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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252555, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364519

RESUMO

The study was designed to investigate the effect of Coconut Oil on the levels of some liver and hematological parameters in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rabbits. Also the antioxidant capacity of Coconut Oil for various concentrations was assessed on the basis of percent scavenging of (DPPH) free radical. Experimental animals were divided into five groups, eight rabbits in each group. These were: group A (Normal control), group B (Toxic control), group C (Standard control), group D (Treated with Coconut Oil 50 mL/kg body weight after CCl4 intoxication), group E (Treated with Coconut Oil 200 mL/kg body weight after CCl4 intoxication). The effects observed were compared with a standard hepatoprotective drug silymarine (50 mL/kg body weight). The Coconut Oil (200 mL/kg body weight) significantly (P<0.05) reduced the elevated serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) when compared to a toxic control rabbits. The results of extract treated rabbits were similar to silymarine administered rabbits group. Treatment with Coconut Oil root and silymarine caused no significant changes in RBC, Platelets, (Hb), (MCH) concentration and (HCT) values. However, significant (P<0.05) increase was observed in the total WBC count. The present study suggested that Coconut Oil can be used as an herbal alternative (need further exploration i.e to detect its bioactive compound and its efficacy) for hepatoprotective activit.


O estudo foi desenhado para investigar o efeito do óleo de coco nos níveis de alguns parâmetros hepáticos e hematológicos em coelhos intoxicados com tetracloreto de carbono. Também a capacidade antioxidante do óleo de coco para várias concentrações foi avaliada com base na porcentagem de eliminação de radicais livres (DPPH). Os animais experimentais foram divididos em cinco grupos, oito coelhos em cada grupo. Estes foram: grupo A (controle normal), grupo B (controle tóxico), grupo C (controle padrão), grupo D (tratado com óleo de coco 50 mL/kg de peso corporal após intoxicação por CCl4), grupo E (tratado com óleo de coco 200 mL/kg de peso corporal após intoxicação por CCl4). Os efeitos observados foram comparados com um fármaco hepatoprotetor padrão silimarina (50 mL/kg de peso corporal). O óleo de coco (200 mL/kg de peso corporal) reduziu significativamente (P<0,05) os níveis séricos elevados de alanina transaminase (ALT), aspartato transaminase (AST) e fosfatase alcalina (ALP), quando comparado a um coelho controle tóxico. Os resultados dos coelhos tratados com extrato foram semelhantes aos do grupo de coelhos administrados com silimarina. O tratamento com raiz de óleo de coco e silimarina não causou alterações significativas nos valores de RBC, Plaquetas, (Hb), (MCH) e (HCT). No entanto, observou-se aumento significativo (P<0,05) na contagem total de leucócitos. O presente estudo sugeriu que o óleo de coco pode ser usado como uma alternativa fitoterápica (precisa de mais exploração, ou seja, para detectar seu composto bioativo e sua eficácia) para atividade hepatoprotetora.


Assuntos
Coelhos , Tetracloreto de Carbono , Óleo de Palmeira , Biomarcadores/sangue , Fígado
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249472, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364512

RESUMO

Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, is the most common rust disease of wheat. The fungus is an obligate parasite capable of producing infectious urediniospores. To study the genetic structure of the leaf rust population 20 RAPD primers were evaluated on 15 isolates samples collected in Pakistan. A total of 105 RAPD fragments were amplified with an average of 7 fragments per primer. The number of amplified fragments varied from 1 to 12. GL Decamer L-07 and GL Decamer L-01 amplified the highest number of bands (twelve) and primer GL Decamer A-03 amplified the lowest number of bands i.e one. Results showed that almost all investigated isolates were genetically different that confirms high genetic diversity within the leaf rust population. Rust spores can follow the migration pattern in short and long distances to neighbor areas. Results indicated that the greatest variability was revealed by 74.9% of genetic differentiation within leaf rust populations. These results suggested that each population was not completely identical and high gene flow has occurred among the leaf rust population of different areas. The highest differentiation and genetic distance among the Pakistani leaf rust populations were detected between the leaf rust population in NARC isolate (NARC-4) and AARI-11and the highest similarity was observed between NARC isolates (NARC-4) and (NARC-5). The present study showed the leaf rust population in Pakistan is highly dynamic and variable.


