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1.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 4): 132276, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601372

RESUMO

Phytoconstituents of plants had enormous therapeutic potential against the wounds on skin. Plants like Tecoma stans, Manilkara zapota and Cassia fistula were some which had the ability to heal the wounds. However, there was limited research in Cassia fistula flowers and its synergism with plants on wound healing and its mechanism. Qualitative analysis was performed to confirm the presence of phytoconstituents like flavonoids, saponins and tannins in solvents:aqueous ethanol and methanol. All three components showed their attributes towards wound healing. Results of antimicrobial activity clearly stated that, methanol extract of the Cassia fistula flowers at increasing concentration, showed the maximum zone of inhibition of 27 mm at 100 µl (antibacterial assay) and 18 mm at 100 µl (anti-fungal assay). They had higher potential against the selective microbes Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus niger. The combination of C. fistula flowers and C. fistula leaves; C. fistula flowers and M. zapota leaves showed maximum zone of inhibition of 23 mm and 21 mm for anti-bacterial; 22 mm and 23 mm for antifungal at 100 µl respectively. The C. fistula flowers along with the Manilkara zapota leaves and C. fistula leaves enhanced the antimicrobial nature than the individual plants. The antimicrobial properties present in the plants would engage them in future for developing an improved medicine for wound healing. Thus a polyherbal plant solution containing equal proportions of plants, tested for the antibacterial activity, succeeded by showing its higher inhibition of 25 mm at 100 µl.This concluded that the synergism of plants had higher efficiency in microbial activity than the individual samples hence proving the plants attributes towards the wound healing.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Bignoniaceae , Plantas Medicinais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
2.
Am J Bot ; 108(9): 1761-1774, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591314

RESUMO

PREMISE: Two Bignoniaceae stems with the distinctive anatomy of a liana are described from the Miocene of South America. They are the first fossil evidence of climbing habit in Bignoniaceae. METHODS: The fossil lianas are siliceous permineralizations. Transverse, tangential, and radial thin sections of the woods were prepared for study using standard petrographic techniques and observed under both light and scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: The stems consist of wood and presumably bark (peripheral tissues). They exhibit phloem wedges, a cambial variant associated with the climbing habit in Bignoniaceae. The wood is diffuse-porous; solitary and in radial multiples vessels; alternated intervessel pitting; ray-vessel pitting with distinct borders; simple perforation plates; rays 1-3 seriate, composed of procumbent cells or body ray cells procumbent with one or two-row of upright or square marginal cells; fibers septate and non-septate, with simple to minutely bordered pits; axial parenchyma scanty paratracheal, vasicentric, septate; perforated ray cells; prismatic crystals in rays, and rays and fibers irregularly storied. The fossil stems are related to extant Dolichandra unguis-cati (L.) Miers. CONCLUSIONS: The fossils represent a new taxon, Dolichandra pacei sp. nov., which confirms the presence of a neotropical Bignoniaceae liana from the Miocene and provides the first and oldest evidence of the climbing habit in the family. Paleobotanical studies in the Mariño Formation, with the record of Bignoniaceae and Verbenaceae, and phylogenetic and biogeographical studies have great importance to understand plant evolution and diversification in South American Andes.


Assuntos
Bignoniaceae , Fósseis , Floema , Filogenia , América do Sul
3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5574041, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34036100

RESUMO

Background: The growth or multiplication of harmful microorganisms in addition to harmful human activities has led to many disorders in humans. Consequently, there is a search for medications to treat these disorders. Interestingly, medicines of plant origin are known to be among the most attractive sources of new drugs and have shown promising results in the treatment of various diseases including peptic ulcers. This review, therefore, is aimed at obtaining knowledge on some Ghanaian ethnomedicinal plants used to treat peptic ulcers, their folkloric uses, their phytochemicals, and their antiulcer and related pharmacological activities as well as finding areas for prospective studies. Methods: Published peer-reviewed articles on ethnomedicinal plants used for the management of peptic ulcers in Ghana from 1967 to 2020 were sourced and used for the study. Results: In this review, 13 plants were identified which belong to 10 different families including Sapindaceae, Apocynaceae, and Bignoniaceae. The parts most often used for most preparations were the leaves (53%), followed by stem bark and roots (both having the same percentage of use of 17.6%), the whole plant (5.9%), and the rhizomes (5.9%). Azadirachta indica was the only plant that had undergone some patient studies in addition to animal studies. Conclusion. A discussion of various antiulcer activity studies using ulcer models carried out on selected medicinal plants used for the management of peptic ulcer disease in addition to brief information on their folkloric uses and their phytochemical and other pharmacological properties is presented. These medicinal plants may be used in developing herbal products for the management of peptic ulcer disease.


