by eIF4A silencing, indicating a broader translational adaptation than currently understood. Translation machinery analysis by MATRIX (mass spectrometry analysis of active translation factors using ribosome density fractionation and isotopic labeling experiments) identifies rocaglate-specific dependence on specific translation factors including eEF1ε1 that drive translatome remodeling. Our proteome-level interrogation reveals that the complete cellular response to these historical "translation inhibitors" is mediated by comprehensive translational landscape remodeling.


Assuntos
Biossíntese de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Síntese de Proteínas/farmacologia , Animais , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Fator de Iniciação 4A em Eucariotos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Iniciação 4A em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Cultura Primária de Células , Biossíntese de Proteínas/fisiologia , Proteômica/métodos , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/genética , Triterpenos/farmacologia
10.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641539

RESUMO

Usnic acid is the best-studied lichen metabolite, presenting several biological activities, such as antibacterial, immunostimulating, antiviral, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antiparasitic agents; despite these relevant properties, it is a hydrophobic and toxic molecule. In this context, scientific research has driven the development of innovative alternatives, considering usnic acid as a source of raw material in obtaining new molecules, allowing structural modifications (syntheses) from it. The purpose is to optimize biological activities and toxicity, with less concentration and/or response time. This work presents a literature review with an analogy of the hydrophobic molecule of usnic acid with its hydrophilic derivative of potassium usnate, emphasizing the elucidation and structural characteristics, biological activities, and toxicological aspects of both molecules, and the advantages of using the promising derivative hydrophilic in different in vitro and in vivo assays when compared to usnic acid.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/química , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Potássio/química , Analgésicos/química , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antiparasitários/química , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Benzofuranos/toxicidade , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Líquens/metabolismo
11.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684677

RESUMO

Two new phthalide derivatives, rhytidhylides A (1) and B (2), together with ten known compounds (3-12) were isolated from cultures of Rhytidhysteron sp. BZM-9, an endophyte isolated from the leaves of Leptospermum brachyandrum. Their structures were identified by an extensive analysis of NMR, HRESIMS, ECD, and through comparison with data reported in the literature. In addition, the cytotoxic activities against two human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2 and SMMC7721) and antibacterial activities against MRSA and E. coli were evaluated.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/química , Benzofuranos/isolamento & purificação , Benzofuranos/efeitos adversos , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Endófitos/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Leptospermum/microbiologia , Estrutura Molecular
12.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684679

RESUMO

(1) Background: Many flavonoids have been reported to exhibit pharmacological activity; a preparatory study confirmed that Coreopsis lanceolata flowers (CLFs) contained high flavonoid structure content; (2) Methods: CLFs were extracted in aqueous methanol (MeOH:H2O = 4:1) and fractionated into acetic ester (EtOAc), normal butanol (n-BuOH), and H2O fractions. Repeated column chromatographies for two fractions led to the isolation of two aurones and two flavonols; (3) Results: Four flavonoids were identified based on a variety of spectroscopic data analyses to be leptosidin (1), leptosin (2), isoquercetin (3), and astragalin (4), respectively. This is the first report for isolation of 2-4 from CLFs. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis determined the content levels of compounds 1-4 in the MeOH extract to be 2.8 ± 0.3 mg/g (1), 17.9 ± 0.9 mg/g (2), 3.0 ± 0.2 mg/g (3), and 10.9 ± 0.9 mg/g (4), respectively. All isolated compounds showed radical scavenging activities and recovery activities in Caco-2, RAW264.7, PC-12, and HepG2 cells against reactive oxygen species. MeOH extract, EtOAc fraction, and 1-3 suppressed NO formation in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and decreased iNOS and COX-2 expression. Furthermore, all compounds recovered the pancreatic islets damaged by alloxan treatment in zebrafish; (4) Conclusions: The outcome proposes 1-4 to serve as components of CLFs in standardizing anti-oxidant, pro-inflammatory inhibition, and potential anti-diabetic agents.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes , Benzofuranos , Coreopsis/química , Flavonoides , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Benzofuranos/química , Benzofuranos/isolamento & purificação , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flores/química , Humanos , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Células RAW 264.7/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Peixe-Zebra
13.
Waste Manag ; 135: 437-447, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619625

