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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251438, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345560

RESUMO

Abstract The northwestern portion of the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest ecoregion is one of the most disturbed and fragmented areas in the Atlantic Forest, and little is known about the local avifauna. In this study, we have described the composition and diversity of the aquatic avifauna of this region and analyzed the patterns of similarity with respect to the seasonal as well as spatial distribution. We used the line transect sampling technique in six distinct humid areas (including lentic and lotic water bodies) during the dry and rainy seasons of 2012 and 2013. A total of 52 species of waterfowl were recorded. The species richness of the studied areas was surprisingly distinct; only seven waterfowl species, namely Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783), Rosthramus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817), Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766), Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766), and Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764), were common to these six studied areas. This indicated that the other bird species that were observed might be habitat selective. Moreover, the analysis of the composition of birds in the two seasons (dry and rainy) combined with their spatial distributions showed significant dissimilarities between the areas with lotic (river and constructed wetland) and lentic (lagoons) characteristics. Nevertheless, despite the small extent and low total richness of the entire study area, it was found to be home to 1/3 of all freshwater aquatic birds documented in the state of São Paulo, with the record of 5 migratory species and 11 new species added to the northwest of the state. The heterogeneity of local aquatic environments, habitat selection combined with seasonality, and the absence of other humid locations in the surroundings can explain the diversity and distribution of these birds in the water bodies of this uninvestigated Atlantic Forest ecoregion.


Resumo A porção noroeste da ecorregião Floresta Atlântica do Alto Paraná é uma das mais alteradas e fragmentadas da Mata Atlântica, da qual pouco se sabe sobre a avifauna local. Nosso objetivo foi descrever a diversidade e composição da avifauna aquática, bem como analisar os padrões de similaridade quanto a distribuição temporal e espacial destas aves nesta ecorregião. Utilizamos a transecção linear para amostragem em seis áreas úmidas (corpos d'água lênticos e lóticos), nos períodos de seca e chuva entre 2012 e 2013. Registramos 52 espécies de aves aquáticas e as riquezas das áreas mostraram-se distintas, pois apenas Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783), Rosthramus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817), Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766), Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766), and Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764) foram comuns às seis áreas, o que indica seleção de habitat. Quando analisada a composição das aves nos dois períodos aliada à distribuição espacial, encontramos dissimilaridades temporais acentuadas entre os ambientes com características lóticas (rio e aterro) e lênticas (lagoas). Isto mostra que, além das diferentes épocas sazonais, é necessário analisar separadamente os diferentes tipos de áreas úmidas. Por fim, apesar da extensão pequena e baixa riqueza total, a área amostrada abrigou 1/3 das aves aquáticas de água doce para o estado de São Paulo, cinco espécies migratórias e 11 novas espécies para o noroeste do estado. A heterogeneidade de ambientes aquáticos locais, forte seleção de habitat aliada à sazonalidade e ausência de outros locais úmidos em seu entorno, explicam a diversidade e distribuição destas aves estreitamente relacionadas aos corpos d'água desta desconhecida ecorregião da Mata Atlântica.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves , Biodiversidade , Estações do Ano , Brasil , Florestas , Ecossistema
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255055, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355865

RESUMO

Abstract This study was aimed to investigate Carbofuran (CF)-induced pathological changes in cattle egret. Two hundred cattle egrets were reared and equally divided into four groups and given different CF concentrations (0.03 mg/L, 0.02 mg/L, 0.01 mg/L and 0 mg/L (control group)). Hematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, and immunological markers were studied. Our results confirm that CF induces anemic conditions, leukocytosis, elevated liver enzymatic activity, and alterations in renal biomarkers. Moreover, specific microscopic lesions such as multifocal necrosis, pyknotic nuclei, hemorrhages, congestion, and inflammatory cell proliferation were observed in the liver, kidney, spleen, and thymus. These findings suggest that CF can induce harmful effects, so the application of this pesticide in the field must be strictly monitored to mitigate the possibility of exposure to non-target species.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar as alterações patológicas induzidas por carbofurano (CF) em garças-vaqueiras. Duzentas dessas garças foram criadas e divididas igualmente em quatro grupos e receberam diferentes concentrações de CF: 0,03 mg/L; 0,02 mg/L; 0,01 mg/L; e 0 mg/L (grupo controle). Foram realizadas análises de hematologia, bioquímica sérica, histopatologia e marcadores imunológicos. Nossos resultados confirmaram que CF induz condições anêmicas, leucocitose, atividade enzimática hepática elevada e alterações nos biomarcadores renais. Além disso, lesões microscópicas específicas, como necrose multifocal, núcleos picnóticos, hemorragias, congestão e proliferação de células inflamatórias, foram observadas no fígado, rim, baço e timo. Esses achados sugerem que o CF pode causar efeitos nocivos, portanto a aplicação desse agrotóxico no campo deve ser rigorosamente monitorada para mitigar a possibilidade de exposição a espécies não alvo.