Assuntos
Úlcera Péptica/tratamento farmacológico , Plantas Medicinais/química , Animais , Apocynaceae/química , Azadirachta , Bignoniaceae/química , Bases de Dados Factuais , Gana , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Estudos Prospectivos , Sapindaceae/química
4.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 11(2)2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693604

RESUMO

The lack of genomic resources for tropical canopy trees is impeding several research avenues in tropical forest biology. We present genome assemblies for two Neotropical hardwood species, Jacaranda copaia and Handroanthus (formerly Tabebuia) guayacan, that are model systems for research on tropical tree demography and flowering phenology. For each species, we combined Illumina short-read data with in vitro proximity-ligation (Chicago) libraries to generate an assembly. For Jacaranda copaia, we obtained 104X physical coverage and produced an assembly with N50/N90 scaffold lengths of 1.020/0.277 Mbp. For H. guayacan, we obtained 129X coverage and produced an assembly with N50/N90 scaffold lengths of 0.795/0.165 Mbp. J. copaia and H. guayacan assemblies contained 95.8% and 87.9% of benchmarking orthologs, although they constituted only 77.1% and 66.7% of the estimated genome sizes of 799 and 512 Mbp, respectively. These differences were potentially due to high repetitive sequence content (>59.31% and 45.59%) and high heterozygosity (0.5% and 0.8%) in each species. Finally, we compared each new assembly to a previously sequenced genome for Handroanthus impetiginosus using whole-genome alignment. This analysis indicated extensive gene duplication in H. impetiginosus since its divergence from H. guayacan.


Assuntos
Bignoniaceae , Tabebuia , Bignoniaceae/genética , Genômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Tabebuia/genética , Árvores/genética
5.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(4): e2000982, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587821

RESUMO

Bignonia nocturna (Bignoniaceae) is a plant used for medicinal purposes by the Amazonian indigenous peoples. To date, there have been no reported studies on its toxicity. The present study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition of essential oils obtained from Bignonia nocturna by different extraction techniques. In addition, an in silico study of the molecular interactions was performed using molecular docking and molecular dynamics. The extractions were carried out by hydrodistillation, simultaneous distillation-extraction, and steam distillation, using samples collected from the Amazon in summer and winter. The chemical composition was analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS, and the cytotoxic activity in Artemia salina Leach was evaluated. The maximum yield (1.38 % w/w) was obtained by hydrodistillation. The results indicated that benzaldehyde predominated in all the fractions of both the volatile concentrate and the essential oils. In addition, the oil proved to be highly toxic to Artemia salina. The computer simulation results indicated that benzaldehyde strongly interacts with acetylcholinesterase, which is the likely interaction mechanism responsible for the cytotoxicity.


Assuntos
Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Bignoniaceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Medicina Tradicional , Modelos Moleculares , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais/química
6.
Phytomedicine ; 88: 153498, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), especially nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), has significantly increased in recent years and has become an important public health issue. However, no U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved first-line drug is currently available for the treatment of NAFLD and NASH; therefore, research on new drugs is currently a hot topic. Oroxylum indicum (Linn.) Kurz is extensively distributed in South China and South Asia and has many biological activities. However, its effects on NAFLD or even NASH and the corresponding mechanisms are still not clear. PURPOSE: To investigate the effect and mechanism of O. indicum seed extract (OISE) on preventing anti-inflammatory action in the progression from simple nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to NASH. METHODS: A network pharmacology method to construct ingredient-target networks and the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of OISE in NASH were constructed for topological analyses and hub-target screening. Enrichment analyses were performed to identify the critical biological processes and signaling pathways. Simultaneously, in vitro and in vivo experiments investigated the effect and mechanism of OISE, baicalein, and chrysin on inflammation by biochemical indicator detection, luciferase reporters, pathological staining, and immunoblotting in oleic acid-stimulated HepG2 cells or in high-fat diet-fed rats. RESULTS: The network pharmacology showed that OISE prevented the development and progression of NAFL into NASH through various pathways and targets and that the nuclear factor NF-κB (NF-κB) pathway regulated by baicalein and chrysin played an important role in the treatment of NASH. In in vitro experiments, we further showed that OISE and its ingredients, namely, baicalein and chrysin, all improved the inflammatory status in oleic acid-stimulated HepG2 cells, inhibited the nuclear transcriptional activities of NF-κB, increased the IκB level, and decreased the phosphorylation level of NF-κB. Furthermore, in a high-fat diet-induced NASH model in rats, we also showed that OISE prevented the development and progression of NASH by inhibiting the nuclear transcriptional activity of NF-κB. CONCLUSION: OISE suppressed inflammatory responses and prevented the development and progression of NAFL into NASH through inhibition of the nuclear transcriptional activity of NF-κB. OISE may be used to treat NAFLD through many functions, including an increase in insulin sensitivity, a decrease in lipid accumulation in the liver, suppression of inflammation, and clearance of free radicals.