RESUMO

The current derived models for predicting polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/F) emissions from incineration can only be applied to a specific incinerator due to high deviation or systematic errors. And the models fail to provide quantized guidance for the operation of full-scale municipal solid waste incinerators. To address the problem, explainable Bayesian support vector regression (E-BSVR) has been established to generalized predict and maximumly reduce the PCDD/F emissions. First, forty-two PCDD/F samples were determined from a whole year experiment in a full-scale incinerator. Meanwhile, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene(1,2,4-TrCBz), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, oxynitride, particulate matter, fluoride, and hydrogen chloride were measured, as input features. Second, after box-cox transformation normalization, and hyperparameters tuning, the R-Squared and root mean square error (RMSE) of the proposed method are 0.983 and 0.044, exhibiting high accuracy. The high accuracy (R-Squared = 0.992) and generalization are also proven on the dataset with high PCDD/F emissions. Then, the performances of BSVR are compared with kernel ridge regression, multiple linear regression, and unary linear regression, indicating afar smaller RMSE of BSVR. Finally, the optimal operating parameters are calculated through local interpretable model-agnostic explanations and the partial dependence plot. Results indicate that reducing the content of organic chlorine in municipal solid waste and inhibiting the deacon reaction are important methods for reducing PCDD/F emissions. The optimal operating parameters for the maximal reduction of PCDD/F emissions are 1,2,4-TrCBz < 0.098 ug/m3, fluoride > 0.452 mg/m3. As a whole, the E-BSVR method can be used as a reliable and accurate approach for the prediction and reduction of PCDD/F emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Benzofuranos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Teorema de Bayes , Benzofuranos/análise , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluoretos , Incineração , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise
14.
Phytochemistry ; 192: 112972, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624729

RESUMO

Apple replant disease (ARD) is a severe soil-borne disease frequently observed in apple tree nurseries and orchards worldwide. One of the responses of apple trees to ARD is the formation of biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins in their roots. However, there is no information on whether or not these phytoalexins are exuded into the soil. To answer this open question, a model system was established using the ARD-sensitive apple rootstock M26 (Malus × domestica Borkh. Rosaceae) and GC-MS analysis in combination with an in-house GC-MS database including retention indices. We have detected a total of 35 phytoalexins, i.e. 10 biphenyls and 25 dibenzofurans in root samples, thereby adding eight compounds to the previously reported 27 phytoalexins of Malinae species. When in vitro cultured M26 plantlets were treated with yeast extract, all the 35 phytoalexins were formed in the roots and 85.2% of the total phytoalexin amount was exuded into the culture medium. In roots of M26 plants grown in ARD soil in pot, 26 phytoalexins were detected and their exudation was demonstrated using two independent approaches of collecting root exudates. In a modified dipping experiment and a soil-hydroponic hybrid setup, the exudation rate was 39.5% and 20.6%, respectively. The exudation rates for individual phytoalexins differed, indicating controlled exudation processes. The exuded phytoalexins may play an important role in shaping the soil microbiome, which appears to greatly influence the development and severity of ARD.


Assuntos
Malus , Benzofuranos , Compostos de Bifenilo , Dibenzofuranos , Raízes de Plantas , Sesquiterpenos , Solo
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(16): 4244-4251, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467739

RESUMO

Coumarins are the main active components in Psoraleae Fructus. To study the multi-component pharmacokinetics of Psoraleae Fructus, this study established a sensitive and rapid ultra-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of psoralen, isopsoralen, psoralenoside, and isopsoralenoside in rat plasma. After validation, the method was applied to the investigation of pharmacokinetics of psoralen, isopsoralen, psoralenoside, and isopso-ralenoside in rats after single and multiple administration of Psoraleae Fructus extract. The results revealed that the exposure of psoralen and isopsoralen in rat plasma was high after a single intragastric administration of Psoraleae Fructus extract, with an AUC_(0-∞) of 443 619-582 680 and 167 314-276 903 ng·mL~(-1)·h~(-1), respectively. Compared with these two compounds, the exposure of psoralenoside and isopsoralenoside was lower with marked gender difference. After 7-day administration of Psoraleae Fructus extract to rats, the AUC_(0-∞) of psoralen and isopsoralen was 29 701-81 783 and 39 234-89 914 ng·mL~(-1)·h~(-1), respectively, which was significantly lower than that at the first day(P<0.05), and that of psoralenoside and isopsoralenoside was 7 360-19 342 and 8 823-45 501 ng·mL~(-1)·h~(-1), respectively. There was no significant gender difference in exposure of psoralenoside and isopsoralenoside in male and female rats. However, the exposure of psoralenoside and isopsoralenoside in male rats was reduced(P<0.05), and the t_(1/2) and mean residence time(MRT) were shortened, suggesting that the removal of these two compounds from the body was accelerated.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Furocumarinas , Psoralea , Administração Oral , Animais , Benzofuranos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Ficusina , Furocumarinas/análise , Glicosídeos , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
16.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126216, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492973

