Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.403
Filtrar
1.
Sci Total Environ ; 865: 161293, 2023 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592906

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) become ubiquitous contaminants in Marine Protected Areas (MPA) that have been planned as a conservation strategy. The present study provides a comprehensive overview of the occurrence, abundance, and distribution of MPs potentially affecting MPA worldwide. Data on MP occurrence and levels in sediment and biota samples were collected from recent peer-reviewed literature and screened using a GIS-based approach overlapping MP records with MPA boundaries. MPs were found in 186 MPAs, with levels ranging from 0 to 9187.5 items/kg in sediment and up to 17,461.9 items/kg in organisms. Peaked MPs concentrations occurred within multiple-use areas, and no-take MPAs were also affected. About half of MP levels found within MPA fell into the higher concentration quartiles, suggesting potential impacts on these areas. In general, benthic species were likely more affected than pelagic ones due to the higher concentrations of MP reported in the tissues of benthic species. Alarmingly, MPs were found in tissues of two threatened species on the IUCN Red List. The findings denote urgent concerns about the effectiveness of the global system of protected areas and their proposed conservation goals.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Plásticos , Sedimentos Geológicos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Biota
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673887

RESUMO

Restoring endangered plant species to their historical sites is not always possible due to constantly changing habitat conditions. The aim of this study was to test the effects of reintroduction of two relict willow species in eastern Poland. The experiment consisted of planting 48 individuals of Salix lapponum and S. myrtilloides, obtained by micropropagation, at each of the two selected sites and observing their survival after one year. At the same time, selected physicochemical and biocenotic factors of the environment were monitored. About 70% of S. lapponum individuals and 50% of S. myrtilloides plants survived the one-year period. This result can be considered satisfactory and confirms the effectiveness of this means of active protection. The results of measurements of selected abiotic factors of the environment and the observations and ecological analysis of the flora indicated that the habitat conditions of both historical sites have changed, resulting in accelerated succession of vegetation. However, complete habitat degradation did not occur, although the development of a multi-story structure of one of the phytocenoses intensified competition for light and other environmental resources, which narrowed the potential ecological niche of the reintroduced species.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Salix , Humanos , Animais , Ecossistema , Plantas , Biota
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(1): e2217880120, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36574705

RESUMO

Evolutionary innovations, defined as character states that transcend clade norms, are often studied in an exclusively phylogenetic context, but their distribution in time and space indicates that geography also influences the evolution of new ecological, morphological, and physiological traits. In an analysis of 99 fossillzable, norm-breaking innovations in tropical marine Neogene molluscan clades that arose uniquely in either (but not in both) the Indo-West Pacific (IWP) or Atlantic-East Pacific (AEP) realms, I show that there are far more innovations in the IWP (79%) than those in the AEP (21%). Most of the innovations are interpretable as defensive or competitive adaptations or as indicators of extreme habitat specialization. Although the innovations arose in taxonomically rich biotas, only 9% are associated with subclades comprising 10 or more species each, indicating that they contributed little to overall taxonomic richness. Compilations of extant species in 30 pantropical molluscan clades show that the IWP accounts for 71% of tropical shallow-water species, implying that the per-species incidence of norm-breaking innovations is higher there than in the AEP. Only 5% of innovations became extinct in the IWP as compared with 38% in the AEP, mirroring a similar difference in the magnitudes of Late Miocene and later taxonomic extinction in the two realms. These data imply that large-scale disruption strongly limits norm-breaking innovation. Opportunities for adaptive innovation are therefore likely to be few in today's heavily overexploited and disturbed biosphere.


Assuntos
Biota , Ecossistema , Filogenia , Geografia , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Curr Biol ; 33(2): 381-388.e4, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36563693