Assuntos
Bignoniaceae/química , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Masculino , NF-kappa B/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Ácido Oleico/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sementes/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626396

RESUMO

The aqueous extract of fallen leaves from Fridericia chica (Bonpl.) L.G. Lohmann is utilized as a remedy in communities at northern Colombia. Traditional uses include wound healing, gastrointestinal inflammation, leukemia and psoriasis, among others. The aims of this research were to evaluate the potential of the aqueous extract of fallen leaves of F. chica (AEFchica) to inhibit ethoxylated nonylphenol (Tergitol)-induced toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans; and to identify its main components. The pharmacological properties of AEFchica was evaluated using a Tergitol-induced toxicity model in Caenorhabditis elegans. Lethality, locomotion, reproduction, and DAF-16 nuclear translocation were quantified. The chemical composition of AEFchica was carried out using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. AEFchica induced very little lethality on C. elegans (5.6%) even at high concentrations (10,000 µg/mL). The extract had no effect on locomotion impairing induced by ethoxylated nonylphenol. However, AEFchica (1000 µg/mL) abrogated Tergitol-induced mortality, recovering up to 53.3% of the nematodes from lethality induced by 10 mM Tergitol. Similarly, it also blocked Tergitol-dependent reproduction inhibition (82.1% recovery), as well as DAF-16 nuclear translocation (>95%), suggesting a prominent role on oxidative stress control. The chemical analysis indicated the presence of a great variety of molecules with known antioxidant, metabolic and immune modulator properties, such as hydroxylated methoxy flavones, N-methyl-1-deoxynojirimycin, and rehmaionoside A. In short, the aqueous extract of F. chica protects C. elegans from the deleterious effects of Tergitol on lethality, reproduction and oxidative stress involving DAF-16-mediated pathway. This extract is a promising source of bioactive phytochemicals for multi-target pharmacological purposes.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Bignoniaceae/química , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais , Folhas de Planta/química , Poloxaleno/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Colômbia , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Ann Bot ; 127(6): 723-736, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Genetically controlled self-incompatibility (SI) mechanisms constrain selfing and thus have contributed to the evolutionary diversity of flowering plants. In homomorphic gametophytic SI (GSI) and homomorphic sporophytic SI (SSI), genetic control is usually by the single multi-allelic locus S. Both GSI and SSI prevent self pollen tubes reaching the ovary and so are pre-zygotic in action. In contrast, in taxa with late-acting self-incompatibility (LSI), rejection is often post-zygotic, since self pollen tubes grow to the ovary, where fertilization may occur prior to floral abscission. Alternatively, lack of self fruit set could be due to early-acting inbreeding depression (EID). The aim of our study was to investigate mechanisms underlying the lack of selfed fruit set in Handroanthus heptaphyllus in order to assess the likelihood of LSI versus EID. METHODS: We employed four full-sib diallels to study the genetic control of LSI in H. heptaphyllus using a precociously flowering variant. We also used fluorescence microscopy to study the incidence of ovule penetration by pollen tubes in pistils that abscised following pollination or initiated fruits. KEY RESULTS: All diallels showed reciprocally cross-incompatible full sibs (RCIs), reciprocally cross-compatible full sibs (RCCs) and non-reciprocally compatible full sibs (NRCs) in almost equal proportions. There was no significant difference between the incidences of ovule penetrations in abscised pistils following self- and cross-incompatible pollinations, but those in successful cross-pollinations were around 2-fold greater. CONCLUSIONS: A genetic model postulating a single S locus with four S alleles, one of which, in the maternal parent, is dominant to the other three, will produce RCI, RCC and NRC full sib situations each at 33 %, consistent with our diallel results. We favour this simple genetic control over an EID explanation since none of our pollinations, successful or unsuccessful, resulted in partial embryo development, as would be expected under a whole-genome EID effect.