RESUMO

Thermal treatment of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (FA) is an effective method to detoxicate FA and produce secondary material with good utilization properties, but the high temperature induced migration of carbon, chlorine, and catalytic metals from FA to flue gases can result in a considerable reformation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Herein, two typical fly ashes were thermally cotreated with sewage sludge (SS), respectively, and the decomposition and reformation of PCDD/Fs were systematically investigated. Thermal treatment effectively decomposed PCDD/Fs in all samples to a low level well meeting the reutilization criterion of 50 ng WHO-TEQ g-1. Cleavage of the oxygen bridge was identified as the primary decomposition pathway. Compared to mono-treating FA, cotreating FA with SS resulted in a better CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 ternary system for vitrification and effectively suppressed the reformation of PCDD/Fs in off-gases with inhibition efficiencies up to 96%. Based on the variation of chemical speciation of N, P, and S in SS after thermal treatment, SS appeared to be a S-N-containing inhibitor which passivated catalytic metals to suppress PCDD/Fs synthesis. The better suppression on de novo pathway than on chlorophenol-route identified by monitoring PCDD/F-fingerprints evolution further verified the suppression mechanism of passivating catalytic metals.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Cinza de Carvão , Dibenzofuranos , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Incineração , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Esgotos , Dióxido de Silício , Resíduos Sólidos/análise
17.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 37(9): 815-820, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533129

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the effect of salvianolic acid B (SalB) on the proliferation, migration and differentiation of human gingival mesenchymal stem cells (hGMSCs). Methods The hGMSCs were isolated and cultured, and the expressions of CD73, CD90, CD34, and CD45 were detected by flow cytometry; logarithmic phase cells were selected and hGMSCs were treated with 0, 5, 10 µmol/L SalB for 24 hours. The proliferation activity of cells in each group was detected by CCK-8 assay, the migration ability of cells was detected by TranswellTM assay and scratch test, and the osteogenic differentiation ability and the adipogenic differentiation ability were detected by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and oil red O staining, respectively; the mRNA and protein expressions of cell differentiation proteins and genes as well as proteins related to the PI3K/AKT signal pathway were detected by Real-time quantiative PCR and Western blotting. Results The proliferation and migration ability of SalB-treated hGMSCs were significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner; the ability of osteogenic differentiation of hGMSCs and the expressions of osteogenesis associated proteins and PI3K/AKT signal pathway related proteins were up-regulated, while the adipogenic differentiation decreased, and the expression of adipogenesis related proteins was significantly down-regulated. Conclusion SalB promotes the proliferation, migration, and osteogenic differentiation of hGMSCs and inhibits the adipogenic differentiation, which may be related to the activation of PI3K/AKT signal pathway.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Osteogênese , Benzofuranos , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502445

RESUMO

The dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza is a renowned traditional Chinese medicine that was used for over 1000 years in China. Salvianolic acid B (SalB) is the main natural bioactive product of S. miltiorrhiza. Although many publications described the regulation mechanism of SalB biosynthesis, few reports simultaneously focused on S. miltiorrhiza root development. For this study, an R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene (SmMYB52) was overexpressed and silenced, respectively, in S. miltiorrhiza sterile seedlings. We found that SmMYB52 significantly inhibited root growth and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) accumulation, whereas it activated phenolic acid biosynthesis and the jasmonate acid (JA) signaling pathway. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses revealed that SmMYB52 suppressed the transcription levels of key enzyme-encoding genes involved in the IAA biosynthetic pathway and activated key enzyme-encoding genes involved in the JA and phenolic acid biosynthesis pathways. In addition, yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) and dual-luciferase assay showed that SmMYB52 directly binds to and activates the promoters of several key enzyme genes for SalB biosynthesis, including SmTAT1, Sm4CL9, SmC4H1, and SmHPPR1, to promote the accumulation of SalB. This is the first report of a regulator that simultaneously affects root growth and the production of phenolic acids in S. miltiorrhiza.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Salvia miltiorrhiza/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salvia miltiorrhiza/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 17(8): 1699-1710, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544546