A ferrugem da folha, causada por Puccinia triticina, é a ferrugem mais comum do trigo. O fungo é um parasita obrigatório, capaz de produzir urediniósporos infecciosos. Para estudar a estrutura genética da população de ferrugem da folha, 20 primers RAPD foram avaliados em 15 amostras de isolados coletadas no Paquistão. Um total de 105 fragmentos RAPD foram amplificados com uma média de 7 fragmentos por primer. O número de fragmentos amplificados variou de 1 a 12. GL Decamer L-07 e GL Decamer L-01 amplificaram o maior número de bandas (doze), e o primer GL Decamer A-03 amplificou o menor número de bandas, ou seja, um. Os resultados mostraram que quase todos os isolados investigados eram geneticamente diferentes, o que confirma a alta diversidade genética na população de ferrugem da folha. Os esporos de ferrugem podem seguir o padrão de migração em distâncias curtas e longas para áreas vizinhas. Os resultados indicaram que a maior variabilidade foi revelada por 74,9% da diferenciação genética nas populações de ferrugem. Esses resultados sugeriram que cada população não era completamente idêntica e um alto fluxo gênico ocorreu entre a população de ferrugem da folha de diferentes áreas. A maior diferenciação e distância genética entre as populações de ferrugem da folha do Paquistão foram detectadas entre a população de ferrugem da folha no isolado NARC (NARC-4) e AARI-11 e a maior similaridade foi observada entre os isolados NARC (NARC-4) e (NARC-5). O presente estudo mostrou que a população de ferrugem da folha no Paquistão é altamente dinâmica e variável.


Assuntos
Triticum/parasitologia , Biomarcadores , Pragas da Agricultura , Fungos/genética , Puccinia/genética
3.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 29(spe1): e2022_0199, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394846

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction Nowadays, more people are concerned with physical exercise and swimming competitions, as a major sporting event, have become a focus of attention. Such competitions require special attention to their athletes and the use of computational algorithms assists in this task. Objective To design and validate an algorithm to evaluate changes in vital capacity and blood markers of athletes after swimming matches based on combined learning. Methods The data integration algorithm was used to analyze changes in vital capacity and blood acid after combined learning swimming competition, followed by the construction of an information system model to calculate and process this algorithm. Results Comparative experiments show that the neural network algorithm can reduce the calculation time from the original initial time. In the latest tests carried out in about 10 seconds, this has greatly reduced the total calculation time. Conclusion According to the model requirements of the designed algorithm, practical help has been demonstrated by building a computational model. The algorithm can be optimized and selected according to the calculation model according to the reality of the application. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment outcomes.