Assuntos
Animais , Carbofurano/toxicidade , Aves , Bovinos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250280, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355867

RESUMO

Abstract Endozoochory by waterbirds is particularly relevant to the dispersal of non-flying aquatic invertebrates. This ecological function exercised by birds has been demonstrated in different biogeographical regions, but there are no studies for the neotropical region. In this work, we identified propagules of invertebrates in faeces of 14 syntopic South American waterbird species representing six families, and hatched additional invertebrates from cultured faeces. We tested whether propagule abundance, species richness and composition varied among bird species, and between the cold and warm seasons. We found 164 invertebrate propagules in faecal samples from seven different waterbirds species, including eggs of the Temnocephalida and Notonectidae, statoblasts of bryozoans (Plumatella sp.) and ephippia of Cladocera. Ciliates (including Paramecium sp. and Litostomatea), nematodes and rotifers (Adineta sp. and Nottomatidae) hatched from cultured samples. Potential for endozoochory was confirmed for 12 of 14 waterbird species. Our statistical models suggest that richness and abundance of propagules are associated with bird species and not affected by seasonality. Dispersal by endozoochory is potentially important to a broad variety of invertebrates, being promoted by waterbirds with different ecological and morphological traits, which are likely to drive the dispersal of invertebrates in neotropical wetlands.


Resumo A endozoocoria promovida por aves aquáticas é particularmente relevante para a dispersão de invertebrados aquáticos não-voadores. Essa função ecológica exercida pelas aves tem sido demonstrada para diferentes regiões biogeográficas, porém, não existem estudos para a região neotropical. Neste trabalho nós identificamos propágulos de invertebrados encontrados em fezes de 14 espécies sintópicas de aves aquáticas da América do Sul, representando seis famílias de aves, e também invertebrados emergidos de amostras fecais cultivadas em laboratório. Testamos se a abundância, riqueza de espécies e composição de propágulos de invertebrados variavam entre as espécies de aves e entre estações. Nós encontramos 164 propágulos de invertebrados em amostras fecais de sete espécies de aves, incluindo ovos de Temnocephalida e Notonectidae, estatoblastos de briozoários (Plumatella sp.) e efípios de Cladocera. Ciliados (incluindo Paramecium sp. e Litostomatea), nematóides e rotíferos (Adineta sp. e Nottomatidae) eclodiram de amostras cultivadas. O potencial para endozoocoria foi confirmado para 12 das 14 espécies de aves aquáticas investigadas. Nossos modelos estatísticos sugerem que a riqueza e abundância de propágulos estão associadas às espécies de aves e não são afetadas pela sazonalidade. A dispersão por endozoocoria é importante para uma ampla variedade de invertebrados, sendo promovida por aves aquáticas com diferentes características ecológicas e morfológicas as quais provavelmente regulam a dispersão de invertebrados entre áreas úmidas neotropicais.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Áreas Alagadas , Invertebrados , Estações do Ano , Aves
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247915, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339396

RESUMO

Abstract Wildlife trade is a profitable economic activity. Birds are among the most heavily traded animals worldwide, with numerous species threatened by pet trade. The present case study was stretched for period of one year to find out the status of wild birds' trade in Bannu and Dera Ismael Khan Divisions. The study was aimed to find out the types of species, commercial prices of bird, trade routes, overall income generated from birds' trade and the status of dealers whether licensed or not. Bimonthly visits were conducted to interview 52 bird dealers/pet shops owners/venders (23 in Dera Ismael Khan and 29 in Bannu). A sum of 16 conceivable sites were visited during the study period. Out of these, 8 sites were located in Dera Ismael Khan and 8 sites in Bannu Division. The highest priced species was Demoiselle crane (Grus virgo) and the lowest priced species was house sparrow (Passer domesticus). Total number of species traded in both regions were 8 and 14 while the income generated by bird trade was amounting to PkR 1,322,200 and 7,128,950 in Dera Ismael Khan and Bannu respectively. Majority of the birds were trapped locally with the exception of few from adjacent areas. Commercial activity led by illegal bird traders was found 75% and 100% species in Dera Ismael Khan and Bannu respectively. There was no significant difference between prices of birds, number of species sold and income generated by bird trade in two divisions.