RESUMO

Transcending pairwise interactions in ecological networks remains a challenge.1,2,3,4,5 Higher-order interactions (HOIs), the modulation of a pairwise interaction by a third species,6 are thought to play a particularly important role in stabilizing coexistence and maintaining species diversity.7,8,9,10,11,12 However, HOIs have so far only been demonstrated in models9,10,11,12,13,14 or isolated experimental systems including only a few interacting species.7,8,15 Their ubiquity and importance at a community level in the real world remain unknown. We hypothesized that a complex network of HOIs could be constantly modifying pairwise interactions and shaping ecological communities and that consequently the outcome of pairwise interactions would be a product of many influences from distinct sources. Using field experiments, we tested how multiple interactions within a diverse arthropod community associated with the tropical shrub Baccharis dracunculifolia D.C. (Asteraceae) were modified by the removal of ant species or live or hatched insect galls (a non-trophic engineering effect) of the dominant galler species. We revealed an extensive hidden network of HOIs modifying each other and the "visible" pairwise interactions. Most pairwise interactions were affected indirectly by the manipulation of non-interacting taxonomic groups. The pervasiveness of these interaction modifications challenges pairwise approaches to understanding interaction outcomes and could shift our thinking about the structure and persistence of ecological communities. Investigating coexistence mechanisms involving interaction modulation by HOIs may be key to elucidating the underlying causes of the stability and persistence of ecological communities.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Baccharis , Animais , Insetos , Biota
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(1): e2203724120, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36577073

RESUMO

Multitrait adaptive evolution is shaped by factors such as phylogenetic and functional constraints as well as the intensity and direction of selection. The tempo and mode of such multitrait evolution can differentially impact the assembly of biological communities. Batesian mimicry, in which undefended prey gain a fitness advantage by evolving a resemblance to aposematic models, involves adaptive evolution of multiple traits such as color patterns and flight morphology. To elucidate the evolutionary mechanisms of such multitrait adaptations, we evaluated the tempo and mode of adaptive convergence in flight morphology and color patterns in mimetic butterfly communities. We found that compared with Batesian mimics or nonmimetic sister species, models showed significantly faster rates of aposematic trait evolution, creating adaptive peaks for mimicry. At the community level, the degree of mimetic resemblance between mimics and models was positively correlated with the rate of character evolution, but independent of phylogenetic relatedness. Monomorphic mimics and female-limited mimics converged on the color patterns of models to a similar degree, showing that there were no constraints on mimetic trait evolution with respect to sex-specific selections. Convergence was driven by the greater lability of color patterns, which evolved at significantly faster rates than the phylogenetically conserved flight morphological traits, indicating that the two traits evolve under differential selection pressures and/or functional and genetic constraints. These community-wide patterns show that during the assembly of a community, the tempo of adaptive evolution is nonlinear, and specific to the underlying functional relationships and key traits that define the community.


Assuntos
Mimetismo Biológico , Borboletas , Masculino , Animais , Feminino , Filogenia , Evolução Biológica , Borboletas/genética , Biota , Excipientes , Comportamento Predatório
6.
Ecology ; 104(2): e3961, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36545892

RESUMO

Facilitative interactions bind community species in intricate ecological networks, preserving species that would otherwise be lost. The traditional understanding of ecological networks as static components of biological communities overlooks the fact that species interactions in a network can fluctuate. Analyzing the patterns that cause those shifts can reveal the principles that govern the identity of pairwise interactions and whether they are predictable based on the traits of the interacting species and the local environmental contexts in which they occur. Here we explore how abiotic stress and phylogenetic and functional affinities constrain those shifts. Specifically, we hypothesize that rewiring the facilitative interactions is more limited in stressful than in mild environments. We present evidence of a distinct pattern in the rewiring of facilitation-driven communities at different stress levels. In highly stressful environments with a firm reliance on facilitation, rewiring is limited to growing beneath nurse species with traits to overcome harsh stressful conditions. However, when environments are milder, rewiring is more flexible, although it is still constrained to nurses that are close relatives. Understanding the ability of species to rewire their interactions is crucial for predicting how communities may respond to the unprecedented rate of perturbations on Earth.


Assuntos
Biota , Plantas , Humanos , Filogenia , Fenótipo
7.
Environ Res ; 219: 115163, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36580984

RESUMO

In recent years, under the condition of lack of carbon source, the presence of composite micro-pollutants make the removal of nitrate seriously damaged, and to find a suitable way to solve this problem is imminent. A fixed-biofilm carrier modified by mixing sponge iron (SI) and kapok fiber (KF) combined with strain Zoogloea sp. FY6 was constructed in this study to get a fixed-biofilm reactor with merit denitrification performance. By adjusting the operation parameters, it can be concluded that when the carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio was 1.5, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 6.0 h, and the pH was 6.0, the nitrate removal efficiency (NRE) of the fixed-biofilm reactor was up to 95.4% (2.95 mg L-1 h-1). In addition, the fixed-biofilm reactor constructed in this study can remove lead (Pb2+) and tetracycline (TC) excellently in the presence of SI and Zoogloea sp. FY6, and the denitrification performance can still maintain a high level under the influence of different concentrations of Pb2+ and TC. Furthermore, the addition of SI not only removes the compound pollutants, but also protects the toxicity of the pollutant inflow in the bioreactor, and the metabolic process of microorganisms in the bioreactor also removes some of the compound pollutants. The high-throughput data showed the abundance of strain Zoogloea sp. FY6 was still the highest value under the influence of various pollutants, and the metagenomic prediction showed that the fixed-biofilm reactor had perfect denitrification process and iron redox cycle benefits. This study provides a valuable reference for sustainable utilization of natural biological resources and reduction of material costs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs).