RESUMO Introdução Atualmente, mais pessoas preocupam-se com o exercício físico e as competições de natação, como evento esportivo de destaque, tornou-se foco de atenção. Tais competições exigem atenção especial aos seus atletas e o uso de algoritmos computacionais auxiliam nessa tarefa. Objetivo Projetar e validar um algoritmo para avaliação das alterações da capacidade vital e marcadores sanguíneos dos atletas após os jogos de natação baseados no aprendizado combinado. Métodos O algoritmo de integração de dados foi usado para analisar as mudanças de capacidade vital e ácido sanguíneo após competição de natação de aprendizado combinado, seguido à construção de um modelo de sistema de informação para calcular e processar esse algoritmo. Resultados Experiências comparativas mostram que o algoritmo de rede neural pode reduzir o tempo de cálculo a partir do tempo inicial original. Nos últimos testes levados à cabo em cerca de 10 segundos, isto reduziu muito o tempo total de cálculo. Conclusão De acordo com os requisitos do modelo do algoritmo projetado, foi demonstrada a ajuda prática pela construção de um modelo computacional. O algoritmo pode ser otimizado e selecionado de acordo com o modelo de cálculo, segundo a realidade da aplicação. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción Hoy en día, cada vez más personas se preocupan por el ejercicio físico y las competiciones de natación, como evento deportivo destacado, se han convertido en un foco de atención. Estas competiciones requieren una atención especial para sus atletas y el uso de algoritmos computacionales ayuda en esta tarea. Objetivo Diseñar y validar un algoritmo para evaluar los cambios en la capacidad vital y los marcadores sanguíneos de los atletas después de los partidos de natación basado en el aprendizaje combinado. Métodos Se utilizó el algoritmo de integración de datos para analizar los cambios de la capacidad vital y la acidez de la sangre tras la competición de natación de aprendizaje combinado, seguido de la construcción de un modelo de sistema de información para calcular y procesar este algoritmo. Resultados Los experimentos comparativos muestran que el algoritmo de la red neuronal puede reducir el tiempo de cálculo con respecto al tiempo inicial. En las últimas pruebas realizadas en unos 10 segundos, esto redujo en gran medida el tiempo total de cálculo. Conclusión De acuerdo con los requisitos del modelo del algoritmo diseñado, se ha demostrado la ayuda práctica mediante la construcción de un modelo computacional. El algoritmo puede optimizarse y seleccionarse según el modelo de cálculo en función de la realidad de la aplicación. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Assuntos
Humanos , Natação/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Biomarcadores/análise , Aprendizado Profundo , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Atletas
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2566: 133-139, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152247

RESUMO

Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular mechanism of "self-digestion," ensuring cellular homeostasis and playing a role in many diseases including cancer. As a stress response mechanism, it may also be involved in cellular response to therapy. LC3 and Sequestosome 1 (p62/SQSTM1) are among the most widely used markers to monitor autophagy and can be visualized in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue by immunohistochemistry. Here we describe a validated staining protocol using an automated staining system available in many routine pathology laboratories, enabling high-throughput staining under standardized conditions.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Formaldeído , Biomarcadores , Imuno-Histoquímica , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Inclusão em Parafina , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/metabolismo
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2578: 1-15, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152276

RESUMO

The diversity of the antigen-specific humoral immune response reflects the interaction of the immune system with pathogens and autoantigens. Peptide microarray analysis opens up new perspectives for the use of antibodies as diagnostic biomarkers and provides unique access to a more differentiated view on humoral responses to disease. This review focuses on the latest applications of peptide microarrays for the serologic medical diagnosis of autoimmunity, infectious diseases (including COVID-19), and cancer.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Autoanticorpos/análise , Autoantígenos , Biomarcadores , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Humanos , Análise em Microsséries , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Peptídeos , Análise Serial de Proteínas
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2578: 219-236, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152291

RESUMO

Peptide microarrays are a powerful tool to identify linear epitopes of food allergens in a high-throughput manner. The main advantages of the microarray-based immunoassay are as follows: the possibility to assay thousands of targets simultaneously, the requirement of a low volume of serum, the more robust statistical analysis, and the possibility to test simultaneously several immunoglobulin subclasses. Among them, the last one has a special interest in the field of food allergy, because the development of tolerance to food allergens has been associated with a decrease in IgE and an increase in IgG4 levels against linear epitopes. However, the main limitation to the clinical use of microarray is the automated analysis of the data. Recent studies mapping the linear epitopes of food allergens with peptide microarray immunoassays have identified peptide biomarkers that can be used for early diagnosis of food allergies and to predict their severity or the self-development of tolerance. Using this approach, we have worked on epitope mapping of the two most important food allergens in the Spanish population, cow's milk, and chicken eggs. The final aim of these studies is to define subsets of peptides that could be used as biomarkers to improve the diagnosis and prognosis of food allergies. This chapter describes the protocol to produce microarrays using a library of overlapping peptides corresponding to the primary sequences of food allergens and data acquisition and analysis of IgE and IgG4 binding epitopes.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Imunoglobulina G , Alérgenos , Animais , Biomarcadores , Bovinos , Mapeamento de Epitopos/métodos , Epitopos , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Imunoensaio/métodos , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Peptídeos
7.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 284: 121777, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36058171