Resumo O comércio de animais selvagens é uma atividade econômica lucrativa. Os pássaros estão entre os animais mais comercializados em todo o mundo, com inúmeras espécies ameaçadas pelo comércio de animais de estimação. O presente estudo de caso foi estendido por um período de um ano para descobrir a situação do comércio de aves selvagens nas Divisões Bannu e Dera Ismael Khan. O estudo teve como objetivo descobrir os tipos de espécies, os preços comerciais das aves, as rotas comerciais, a receita geral gerada pelo comércio de aves e o status dos negociantes, licenciados ou não. Visitas bimestrais foram realizadas para entrevistar 52 comerciantes de pássaros / proprietários / vendedores de pet shops (23 em Dera Ismael Khan e 29 em Bannu). Uma soma de 16 locais concebíveis foram visitados durante o período de estudo. Destes, 8 sites estavam localizados em Dera Ismael Khan e 8 sites na Divisão Bannu. A espécie com preço mais alto foi o guindaste Demoiselle (Grus virgo) e a espécie com preço mais baixo foi o pardal (Passer domesticus). O número total de espécies comercializadas em ambas as regiões foi de 8 e 14, enquanto a receita gerada pelo comércio de aves foi de PkR 1.322.200 e 7.128.950 em Dera Ismael Khan e Bannu, respectivamente. A maioria das aves foi capturada localmente, com exceção de algumas das áreas adjacentes. A atividade comercial liderada por comerciantes ilegais de aves foi encontrada com 75% e 100% de espécies em Dera Ismael Khan e Bannu, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa entre os preços das aves, o número de espécies vendidas e a receita gerada pelo comércio de aves nas duas divisões.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves , Animais Selvagens , Paquistão
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248814, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339390

RESUMO

Abstract The karyotype and constitutive heterochromatin pattern of the white stork Ciconia ciconia samples obtained from Manzala lake, Dimiaat, Egypt was described. Somatic cells of Ciconia ciconia samples have diploid number 2n= 68 chromosomes. Out of 68 chromosomes, 11 pairs including sex chromosomes were macrochromosomes and the remaining pairs were microchromosomes. Of the 11 macrochromosome pairs, no.1, 2, 4 and 5 were submetacentric and pairs no. 6, 7 and 8 were described as metacentric. In addition, the autosome pair no.3 was subtelocentric, while autosome pair no.9 was acrocentric. Also, the sex chromosome Z represents the fourth one in size and it was classified as submetacentric while, W chromosome appeared as medium size and was acrocentric. Furthermore, C-banding pattern (constitutive heterochromatin) revealed variation in their sizes and occurrence between macrochromosomes. Pairs no. 7 and 8 of autosomes exhibited unusual distribution of heterochromatin, where they appeared as entirely heterochromatic. This may be related to the origin of sex chromosomes Z and W. However, there is no sufficient evidence illustrate the appearance of entirely heterochromatic autosomes. Therefore, there is no available cytogenetic literature that describes the C-banding and karyotype of Ciconia Ciconia, so the results herein are important and may assist in cytogenetic study and evolutionary pattern of Ciconiiformes.