Assuntos
Ferro , Nitratos , Chumbo , Tetraciclina , Antibacterianos , Biofilmes , Carbono , Biota , Reatores Biológicos , Nitrogênio
8.
Science ; 378(6623): eabf0869, 2022 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36454829

RESUMO

Madagascar's biota is hyperdiverse and includes exceptional levels of endemicity. We review the current state of knowledge on Madagascar's past and current terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity by compiling and presenting comprehensive data on species diversity, endemism, and rates of species description and human uses, in addition to presenting an updated and simplified map of vegetation types. We report a substantial increase of records and species new to science in recent years; however, the diversity and evolution of many groups remain practically unknown (e.g., fungi and most invertebrates). Digitization efforts are increasing the resolution of species richness patterns and we highlight the crucial role of field- and collections-based research for advancing biodiversity knowledge and identifying gaps in our understanding, particularly as species richness corresponds closely to collection effort. Phylogenetic diversity patterns mirror that of species richness and endemism in most of the analyzed groups. We highlight humid forests as centers of diversity and endemism because of their role as refugia and centers of recent and rapid radiations. However, the distinct endemism of other areas, such as the grassland-woodland mosaic of the Central Highlands and the spiny forest of the southwest, is also biologically important despite lower species richness. The documented uses of Malagasy biodiversity are manifold, with much potential for the uncovering of new useful traits for food, medicine, and climate mitigation. The data presented here showcase Madagascar as a unique "living laboratory" for our understanding of evolution and the complex interactions between people and nature. The gathering and analysis of biodiversity data must continue and accelerate if we are to fully understand and safeguard this unique subset of Earth's biodiversity.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Humanos , Biota , Florestas , Madagáscar , Filogenia
9.
Science ; 378(6623): eadf1466, 2022 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36454830

RESUMO

Madagascar's unique biota is heavily affected by human activity and is under intense threat. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on the conservation status of Madagascar's terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity by presenting data and analyses on documented and predicted species-level conservation statuses, the most prevalent and relevant threats, ex situ collections and programs, and the coverage and comprehensiveness of protected areas. The existing terrestrial protected area network in Madagascar covers 10.4% of its land area and includes at least part of the range of the majority of described native species of vertebrates with known distributions (97.1% of freshwater fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals combined) and plants (67.7%). The overall figures are higher for threatened species (97.7% of threatened vertebrates and 79.6% of threatened plants occurring within at least one protected area). International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List assessments and Bayesian neural network analyses for plants identify overexploitation of biological resources and unsustainable agriculture as the most prominent threats to biodiversity. We highlight five opportunities for action at multiple levels to ensure that conservation and ecological restoration objectives, programs, and activities take account of complex underlying and interacting factors and produce tangible benefits for the biodiversity and people of Madagascar.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Animais , Humanos , Teorema de Bayes , Biota , Madagáscar , Mamíferos , Plantas
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20773, 2022 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36513689

RESUMO

The Fezouata Biota (Morocco) is a unique Early Ordovician fossil assemblage. The discovery of this biota revolutionized our understanding of Earth's early animal diversifications-the Cambrian Explosion and the Ordovician Radiation-by suggesting an evolutionary continuum between both events. Herein, we describe Taichoute, a new fossil locality from the Fezouata Shale. This locality extends the temporal distribution of fossil preservation from this formation into the upper Floian, while also expanding the range of depositional environments to more distal parts of the shelf. In Taichoute, most animals were transported by density flows, unlike the in-situ preservation of animals recovered in previously investigated Fezouata sites. Taichoute is dominated by three-dimensionally preserved, and heavily sclerotized fragments of large euarthropods-possibly representing nektobenthic/nektic bivalved taxa and/or hurdiid radiodonts. Resolving whether this dominance reflects a legitimate aspect of the original ecosystem or a preservational bias requires an in-depth assessment of the environmental conditions at this site. Nevertheless, Taichoute provides novel preservational and palaeontological insights during a key evolutionary transition in the history of life on Earth.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Fósseis , Animais , Biota , Evolução Biológica , Minerais
11.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387715