RESUMO

A novel multicolor fluorescent nano-probe based on the hybridization of Tb3+ ion with gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) was synthesized to monitor and on-site visual assay of 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (DPA), a biomarker of bacterial spores. DPA can replace the water molecule in the center of Tb3+ and strongly coordinate with Tb3+ based on the analyte-triggered antenna effect. Simultaneously, the red fluorescence of Au NCs is not influenced after addition of DPA and can be used as steady inside fluorescence reference channel to measure background noise. On this basis, the multicolor fluorescence nano-probe based on Tb3+-doped Au NCs for fast analysis of DPA was fabricated. The linear range of this method is 0 to 12.5 µM and the limit of detection is 3.4 nM, which is well below the quantity of DPA concentration of 60 µM released by the spore transmission dose of anthrax infection. The proposed multicolor fluorescence nano-probe was successfully detecting DPA in actual sample with good sensitivity and specificity. In addition, the visual paper-based nano-probe is designed to detect DPA by using the color scanning application of smart phone. This developed platform possesses abroad application prospects with advantages of effective, convenient carrying, simple operation, good selectivity and repeatability.


Assuntos
Ouro , Térbio , Biomarcadores/análise , Corantes Fluorescentes/análise , Ácidos Picolínicos/análise , Água
8.
Food Chem ; 398: 133884, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964575

RESUMO

Development of selective and sensitive methods for the detection of 2, 6-dipicolinic acid (DPA), a biomarker produced by bacterial spores, is of great significance for maintaining public health and food safety. Herein, a ratiometric fluorescence strategy using graphene carbon nitride (g-C3N4) coupled with Eu3+ is designed for the assay of DPA. As the concentration of DPA increases, the emission intensity of g-C3N4 kept constant which acted as a stable internal reference, while the fluorescence of Eu3+ was enhanced obviously due to the antenna effect. The linear calibration ranged from 0.1 to 15 µM with a detection limit of 13 nM was obtained. More Importantly, a paper-based sensor with a smartphone was successfully combined to perform colorimetric and visual detection of DPA in situ. This method has good performance for the detection of DPA, which is expected to broaden the application prospects of preliminary biomarker monitoring.


Assuntos
Antraz , Antraz/diagnóstico , Antraz/microbiologia , Biomarcadores , Európio , Corantes Fluorescentes , Humanos , Nitrilas , Ácidos Picolínicos , Smartphone
9.
Food Chem ; 398: 133856, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35986993

RESUMO

The assessment of food authenticity is a topic that gained a lot of interest at the international level. This term includes misidentification of variety, origin, production system, processing but also adulteration. These frauds all have an analytical component, and research tends to offer new analytical solutions to manage them. One of them is non-targeted approaches, which get around the limitations of targeted analysis by detecting the unexpected. A wide range of products are studied such as wine, rice, olive oil, spices, and honey among the top five. Geographic origin is by far the fraud with the most attention. The main reason is probably the complexity to consider terroir effect and every other variable to determine an area of production. This review offers an overview of the potential of non-targeted analysis to assess food authenticity. These results also illustrate the capability to look for environmental terroir markers that could be cross-matrixes.