Resumo O cariótipo e o padrão constitutivo de heterocromatina das amostras de cegonha-branca Ciconia ciconia obtidas no lago Manzala, Dimiaat, Egito, foram descritos. As células somáticas de amostras de Ciconia ciconia possuem número diploide 2n = 68 cromossomos. Dos 68 cromossomos, 11 pares incluindo cromossomos sexuais eram macrocromossomos e os pares restantes eram microcromossomos. Dos 11 pares de macrocromossomos, os nos 1, 2, 4 e 5 eram submetacêntricos, e os pares nos 6, 7 e 8 foram descritos como metacêntricos. Além disso, o par de autossomos no 3 era subtelocêntrico, enquanto o par de autossomos no 9 era acrocêntrico. Além disso, o cromossomo sexual Z representa o quarto em tamanho e foi classificado como submetacêntrico, enquanto o cromossomo W apareceu como de tamanho médio e acrocêntrico. Além disso, o padrão de bandamento C (heterocromatina constitutiva) revelou variação em seus tamanhos e ocorrência entre macrocromossomos. Pares nos 7 e 8 dos autossomos exibiram distribuição incomum de heterocromatina, onde apareceram como totalmente heterocromáticos. Isso pode estar relacionado à origem dos cromossomos sexuais Z e W. No entanto, não há evidências suficientes para ilustrar o aparecimento de autossomos totalmente heterocromáticos. Portanto, não há literatura citogenética disponível que descreva o bandamento C e o cariótipo de Ciconia ciconia, portanto os resultados aqui apresentados são importantes e podem auxiliar no estudo citogenético e no padrão evolutivo de Ciconiiformes.


Assuntos
Animais , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética , Heterocromatina/genética , Aves , Cariótipo , Cariotipagem
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249229, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339374

RESUMO

Abstract Birds are very valuable indicators of species richness and endemic patterns in a specified ecosystem, which eventually help the scientist to measure the environmental degradation. The aim of present study was to know human knowledge and attitude toward urban birds in Faisalabad city, Pakistan. The study conducted in four consecutive months: November 2019 to February 2020. Population of birds was noted from eight residential towns of Faisalabad city, data were collected through questionnaire. Faisalabad has a reasonably large population of birds and present data show that, there is a significant difference between favorite bird of residential areas and institutions. The pigeon received the most likeness in bird population among residential area residents, while the myna received the least. The most popular bird in Faisalabad institutions was the sparrow, while the least popular bird was the common myna. Bird adaptation percentage of residential areas and institutional areas of Faisalabad was the highest for parrot and sparrow respectively. People in residential areas and institutions, on the other hand, adapted least to common myna. It is concluded that people of the study area like birds and offered food and high population of birds are present in study area.


Resumo Os pássaros são indicadores muito valiosos da riqueza de espécies e padrões endêmicos em um determinado ecossistema, o que acaba ajudando o cientista a medir a degradação ambiental. O objetivo do presente estudo foi conhecer o conhecimento humano e a atitude em relação às aves urbanas na cidade de Faisalabad, Paquistão. O estudo foi conduzido em quatro meses consecutivos: novembro de 2019 a fevereiro de 2020. A população de pássaros foi observada em oito cidades residenciais da cidade de Faisalabad, os dados foram coletados por meio de questionário. Faisalabad tem uma população razoavelmente grande de pássaros, e os dados atuais mostram que há uma diferença significativa entre as aves favoritas de áreas residenciais e instituições. O pombo recebeu mais semelhanças na população de pássaros entre os residentes de áreas residenciais, enquanto o myna recebeu menos. A ave mais popular nas instituições de Faisalabad era o pardal, enquanto a ave menos popular era o myna comum. A porcentagem de adaptação de pássaros em áreas residenciais e institucionais de Faisalabad foi a mais alta para papagaios e pardais, respectivamente. As pessoas em áreas residenciais e instituições, por outro lado, se adaptaram menos ao myna comum. Conclui-se que pessoas da área de estudo como pássaros e alimentos oferecidos e alta população de pássaros estão presentes na área de estudo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Aves , Ecossistema , Paquistão , Cidades , Biodiversidade
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248842, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339343

RESUMO

Abstract Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity levels can be used as an indicator for AChE inhibition due to pesticide poisoning in bird species. We assessed the comparative brain cholinesterase (AChE) activity level of five bird species inhabiting pesticide exposed croplands and Protected Area i.e. Deva Vatala National Park (DVNP), Bhimber by using a spectrophotometric method. AChE activity levels ranged from 56.3 to 85.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue of birds representing DVNP. However, AChE activity levels ranged from 27.6 to 79.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue of birds representing croplands. AChE activity levels observed in Jungle babbler, Common babbler, and Red-vented bulbul showed significant differences (P < 0.05) at two sites. However, White wagtail and Black drongo demonstrated non-significant differences (P > 0.05). Maximum inhibition was recorded in Jungle babbler (53%) followed by Common babbler (35%), Red-vented bulbul (18%), White wagtail (15%), and Black drongo (7%). The brain cholinesterase inhibition levels under-protected ecosystems (DVNP, Bhimber) and agricultural landscape suggest insecticidal contamination and its impact on avifauna diversity. The study also emphasizes on the importance of pesticide-free zones to protect the biodiversity of birds.