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: Los escarabajos coprófagos cumplen funciones importantes en los ecosistemas terrestres, pero las presiones antrópicas los afectan negativamente. Estos efectos están bien documentados en los bosques neotropicales de tierras bajas, pero se han estudiado poco en los bosques andinos. Objetivo: Evaluar cómo los atributos de los ensambles de escarabajos coprófagos y tres de sus funciones ecológicas difieren en tres tipos de cobertura vegetal, y determinar las relaciones entre atributos y funciones, y entre funciones. Métodos: Los escarabajos coprófagos se capturaron con trampas pitfall y se midieron las funciones ecológicas a través de un experimento de campo en la hacienda "El Ocaso" (Colombia), en tres tipos de cobertura vegetal: bosque secundario, bosque mixto y pastos para ganado (tres sitios independientes por cobertura). Los atributos del ensamble que se evaluaron fueron: abundancia, número de especies, biomasa y longitud corporal media ponderada; las funciones medidas fueron: remoción de estiércol, excavación del suelo y dispersión secundaria de semillas. Resultados: Se encontró que tanto los atributos del ensamble como las funciones ecológicas se vieron afectados negativamente en las coberturas vegetales más alteradas, particularmente en los pastos ganaderos. La mayoría de los atributos de ensamblaje se correlacionaron positivamente con las funciones; la excavación del suelo y la dispersión secundaria de semillas tuvieron una fuerte correlación positiva con la remoción de estiércol. Conclusiones: Los ensambles de escarabajos coprófagos juegan importantes funciones ecológicas y son sensibles a las alteraciones del ecosistema. Este estudio muestra cómo los escarabajos coprófagos y sus funciones se ven afectados negativamente cuando el bosque se transforma en pastizales para ganado en los ecosistemas forestales andinos poco estudiados y altamente fragmentados.


Abstract Introduction: Dung beetles perform important functions in terrestrial ecosystems, but anthropic pressures affect them negatively. These effects are well documented in neotropical lowland forests but have been studied little in Andean forests. Objective: To evaluate how the attributes of the dung beetle assemblages and three of their ecological functions differ in three types of vegetation cover, and to determine the relationships between attributes and functions, and among functions. Methods: Dung beetles were captured with pitfall traps, and ecological functions were measured through a field experiment in the farm "El Ocaso" (Colombia), in three types of vegetation cover: secondary forest, mixed forest and cattle pasture (three independent sites per cover). The assemblage attributes that were evaluated were abundance, number of species, biomass, and weighted mean body length; functions measured were dung removal, soil excavation, and secondary seed dispersal. Results: It was found that both the assemblage attributes and the ecological functions were negatively affected in the more disturbed vegetation covers, particularly in cattle pastures. Most of the assemblage attributes correlated positively with functions; soil excavation and secondary seed dispersal had a strong positive correlation with dung removal. Conclusions: Dung beetle assemblages play important ecological functions and they are sensitive to ecosystem disturbances. This study shows how dung beetles and their functions are affected negatively when forest is transformed to cattle pasture in the understudied and highly fragmented Andean forest ecosystems.


Assuntos
Animais , Besouros , Esterco , Colômbia , Biota
12.
Sci Bull (Beijing) ; 67(7): 674-675, 2022 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36546129
13.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(suppl 2): e20210536, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383810

RESUMO

In 2019 an oil spill spread over more than 4000 km of the Brazilian coastline. Monitoring programs that allow for the evaluation of potential impacts on communities and ecosystems and their recovery through time are needed and rely on baseline information previous to the oil spill. Here we compiled qualitative and quantitative data available from 8 studies on fish and benthic species from different habitats of Rio Grande do Norte (RN) from 2007 to 2018. We assessed the number of species from different locations and compiled information on conservation status and human use. We mapped the study areas and habitats and overlapped them with those affected by the oil spill. The RN state has a high diversity of fish (175 species) and benthic species (285 species), of which more than half of fish (52%) and 2% of benthic species are threatened and 72,8% of fish and 7,9% of benthic species are of commercial interest. Information of most habitats is still poorly known (i.e.majority ofthe available data are from unique and punctual sampling), which may weaken future evaluations of the real impact of the oil spill. Nonetheless, it is possible to design reliable monitoring based on our dataset, persistent contamination and future loss of diversity.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo , Animais , Humanos , Poluição por Petróleo/efeitos adversos , Ecossistema , Brasil , Peixes , Biota
14.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e243905, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383902