Assuntos
Mel , Vinho , Biomarcadores/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Mel/análise , Metabolômica , Vinho/análise
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2565: 343-359, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36205905

RESUMO

Human chromogranin A (CgA), a 439-residue long neurosecretory protein, can serve as a circulating biomarker for a wide range of neuroendocrine tumors. Increased levels of immunoreactive CgA are also present in the blood of patients with cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, or inflammatory diseases with, in certain cases, important diagnostic and prognostic implications. A growing body of evidence suggest that CgA and various CgA-derived fragments have complex roles in the regulation of cardiovascular system, metabolism, innate immunity, angiogenesis, and tissue repair, sometime with opposite biological effects. For example, while full-length CgA (CgA1-439) inhibits angiogenesis, the CgA1-373 fragment, at certain doses, is proangiogenic. Thus, the selective quantification of CgA and its fragments in the blood of patients (and in other biological fluids) is of great experimental and clinical interest. Here, we describe methods to produce CgA1-439 and CgA1-373 and to develop ELISAs capable of detecting these polypeptides in a very selective manner. The same approach can be used, in principle, also for developing assays for other fragments.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Biomarcadores , Cromogranina A/metabolismo , Cromogranina A/farmacologia , Humanos , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia
11.
Gene ; 848: 146901, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Achieving spontaneous tolerance is the optimal goal in renal transplantation (RT). However, robust biomarkers indicating spontaneous tolerance are still lacking for RT recipients in clinics. METHODS: The peripheral blood gene expression profiles of RT recipients in the state of tolerance and other conditions from four independent cohorts were collected in databases. Immune cell abundance assessment and single-cell analysis were utilized and the peripherally induced regulatory T cell (piTreg) subset was identified as the key cell subtype. Then, a piTreg-related gene set was identified by analyzing cell induction data. Subsequently, selected biomarkers were applied to the Elastic Net for signature construction. The diagnostic ability of the signature was validated in three independent cohorts (Microarray) and our clinical cohort (RT-qPCR). Additionally, time-course analyses during short-term and long-term periods after transplantation were performed to examine whether the gene signature was affected by the administration of immunosuppressive (IS) regimens. RESULTS: The piTreg subset was found to possess the best discriminating ability in the peripheral blood for tolerance. After gene set identification and filtering, a two-gene piTreg-related gene signature was constructed in the training cohort (AUC = 0.830). The signature showed robust performance in three independent validation cohorts (AUC = 0.840, 0.826, and 0.859, respectively). The signature was also proved to be not affected by IS regimens in both short-term and long-term periods after RT. CONCLUSIONS: We developed and validated a piTreg-related two-gene signature based on the peripheral blood for tolerance in RT recipients. The non-invasive signature offered a promising potential testing method for individualized immunosuppressant management and immunologic surveillance for RT recipients in clinics.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica/genética , Imunossupressores , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
12.
Behav Brain Res ; 436: 114060, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35987307

RESUMO

Depressive symptoms are associated with altered pupillary responses during learning and reward prediction as well as with changes in neurometabolite levels, including brain concentrations of choline, glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). However, the full link between depressive symptoms, reward-learning-related pupillary responses and neurometabolites is yet to be established as these constructs have not been assessed in the same individuals. The present pilot study, investigated these relations in a sample of 24 adolescents aged 13 years. Participants completed the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) and underwent a reward learning task while measuring pupil dilation and a single voxel dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) MEGA-PRESS magnetic resonance spectroscopy scan assessing choline, glutamate and GABA concentrations. Pupil dilation was related to prediction errors (PE) during learning, which was captured by a prediction error-weighted pupil dilation response index (PE-PDR) for each individual. Higher PE-PDR scores, indicating larger pupil dilations to negative prediction errors, were related to lower depressive symptoms and lower dACC choline concentrations. Dorsal ACC choline was positively associated with depressive symptoms, whereas glutamate and GABA were not related to PE-PDR or depressive symptoms. The findings support notions of cholinergic involvement in depressive symptoms and cholinergic influence on reward-related pupillary response, suggesting that pupillary responses to negative prediction errors may hold promise as a biomarker of depressive states.