Resumo Os níveis de atividade da acetilcolinesterase (AChE) podem ser usados ​​como um indicador para a inibição da AChE devido ao envenenamento por pesticidas em espécies de aves. Avaliamos o nível de atividade comparativa da colinesterase cerebral (AChE) de cinco espécies de aves que habitam áreas cultivadas expostas a pesticidas e Área Protegida, ou seja, Deva Vatala National Park (DVNP), Bhimber, usando um método espectrofotométrico. Os níveis de atividade da AChE variaram de 56,3 a 85,9 µmol / min / g de tecido cerebral de aves representando DVNP. No entanto, os níveis de atividade da AChE variaram de 27,6 a 79,9 µmol / min / g de tecido cerebral de aves representando áreas de cultivo. Os níveis de atividade de AChE observados no tagarela da selva, tagarela comum e bulbul vermelho exalado mostraram diferenças significativas (P < 0,05) em dois locais. No entanto, alvéola branca e drongo preto demonstraram diferenças não significativas (P > 0,05). A inibição máxima foi registrada no tagarela da selva (53%), seguido pelo tagarela comum (35%), bulbul vermelho (18%), alvéola branca (15%) e drongo preto (7%). Os níveis de inibição da colinesterase cerebral nos ecossistemas subprotegidos (DVNP, Bhimber) e na paisagem agrícola sugerem contaminação por inseticida e seu impacto na diversidade da avifauna. O estudo também enfatiza a importância das zonas livres de pesticidas para proteger a biodiversidade das aves.


Assuntos
Animais , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Paquistão , Acetilcolinesterase , Aves , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Produtos Agrícolas
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35051629

RESUMO

Reproduction, and parental care in particular, are among the most energy-demanding activities within the annual cycle of adult birds. Parents that cannot meet the metabolic demands and other physiological costs of raising offspring may opt to abandon chicks in favour of self-maintenance and future reproduction. Recent work examining reproductive trade-offs in birds revealed an important role of oxygen carrying capacity in mediating variation in parental effort. This study explores the aerobic factors underlying the success or failure of parental care in two closely-related petrel species during their breeding season on Bird Island, South Georgia: northern giant petrels (Macronectes halli) and southern giant petrels (M. giganteus). Failed breeders of both sexes and species had significantly lower hematocrit levels (by 5.48 ± 0.64%) than successful breeders, and reticulocyte counts also tended to be lower in failed males, consistent with the hypothesis that parental care and workload depend on aerobic capacity. We discuss these results in relation to differences in the foraging ecology of both species and sexes.


Assuntos
Aves , Reprodução , Animais , Aves/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução/fisiologia , Estações do Ano
9.
J R Soc Interface ; 19(193): 20220325, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35919980

RESUMO

Hundreds of studies have found that weak magnetic fields can significantly influence various biological systems. However, the underlying mechanisms behind these phenomena remain elusive. Remarkably, the magnetic energies implicated in these effects are much smaller than thermal energies. Here, we review these observations, and we suggest an explanation based on the radical pair mechanism, which involves the quantum dynamics of the electron and nuclear spins of transient radical molecules. While the radical pair mechanism has been studied in detail in the context of avian magnetoreception, the studies reviewed here show that magnetosensitivity is widespread throughout biology. We review magnetic field effects on various physiological functions, discussing static, hypomagnetic and oscillating magnetic fields, as well as isotope effects. We then review the radical pair mechanism as a potential unifying model for the described magnetic field effects, and we discuss plausible candidate molecules for the radical pairs. We review recent studies proposing that the radical pair mechanism provides explanations for isotope effects in xenon anaesthesia and lithium treatment of hyperactivity, magnetic field effects on the circadian clock, and hypomagnetic field effects on neurogenesis and microtubule assembly. We conclude by discussing future lines of investigation in this exciting new area of quantum biology.