RESUMO

The present study describes the use of fucoidan, a negative sulfated polysaccharide, as a coating material for the development of liposomes targeted to macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. First, fucoidan was chemically modified to obtain a hydrophobized-fucoidan derivative (cholesteryl-fucoidan) using a two-step microwave-assisted (µW) method. The total reaction time was decreased from 14 hours to 1 hour while maintaining the overall yield. Cholesterylfucoidan was then used to prepare surface-modified liposomes containing usnic acid (UA-LipoFuc), an antimicrobial lichen derivative. UA-LipoFuc was evaluated for mean particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), surface charge (ζ), and UA encapsulation efficiency. In addition, a cytotoxicity study, competition assay and an evaluation of antimycobacterial activity against macrophages infected with M. tuberculosis (H37Ra) were performed. When the amount of fucoidan was increased (from 5 to 20 mg), vesicle size increased (from 168 ± 2.82 nm to 1.18 ± 0.01 µm). Changes in from +20 ± 0.41 mV for uncoated liposomes to -5.41 ± 0.23 mV for UA-LipoFuc suggested that the fucoidan was placed on the surface of the liposomes. UA-LipoFuc exhibited a lower IC50 (8.26 ± 1.11 µM) than uncoated liposomes (18.37 ± 3.34 µM), probably due to its higher uptake. UA-LipoFuc5 was internalized through the C-type carbohydrate recognition domain of the cell membrane. Finally, usnic acid, both in its free form and encapsulated in fucoidan-coated liposomes (UA-LipoFuc5), was effective against infected macrophages. Hence, this preliminary investigation suggests that encapsulated usnic acid will aid in further studies related to infected macrophages and may be a potential option for tuberculosis treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Benzofuranos , Lipossomos , Macrófagos , Polissacarídeos
20.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579038

RESUMO

An excessive fat diet induces intramuscular fat deposition that accumulates as a form of lipid droplet (LD) and leads to lipotoxicity, including muscle atrophy or decreasing muscle strength. Lipotoxicity depends on the number of LDs, subcellular distribution (intermyofibrillar, IMF, LDs or subsarcolemmal, SS), and fiber type-specific differences (type I or type II fiber) as well as the size of LD. Ecklonia cava extracts (ECE), which is known to increase peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α), which leads to decreasing expression level of perilipin2 (PLIN2). PLIN2 is involved in modulating the size of LDs. This study shows that ECE and dieckol could decrease PLIN2 expression and decrease the size and number of LDs in the muscle of high-fat diet (HF)-fed animals and lead to attenuating muscle atrophy. Expression level of PPAR-α was decreased, and PLIN2 was increased by HF. ECE and dieckol increased PPAR-α expression and decreased PLIN2. The diameter of LDs was increased in high-fat diet condition, and it was decreased by ECE or dieckol treatment. The number of LDs in type II fibers/total LDs was increased by HF and it was decreased by ECE or dieckol. The SS LDs were increased, and IMF LDs were decreased by HF. ECE or dieckol decreased SS LDs and increased IMF LDs. The ECE or dieckol attenuated the upregulation of muscle atrophy-related genes including Murf1, Atrogin-1, and p53 by HF. ECE or dieckol increased the cross-sectional area of the muscle fibers and grip strength, which were decreased by HF. In conclusion, ECE or dieckol decreased the size of LDs and modulated the contribution of LDs to less toxic ones by decreasing PLIN2 expression and thus attenuated muscle atrophy and strength, which were induced by HF.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Atrofia Muscular/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Gorduras na Dieta , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Força Muscular , PPAR alfa , Perilipina-1/genética , Perilipina-1/metabolismo , Feófitas/química
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