Assuntos
Bignoniaceae , Depressão por Endogamia , Flores/genética , Óvulo Vegetal/genética , Polinização
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 59, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420158

RESUMO

Fusarium verticillioides is an important fungal pathogen of maize, causing stalk rot and severely affecting crop production. The aim of this study was to characterize the protective effects of formulations based on Jacaranda mimosifolia leaf extracts against F. verticillioides in maize. We compared different seed treatments comprising J. mimosifolia extracts, chemical fungicide (mefenoxam) and salicylic acid to modulate the defense system of maize host plants. Both aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of J. mimosifolia (1.2% w/v) resulted in 96-97% inhibition of mycelial growth of F. verticillioides. While a full-dose (1.2%) extract of J. mimosifolia provided significant protective effects on maize plants compared to the inoculated control, a half-dose (0.6% w/v) application of J. mimosifolia in combination with half-strength mefenoxam was the most effective treatment in reducing stalk rot disease in pot and field experiments. The same seed treatment significantly upregulated the expression of genes in the leaves encoding chitinase, glucanase, lipid transfer protein, and pathogenesis-related proteins PR-1, PR-5 and PR-10, 72 h after inoculation. This treatment also induced the activities of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, protease, acid invertase, chitinase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase. We conclude that seed pre-treatment with J. mimosifolia extract with half-strength chemical mefenoxam is a promising approach for the management of stalk rot in maize.


Assuntos
Bignoniaceae , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/microbiologia , Bignoniaceae/química , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Quitinases/metabolismo , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Indução Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Sementes/microbiologia , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/enzimologia
10.
Molecules ; 26(2)2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440776

RESUMO

Natural products are rich sources of interesting scaffolds possessing a plethora of biological activity. With the isolation of the martinella alkaloids in 1995, namely martinelline and martinellic acid, the pyrrolo[3,2-c]quinoline scaffold was discovered. Since then, this scaffold has been found in two additional natural products, viz. incargranine B and seneciobipyrrolidine. These natural products have attracted attention from synthetic chemists both due to the interesting scaffold they contain, but also due to the biological activity they possess. This review highlights the synthetic efforts made for the preparation of these alkaloids and formation of analogues with interesting biological activity.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/síntese química , Pirróis/síntese química , Pirrolidinas/síntese química , Quinolinas/síntese química , Bignoniaceae/química , Produtos Biológicos/síntese química , Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos
11.
Planta ; 253(1): 13, 2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389109

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Three types of the glandular trichomes are developed on the flowers and leaves of Millingtonia hortensis. Morphology, cell ultrastructure and content of the volatile compounds are specific to each trichome type. The aim of this study was to characterize the structural and histochemical features of the glandular trichomes (GTs) of two types localized on the different flower parts and leaves in Millingtonia hortensis, as well as to identify the composition of the internal pool of metabolites. The peltate GTs are most common; they are founded on peduncle, calyx, ovary, and leaves. GTs consist of 12-24-cell disk-shaped head and a single-celled neck. The capitate GTs are located on corolla tube and have four to eight-cell head, single-celled neck and a wide multicellular stalk. A series of histochemical reactions and fluorescent microscopy revealed the various substances in the chemical composition of GTs. Acid polysaccharides are predominately identified in the capitate trichomes of the corolla tube and peltate trichomes of calyx, terpenes present in larger quantity in the trichomes of the corolla tube and ovary, whilst phenolic substances prevail in the trichomes of the calyx and ovary. GTs of each type are characterized by specific ultrastructural traits. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) and leucoplasts prevail in the peltate trichomes of peduncle, calyx and ovary; Golgi apparatus is the common organelle in the capitate trichomes of the corolla tube and peltate trichomes of calyx; the huge aggregates of the RER cisterns there are in cytoplasm of all leaf trichomes. Synthesized secretion accumulates in the subcuticular cavity of all GTs except the leaf peltate trichomes. In the trichomes of the leaves secretion is stored in the thick upper cell wall with the wide cutinized layer. For the first time content of the internal pool of metabolites from the flowers and leaves was identified by GC-MS. Seventeen compounds, including alcohols, fatty acid derivatives, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and benzenoids were identified. 1-octen 3-ol, 3-carene, methyl salicylate, p-hydroxybenzeneethanol and 1-hydroxy-2,4-di-tertbutyl-benzene were the main compounds of the flower scent. We consider GTs of the reproductive organs in M. hortensis synthesizing acid polysaccharides and volatile compounds as secretory structures attracting of pollinators, whereas the leaf peltate trichomes accumulating predominately non-volatile phenols, protect young vegetative shoots against small herbivorous insects and pathogens.