RESUMO

In the developed countries, the use of OCPs (organochlorine pesticides) has been banned. However, in South Asia several of them are still in use. In Pakistan and India a constant addition of OCPs into the atmosphere has been indicated by various researchers. In this study levels of selected organochlorine pesticide residues were assessed in sediment and biota collected from four (4) water reservoirs (3 Barrages & 1 Siphon) on the River Satluj Pakistan, along 231 miles (372 km) of River stretch which was further divided into 12 sampling sites. It was aimed to find out the levels of organochlorine pesticide (OCPs) residues in sediments and from selected fish species (Labeo rohita, Wallagu attu, Cyprinus carpio) of the River Satluj Pakistan. The Organochlorine residues (seven pesticides) present in samples of sediments and biota were investigated through multi residue method, using Gas Chromatograph (GC-ECD).In the current study, the concentration of DDT, was investigated in Wallago attu (0.786-3.987 ppb), Labeo rohita (0.779-4.355 ppb) and Cyprinus carpio (1.234-5.654 ppb). DDE was also found in Cyprinus carpio (1.244-6.322 ppb), Wallag attu (0.877-4.221 ppb) and Labeo rohita (2.112-5.897 ppb). Aldrin was not observed in Labeo rohita and Wallago attu. Currently, lindane and DDE was found predominately high in the sediments of study area at SZ-4 (Panjnad Barrage) ranging (2.238-8.226 ppb) and (4.234-6.876 ppb), respectively. Heaptachlor was found only at SZ-4 (Panjnad Barrage) from the sediments with concentration ranging (0.032-234 ppb). In short all other residues investigated were found below the MCL (maximum concentration level) in all the compartments of the study area set by various agencies like WHO/FAO- Codex Alimenterious.


Assuntos
Carpas , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Rios/química , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/análise , Paquistão , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Biota
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(46): e2207475119, 2022 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343248

RESUMO

The Ediacara Biota-the oldest communities of complex, macroscopic fossils-consists of three temporally distinct assemblages: the Avalon (ca. 575-560 Ma), White Sea (ca. 560-550 Ma), and Nama (ca. 550-539 Ma). Generic diversity varies among assemblages, with a notable decline at the transition from White Sea to Nama. Preservation and sampling biases, biotic replacement, and environmental perturbation have been proposed as potential mechanisms for this drop in diversity. Here, we compile a global database of the Ediacara Biota, specifically targeting taphonomic and paleoecological characters, to test these hypotheses. Major ecological shifts in feeding mode, life habit, and tiering level accompany an increase in generic richness between the Avalon and White Sea assemblages. We find that ∼80% of White Sea taxa are absent from the Nama interval, comparable to loss during Phanerozoic mass extinctions. The paleolatitudes, depositional environments, and preservational modes that characterize the White Sea assemblage are well represented in the Nama, indicating that this decline is not the result of sampling bias. Counter to expectations of the biotic replacement model, there are minimal ecological differences between these two assemblages. However, taxa that disappear exhibit a variety of morphological and behavioral characters consistent with an environmentally driven extinction event. The preferential survival of taxa with high surface area relative to volume may suggest that this was related to reduced global oceanic oxygen availability. Thus, our data support a link between Ediacaran biotic turnover and environmental change, similar to other major mass extinctions in the geologic record.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , Animais , Extinção Biológica , Biota , Oceanos e Mares
16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 185(Pt B): 114375, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36401948

RESUMO

Marine litter colonization is widely investigated as an important pathway for the dispersal of potentially invasive species. However, this phenomenon may be impacting marine biota in other ways as well. In this viewpoint, we express our concerns regarding the potential loss of viable eggs of numerous oviparous fishes deposited on marine litter when large-scale stranding events occur. Our concerns are supported by personal observations of stranded marine litter harboring fresh and viable egg capsules (Sympterygia sp.) and eggs (Family: Blenniidae), as well as reports in the literature. The loss of viable eggs from oviparous fishes is widely overlooked and poorly understood. Based on these knowledge gaps, we make a call for research and propose several research priorities to understand the impact of these events.