Assuntos
Depressão , Pupila , Adolescente , Biomarcadores , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Colina , Colinérgicos , Depressão/diagnóstico por imagem , Ácido Glutâmico , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Pupila/fisiologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico
13.
Ann Lab Med ; 43(1): 55-63, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045057

RESUMO

Background: The direct method for reference interval (RI) estimating is limited due to the requirement of resources, difficulties in defining a non-diseased population, or ethical problems in obtaining samples. We estimated the RI for inflammatory biomarkers using an indirect method (RII). Methods: C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and presepsin (PSEP) data of patients visiting a single hospital were retrieved from April 2009 to April 2021. Right-skewed data were transformed using the Box-Cox transformation method. A mixed population of non-diseased and diseased distributions was assumed, followed by latent profile analysis for the two classes. The intersection point of the distribution curve was estimated as the RI. The influence of measurement size was evaluated as the ratio of abnormal values and adjustment (n×bandwidth) of the distribution curve. Results: The RIs estimated by the proposed RII method (existing method) were as follows: CRP, 0-4.1 (0-4.7) mg/L; ESR, 0-10.2 (0-15) mm/hr and PSEP, 0-411 (0-300) pg/mL. Measurement sizes ≥2,500 showed stable results. An abnormal-to-normal value ratio of 0.5 showed the most accurate result for CRP. Adjustment values ≤5 or >5 were applicable for a measurement size <25,000 or ≥25,000, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed RII method could provide additional information for RI verification or estimation with some limitations.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Biomarcadores , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Humanos , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos , Valores de Referência
14.
Food Chem ; 399: 133942, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037685

RESUMO

An objective sensory evaluation of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), involving the chemical characterization of positive attributes, is of interest. These attributes are objectively divided, according to fruitiness, into "green" and "ripe" fruity. This work studied the differentiation in the volatile profile of EVOOs into these two classes, obtained by three analytical methods, including different extraction techniques and detectors and two data processing strategies, and their relation with sensory results. According to the results, each method allowed the characterization of the two classes, providing information on different volatile compounds, which increased in number through PARADISe software (14 more than the conventional processing). Moreover, some volatile compounds showed significant differences between the two classes, 16 highlighted by the variables with importance in projection (VIP) for green fruity (e.g. (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, methyl ether) and 23 for ripe fruity EVOOs (e.g. (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol), which could be considered as useful markers to complement quality assessment.


Assuntos
Frutas , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Biomarcadores/análise , Frutas/química , Azeite de Oliva/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
15.
Food Chem ; 399: 133824, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36041335

RESUMO

Innovative pH-colorimetric sensor film was fabricated from agar and methylcellulose matrix (AM) with various concentrations of sunflower wax (SFW) (6%, 9%, 12%, and 15% w/w) combined with purple Chinese cabbage (CPC) anthocyanins for tracking chicken breast freshness. A bio-composition film AM/CPC with (hydrophobic) SFW exhibited significant color variations in acidic pH level of (2-6) and a slight shift in alkaline pH levels ranging from (7-12), as well as marked color change due to ammonia vapor. Microstructure analyses revealed that SFW was fixed effectively into the AM-CPC matrices. The incorporation of varying SFW concentrations enhanced the mechanical, thermal, antioxidant activity, reduced anthocyanin release and physical properties (mainly water vapor permeability), with the best performance at AM/CPC/9% SFW. Interestingly, SFW films demonstrated perfect defense opposing UV-vis and visible light. Finally, it was proved that the efficiency of the pH-colorimetric film as an indicator for evaluating the freshness of chicken breast.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Brassica , Helianthus , Animais , Antocianinas/química , Biomarcadores , Galinhas , China , Embalagem de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2571: 33-43, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152148

RESUMO

Due to the high impact of diet exposure on health, it is crucial the generation of robust data of regular dietary intake, hence improving the accuracy of dietary assessment. The metabolites derived from individual food or group of food have great potential to become biomarkers of food intake (BFIs) and provide more objective food consumption measurements.Herein, it is presented an untargeted metabolomic workflow for the discovery BFIs in blood and urine samples, from the study design to the biomarker identification. Samples are analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). A wide variety of compounds are covered by separate analyses of medium to nonpolar molecules and polar metabolites based on two LC separations as well as both positive and negative electrospray ionization. The main steps of data treatment of the comprehensive data sets and statistical analysis are described, as well as the principal considerations for the BFI identification.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Metabolômica , Biomarcadores , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos
17.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2571: 71-81, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152151