Assuntos
Bignoniaceae , Flores , Folhas de Planta , Tricomas , Flores/química , Flores/ultraestrutura , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , Tricomas/química , Tricomas/ultraestrutura
12.
Molecules ; 26(2)2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445612

RESUMO

Catalpa pod has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in South America. Studies on the constituents of Catalpa species have shown that it is rich in iridoids. In the present study, three previously undescribed compounds (2-4), including two secoiridoid derivatives along with twelve known compounds, were isolated from the fruits of Catalpa bignonioides Walt. In addition, fully assigned 13C-NMR of 5,6-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone-6-O-sophoroside (1) is reported for the first time in the present study. The structures of compounds were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods, including UV, IR, 1D, and 2D NMR, mass spectroscopy, and CD spectroscopic data. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Among the tested compounds, compounds 2, 3, and 9 exhibited significant inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase enzyme assay. Meanwhile, the effect of compounds 2, 3, and 9 on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was measured using pancreatic ß-cells. Compounds 2, 3, and 9 exhibited non-cytotoxicity-stimulated insulin secretion in INS-1 cells. The expression levels of proteins associated with ß-cell function and insulin secretion such as phosphorylation of total insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, activated pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) were increased in INS-1 cells after treatment with compounds 2, 3, and 9. The findings of the present study could provide a scientific warrant for their application as a potential antidiabetic agent.


Assuntos
Bignoniaceae/química , Frutas/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Secreção de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Glucose/farmacologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/análise , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , alfa-Glucosidases/química
13.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 35(2): e4979, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895963

RESUMO

Kigelia africana plant is widely used as a herbal remedy in preventing the onset and the treatment of cancer-related infections. With the increase in the research interest of the plant, the specific chemical compound or metabolite that confers its anticancer properties has not been adequately investigated. The ethyl acetate and butanol fractions of the fruit extracts were evaluated by 2-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay against four different cell lines, with the ethyl acetate fraction having inhibition concentration values of 0.53 and 0.42 µM against Hep G2 and HeLa cells, respectively. More than 235 phytoconstituents were profiled using UHPLC-TOF-MS, while more than 15 chemical compounds were identified using GC-MS from the fractions. Molecular docking studies revealed that physostigmine, fluazifop, dexamethasone, sulfisomidine, and desmethylmirtazapine could favorably bind at higher binding energies of -8.3, -8.6, -8.2, and -8.1 kcal/mol, respectively, better than camptothecin with a binding energy of -7.9 kcal/mol. The results of this study showed that physostigmine interacted well with topoisomerase IIα and had a high score of pharmacokinetic prediction using absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity profiles, thereby suggesting that drug design using physostigmine as a base structure could serve as an alternative against the toxic side effects of doxorubicin and camptothecin.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos , Bignoniaceae/química , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolômica/métodos , Fisostigmina , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Células HeLa , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química
14.
J Med Food ; 24(5): 527-532, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955964