Assuntos
Aves , Campos Magnéticos , Animais , Biologia , Aves/fisiologia
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13452, 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927554

RESUMO

Reversing large-scale habitat degradation and deforestation goes beyond what can be achieved by site-level ecological restoration and a landscape ecology perspective is fundamental. Here we assess the relative importance of tree cover and its configuration on forest-dependent birds and late-successional tree seedlings in restoration sites in southern Costa Rica. The abundance and species richness of birds increased in landscapes with more corridors, higher tree cover, and lower levels of fragmentation, highlighting the importance of riparian corridors for connectivity, and continuous tree cover as suitable habitat. Landscape variables affected abundance and species richness of seedlings similarly, but effects were weaker, possibly because seedlings face establishment limitation in addition to dispersal limitation. Moreover, the scale of landscape effects on seedlings was small, likely because proximal individual trees can significantly influence recruitment in restoration plots. Results underscore the importance of incorporating landscape-level metrics to restoration projects, as knowing the extent, and how the landscape may affect restoration outcomes can help to infer what kind of species will arrive to restoration plots.


Assuntos
Florestas , Clima Tropical , Animais , Aves , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Plântula , Árvores
11.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0270957, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925977

RESUMO

Determining the dynamics of where and when individuals occur is necessary to understand population declines and identify critical areas for populations of conservation concern. However, there are few examples where a spatially and temporally explicit model has been used to evaluate the migratory dynamics of a bird population across its entire annual cycle. We used geolocator-derived migration tracks of 84 Dunlin (Calidris alpina) on the East Asian-Australasian Flyway (EAAF) to construct a migratory network describing annual subspecies-specific migration patterns in space and time. We found that Dunlin subspecies exhibited unique patterns of spatial and temporal flyway use. Spatially, C. a. arcticola predominated in regions along the eastern edge of the flyway (e.g., western Alaska and central Japan), whereas C. a. sakhalina predominated in regions along the western edge of the flyway (e.g., N China and inland China). No individual Dunlin that wintered in Japan also wintered in the Yellow Sea, China seas, or inland China, and vice-versa. However, similar proportions of the 4 subspecies used many of the same regions at the center of the flyway (e.g., N Sakhalin Island and the Yellow Sea). Temporally, Dunlin subspecies staggered their south migrations and exhibited little temporal overlap among subspecies within shared migration regions. In contrast, Dunlin subspecies migrated simultaneously during north migration. South migration was also characterized by individuals stopping more often and for more days than during north migration. Taken together, these spatial-temporal migration dynamics indicate Dunlin subspecies may be differentially affected by regional habitat change and population declines according to where and when they occur. We suggest that the migration dynamics presented here are useful for guiding on-the-ground survey efforts to quantify subspecies' use of specific sites, and to estimate subspecies' population sizes and long-term trends. Such studies would significantly advance our understanding of Dunlin space-time dynamics and the coordination of Dunlin conservation actions across the EAAF.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Charadriiformes , Animais , Aves , Ecossistema , Humanos , Estações do Ano
12.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 22(1): 95, 2022 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic activity and environmental energy are two of the most studied putative drivers of molecular evolutionary rates. Their extensive study, however, has resulted in mixed results and has rarely included the exploration of interactions among various factors impacting molecular evolutionary rates across large clades. Taking the diverse avian family Furnariidae as a case study, we examined the association between several estimates of molecular evolutionary rates with proxies of metabolic demands imposed by flight (wing loading and wing shape) and proxies of environmental energy across the geographic ranges of species (temperature and UV radiation). RESULTS: We found weak evidence of a positive effect of environmental and morphological variables on mitochondrial substitution rates. Additionally, we found that temperature and UV radiation interact to explain molecular rates at nucleotide sites affected by selection and population size (non-synonymous substitutions), contrary to the expectation of their impact on sites associated with mutation rates (synonymous substitutions). We also found a negative interaction between wing shape (as described by the hand-wing index) and body mass explaining mitochondrial molecular rates, suggesting molecular signatures of positive selection or reduced population sizes in small-bodied species with greater flight activity. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the demands of flight and environmental energy pose multiple evolutionary pressures on the genome either by driving mutation rates or via their association with natural selection or population size. Data from whole genomes and detailed physiology across taxa will bring a more complete picture of the impact of metabolism, population size, and the environment on avian genome evolution.