RESUMO

Human diseases account for complex traits that usually exhibit markedly diverse clinical manifestations coming from a series of pathogenic processes that shape heterogeneous phenotypes. Considering that correlation does not imply causation as well as population differences and/or inter-individual variability, disease-specific signatures are becoming critical for biomarker discovery. Untargeted metabolomics is deemed to be a powerful approach to delineate molecular pathways of prime interest. Metabotypes capture the interplay of genomics and environmental influences per se. Untargeted metabolomics share the charm of being not only hypothesis-driven but also hypothesis-generating. Notwithstanding, the applicability of untargeted metabolomics toward clinically relevant outcomes depend on wet- and dry-lab procedures in the context of elegant study designs with clear rationale. As ideal may be far from feasible, herein we provide recommendations to combat sample mishandling that adversely affect data outcomes and if so, deal with imbalanced datasets toward data integrity.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Metabolômica , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Fenótipo , Projetos de Pesquisa
18.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2571: 83-94, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152152

RESUMO

Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) is an ideal method for analyzing various metabolites in biological samples. CE-MS can simultaneously identify and quantify hundreds of charged metabolites using only two acquisition methods for positively and negatively charged metabolites. Furthermore, CE-MS is commonly used for analyzing biological samples to understand the pathology of diseases at the metabolic level and biofluid samples, such as blood and urine, to explore biomarkers. Here, we introduce a protocol that delineates the handling of clinical samples to ensure that the CE-MS analysis yields reproducible quantified data. We have focused on sample collection, storage, processing, and measurement. Although the implementation of rigorous standard operating protocols is preferred for enhancing the quality of the samples, various limitations in an actual clinical setting make it difficult to adhere to strict rules. Therefore, the effect of each process on the quantified metabolites needs to be evaluated to design a protocol with acceptable tolerances. Furthermore, quality controls and assessments to handle clinical samples are introduced.


Assuntos
Eletroforese Capilar , Saliva , Biomarcadores , Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos
19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2571: 115-122, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152155

RESUMO

The circulating metabolome of human peripheral blood provides valuable information to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of diseases and to discover candidate biomarkers. In particular, erythrocytes have been proposed as potential systemic indicators of the metabolic and redox status of the organism. To accomplish wide-coverage metabolomics analysis, the combination of complementary analytical techniques is necessary to manage the physicochemical complexity of the human metabolome. Herein, we describe an untargeted metabolomics method to capture the plasmatic and erythroid metabolomes based on ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry, combining reversed-phase liquid chromatography and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. The method provides comprehensive metabolomics fingerprinting of plasma and erythrocyte samples, thereby enabling the elucidation of the distinctive metabolic disturbances behind childhood obesity and associated comorbidities, such as insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Criança , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos
20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2571: 133-142, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152157

RESUMO

Metabolomics continues to progress, but obstacles remain. The preservation of metabolites in the target tissue and gathering information on the current metabolic state of the organism of interest proves challenging. Robustness, reproducibility, and reliable quantification are necessary for confident metabolite identification and should always be considered for effective biomarker discovery. Recent advancements in analytical platforms, techniques, and data analysis make metabolomics a promising omics for significant research. However, there is no single approach to effectively capturing the metabolome. Coupling separation techniques may improve the power of the analysis and facilitate confident metabolite identification, especially when performing untargeted metabolomics. In this chapter, we will present an untargeted metabolomic analysis of brain tissue from C57BL/6 mice using two UHPLC-MS methods based on reversed-phase and HILIC chromatography.


Assuntos
Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Animais , Biomarcadores , Encéfalo , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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