RESUMO

The use of herbarium mixture has been empirical, and the properties are not yet known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of herbarium mixture (Guazuma ulmifolia [G. ulmifolia]/Tecoma stans [T. stans]) on metabolic profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial was carried out in 40 patients with T2DM. They were between 40 and 65 years of age, with body mass index (BMI) between 25.0 and 34.9 kg/m2 and HbA1c >7.0%. BMI, waist circumference, fasting glucose, HbA1c, lipids, kidney, and liver function were measured. The patients were randomly assigned to receive the herbarium mixture (G. ulmifolia/T. stans) 400 mg before each meal, or placebo for 90 days. Herbarium mixture group showed decreased waist circumference (99 ± 14 vs. 98 ± 15 cm; P = .019), fasting glucose (12.0 ± 5.7 vs. 10.3 ± 5.1 mM; P = .019), and HbA1c (9.9% ± 2.7% vs. 8.9% ± 2.5%, P = .002). In conclusion, the administration of herbarium mixture (G. ulmifolia/T. stans) improved the glycemic profile in patients with T2DM. ClinicalTrial registration: NCT03313856 ClinicalTrials.gov.


Assuntos
Bignoniaceae , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Bignoniaceae/metabolismo , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes , Metaboloma
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 268: 113647, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271242

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Scurrula ferruginea (Jack) Danser (locally known as 'Dedalu' or 'dian nan ji sheng' in Malaysia and China) is a hemi-parasitic shrub that is widely used as herbal medicine to treat inflammation, rheumatism, and stroke. However, the scientific basis of its anti-inflammatory function and mechanism remain to be proven. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity as well as the preliminary mechanism of S. ferruginea parasitizing on Tecoma stans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The anti-inflammatory capability of freeze-dried stem aqueous extract was assessed via inhibition of inflammatory cytokines interleukin- (IL-) 1ß, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The underlying anti-inflammatory mechanism was deciphered through reverse transcriptase and real time quantitative polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR and qPCR) for inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), IL-1ß, and TNF-α mRNA expression. RESULTS: The results exhibited that aqueous extract of freeze-dried S. ferruginea stem sample concentration-dependently inhibited IL-1ß protein production along with the down regulation of iNOS and IL-1ß mRNA expression. Moreover, it significantly suppressed the protein release of IL-6 and IL-10 in a concentration-dependent manner. However, it slightly reduced TNF-α at higher sample concentration (250 µg/mL) without affecting the mRNA expression levels of COX-2 and TNF-α. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that S. ferruginea parasitizing on Tecoma stans exerted anti-inflammatory capability attributed to inhibition of iNOS and IL-1ß mRNA expression, NO creation, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α protein production, indicating this plant might be a useful plant-derived candidate against inflammation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Bignoniaceae , Interferon gama/toxicidade , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Loranthaceae , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Células RAW 264.7
16.
J Asthma ; 58(6): 808-818, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043903

RESUMO

Objective: Pyrostegia venusta (Ker-Gawl.) Miers (Bignoniaceae) is a perennial invasive vine, distributed worldwide. In folk medicine, its parts are used for the treatment of inflammatory respiratory diseases. Extracts of P. venusta have antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antinociceptive properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two extracts (aqueous and hydroethanolic) of P. venusta in the treatment of asthma in an animal model.Methods: Balb/c mice were sensitized twice with ovalbumin (OVA) intraperitoneally (ip), one week apart, and after one week, challenged with OVA intranasally on four alternate days. Mice were treated ip with 300 mg/kg of aqueous or hydroethanolic extracts for seven consecutive days. Control groups received saline on the same days. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness, production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, lung and airway inflammation, and antioxidant activity in lung tissue were assessed.Results: Treatment with aqueous extract significantly decreased bronchial hyperresponsiveness, measured by total and tissue resistance and elastance. The administration of hydroethanolic extract did not reduce bronchial hyperresponsiveness. In addition, both extracts significantly reduced total cell and eosinophil counts in bronchoalveolar lavage. Both extracts did not change significantly IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, IFN-gamma, and TGF-beta levels. Of note, only the aqueous extract significantly increased the total antioxidant activity and reduced lung inflammation.Conclusion: Aqueous extract of P. venusta reduced bronchial hyperresponsiveness, lung and airway inflammation, probably via an antioxidant mechanism. These results demonstrate that P. venusta may have potential for asthma treatment.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Bignoniaceae , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Hiper-Reatividade Brônquica/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanol , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Células Th1/metabolismo , Células Th2/metabolismo , Água
17.
Braz J Biol ; 81(1): 137-143, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130287