Assuntos
Peixes , Oviposição , Feminino , Animais , Ovos , Espécies Introduzidas , Biota
17.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 22(1): 135, 2022 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36397002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Land-use is a major driver of changes in biodiversity worldwide, but studies have overwhelmingly focused on above-ground taxa: the effects on soil biodiversity are less well known, despite the importance of soil organisms in ecosystem functioning. We modelled data from a global biodiversity database to compare how the abundance of soil-dwelling and above-ground organisms responded to land use and soil properties. RESULTS: We found that land use affects overall abundance differently in soil and above-ground assemblages. The abundance of soil organisms was markedly lower in cropland and plantation habitats than in primary vegetation and pasture. Soil properties influenced the abundance of soil biota in ways that differed among land uses, suggesting they shape both abundance and its response to land use. CONCLUSIONS: Our results caution against assuming models or indicators derived from above-ground data can apply to soil assemblages and highlight the potential value of incorporating soil properties into biodiversity models.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Solo , Biodiversidade , Microbiologia do Solo , Biota
18.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 1182, 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36333588

RESUMO

Identifying hotspots of biological diversity is a key step in conservation prioritisation. Melanesia-centred on the vast island of New Guinea-is increasingly recognised for its exceptionally species-rich and endemic biota. Here we show that Melanesia has the world's most diverse insular amphibian fauna, with over 7% of recognised global frog species in less than 0.7% of the world's land area, and over 97% of species endemic. We further estimate that nearly 200 additional candidate species have been discovered but remain unnamed, pointing to a total fauna in excess of 700 species. Nearly 60% of the Melanesian frog fauna is in a lineage of direct-developing microhylids characterised by smaller distributions than co-occurring frog families, suggesting lineage-specific high beta diversity is a key driver of Melanesian anuran megadiversity. A comprehensive conservation status assessment further highlights geographic concentrations of recently described range-restricted threatened taxa that warrant urgent conservation actions. Nonetheless, by world standards, the Melanesian frog fauna is relatively intact, with 6% of assessed species listed as threatened and no documented extinctions; and thus it provides an unparalleled opportunity to understand and conserve a megadiverse and relatively intact insular biota.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Biota , Animais , Melanesia , Anuros
19.
Nature ; 611(7936): 507-511, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323782

RESUMO

Although precipitation patterns have long been known to shape plant distributions1, the effect of changing climate on the interactions of species and therefore community composition is far less understood2,3. Here, we explored how changes in precipitation alter competitive dynamics via direct effects on individual species, as well as by the changing strength of competitive interactions between species, using an annual grassland community in California. We grew plants under ambient and reduced precipitation in the field to parameterize a competition model4 with which we quantified the stabilizing niche and fitness differences that determine species coexistence in each rainfall regime. We show that reduced precipitation had little direct effect on species grown alone, but it qualitatively shifted predicted competitive outcomes for 10 of 15 species pairs. In addition, species pairs that were functionally more similar were less likely to experience altered outcomes, indicating that functionally diverse communities may be most threatened by changing interactions. Our results highlight how important it is to account for changes to species interactions when predicting species and community response to global change.


Assuntos
Biota , Mudança Climática , Pradaria , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Plantas , Chuva , Clima , Plantas/classificação , Especificidade da Espécie , California
20.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e263339, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36449826

RESUMO

Events of catastrophic fish mortality in the lakes of the Amazonian floodplains are not uncommon. They are generally associated with thermal inversion of the water column, which is provoked by cold air masses that originate from the south of the continent. These events occur in the period of high water when the lakes are stratified. This paper reports an event of fish mortality that occurred during the low water season in a large floodplain system on the right-hand margin of the Amazon River. Information from seasoned fishers, who live in the same area where the event happened, and hydrological and satellite image analysis was used to identify the potential cause of fish mortality events. The amplitude of the flood pulse and the duration of extreme ebb showed to be the key factors responsible for the occurrence of events of fish mortality. These factors determine connectivity patterns between the floodplain lakes and the river channel, which are essential for maintaining water quality and the biota in the systems.


Assuntos
Peixes , Lagos , Animais , Rios , Biota , Percepção
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...