RESUMO

The non-native African tuliptree, Spathodea campanulata (P. Beauv), is widely distributed in altered Neotropical environments, where hummingbirds are important pollinators. We investigated the assemblage of hummingbirds which fed on its nectar and described their behavior, to understand possible influences of the exotic tree on the territorial behavior in an altered environment in southeastern Brazil. Seven species fed on flower resources, mainly Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788), Amazilia lactea (Lesson, 1832), and Florisuga fusca (Vieillot, 1817). Visiting time was positive correlated with number of flowers accessed, but in most visits, hummingbirds get the nectar by pillage, instead of frontal access. Flower availability varied throughout months; however, we found no evidence of significative correlation between available flowers and number of agonistic encounters. Despite a high number of animal-plant interactions and a strong territorialism of some species observed in African tuliptree foraging site, there may be other plants at local scale influencing the behavioral patterns observed.


Assuntos
Bignoniaceae , Animais , Aves , Brasil , Comportamento Alimentar , Flores , Néctar de Plantas
18.
Nat Prod Res ; 35(9): 1413-1420, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402703

RESUMO

Oroxylin A, a major flavonoid in the extracts of Oroxylum indicum as well as Scutellaria baicalensis possesses useful medicinal properties. Many of the published routes claiming the synthesis of Oroxylin A (1) have in fact led to a regioisomer Negletein that was misinterpreted as Oroxylin A. In the present work, we describe a novel, straight-forward and scalable semi-synthetic approach for rapid access to the title compound, the structure of which is unambiguously secured by NMR and X-ray crystallographic analysis of a derivative. This work also encompasses the synthesis of a glycosylated derivative of Oroxylin A viz OAGME (2), which has marked pharmacological importance.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/síntese química , Bignoniaceae/química , Flavonas/química , Flavonoides/química , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Scutellaria baicalensis/química
19.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 199(4): 1633-1648, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643096

RESUMO

The use of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. plant dates back to last century. The different parts of the plant exhibited various pharmacological activities. But literature search revealed scanty use of the leaf extract owing to few information regarding the various phytochemical constituents. The aim of this study is, therefore, to profile the chemical compounds through the use of omics-based approach. Ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (qTOF-UPLC/MS) alongside gas chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (qTOF-GC/MS) were used to profile these chemical compounds. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was used to determine the concentration of trace elements as well as limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ). For broader metabolite determination, a modified sample preparation was employed and to ascertain the cytoprotective potential of the leaf extract, MTT assay on A375 human melanoma cell lines was carried out. Sixty-eight peaks were characterized with the identification of 275 metabolites where 8 of these were confirmed. Of importance is the identification of eugenol; a polyphenolic compound at m/z 165.09 on fragments 119.09, 147.08, 109.10, 137.10, and 137.06. for qTOF-GC/MS analysis, 232 metabolites were identified consisting of terpenes, fatty acids, furans, amines, amides, and alkanes. The concentration of trace elements in the leaf extract ranged from 0.08 for Zn to 0.28 mg/kg for Fe with low concentrations of Cd according to the recommendation of European Legislation. The leaf showed higher inhibition of growth against A375 human melanoma cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. The results showed that K. africana leaf contained various pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, designer drugs, and phytochemicals, and these chemicals have minimal cytotoxic side effects. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study providing information on the various secondary metabolites in the leaf extract through the use of omics-based approach. Therefore, the leaves of K. africana plant can be used as antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiproliferative agents for industrial, therapeutic, and medicinal applications. Graphical Abstract.


Assuntos
Bignoniaceae , Oligoelementos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
20.
Nat Prod Res ; 35(4): 641-645, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887819

RESUMO

For the first time, the cytotoxic and phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Stereospermum binhchauensis V.S. Dang, a new species discovered in Viet Nam were finalized and led to purify nine compounds, including one furancoumarin (1), one chromone (3), two triterpenoids (2, 4), two flavonoids (5, 8), two flavanoids (6, 7) and one iridoid (9) using various chromatography methods. Their structures were verified by HR-ESI-MS, NMR experiments and compared with previous literatures. For the first time, compounds (5-8) were realized from the genus Stereospermum, while compounds (1, 2, 3, 4 & 9) were designated from the species S. binhchauensis. Furthermore, the furancoumarin, chromone and flavanoid classes were notified for the first time from the genus Stereospermum.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Bignoniaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Antineoplásicos/análise , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química
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