Assuntos
Voo Animal , Asas de Animais , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Aves/genética , Evolução Molecular , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Filogenia , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11936, 2022 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35831425

RESUMO

Avian nectar-robbing is common in some floras but its impact on plant-pollinator mutualisms, flowering phenology, and the evolution of floral traits remains largely unexplored. Surprisingly, there have been no quantitative studies of the topography and extent of floral damage inflicted on any flowering species by nectar-robbing birds. I studied nectar-robbing of orchard oriole (Icteridae: Icterus spurius) on the large reddish-orange flowers of trumpet creeper (Bignoniaceae: Campsis radicans), an ornithophilous liana of eastern North America. Floral traits that inhibit nectar-robbery by hummingbirds and bees, such as the thickened calyx and sympetalous corolla, are ineffective in deterring orioles. Orioles target the zygomorphic trumpet-shaped corollas at the 11:00 h or 01:00 h positions with a closed-bill puncture and then enlarge the incision with bill-gaping to reach the nectary. More than 92% of flowers were robbed when orioles were present. Fruit set was nil until orioles departed on fall migration in late July-early August. The timing suggests oriole nectary-robbery may be a potent selection agent for an extended flowering season or delay in the onset of flowering. The biological and geographic attributes of the Campsis-Icterus association make it a promising model system for studying the consequences of avian nectar-robbery on pollination biology and floral trait evolution.


Assuntos
Bignoniaceae , Icterícia , Animais , Abelhas , Aves , Flores , Néctar de Plantas , Polinização
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11624, 2022 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35803969

RESUMO

Animals that create structures often display non-random patterns in the direction of their constructions. This tendency of oriented construction is widely presumed to be an adaptive trait of the constructor's extended phenotype, but there is little empirical support for this hypothesis. Particularly, for cavity nesting-birds there is a lack of studies examining this issue. In this study of a primary cavity excavator, the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Dryobates borealis), we show that cavity entrances exhibited a strong westward bias in all 11 of the populations examined throughout the geographic range of the species in the southeastern United States. This species requires cavities in living pine trees for roosting and nesting that often take many years to complete, resulting in many incomplete excavations on the landscape. We used population monitoring data to show that orientation was stronger among completed cavities than incomplete cavities. There was a significant correlation between latitude and average cavity direction among populations, turning northward with increasing latitude, suggesting adaptation to local conditions. Long-term monitoring data showed that cavity orientation and breeding group size are correlated with egg hatching rates, fledging rates, and the total number of fledglings produced per nest. Our results provide empirical evidence from extensive long-term data that directional orientation in animal constructions is an important feature of the extended animal phenotype and have immediate implications for animal ecology and the conservation of endangered species.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Nidação , Pinus , Animais , Aves , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Melhoramento Vegetal
15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 884615, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35812374

RESUMO

The topic about the interactions between host and intestinal microbiota has already caught the attention of many scholars. However, there is still a lack of systematic reports on the relationship between the intestinal flora and intestinal physiology of birds. Thus, this study was designed to investigate it. Antibiotic-treated specific pathogen-free (SPF) bird were used to construct an intestinal bacteria-free bird (IBF) model, and then, the differences in intestinal absorption, barrier, immune, antioxidant and metabolic functions between IBF and bacteria-bearing birds were studied. To gain further insight, the whole intestinal flora of bacteria-bearing birds was transplanted into the intestines of IBF birds to study the remodeling effect of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on the intestinal physiology of IBF birds. The results showed that compared with bacteria-bearing birds, IBF birds had a lighter body weight and weaker intestinal absorption, antioxidant, barrier, immune and metabolic functions. Interestingly, FMT contributed to reshaping the abovementioned physiological functions of the intestines of IBF birds. In conclusion, the intestinal flora plays an important role in regulating the physiological functions of the intestine.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes , Bactérias , Aves , Intestinos
16.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 22(7): 370-381, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834663

RESUMO

Blastocystis spp. are common intestinal parasites found in humans and many kinds of animals. Blastocystis spp. infection is associated with a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, abdominal pain, and chronic urticaria, among which asymptomatic infection is the most common. Among the 11 potentially zoonotic subtypes of Blastocystis spp., 9 subtypes have been reported in bird species. The purpose of this study was to detect the infection rate and gene subtype distribution of Blastocystis spp. in pet birds in Henan Province, Central China, to provide a foundation for preventing and controlling Blastocystis spp. in pet birds. Fecal DNA was extracted from 382 fresh fecal samples of pet birds collected from five areas in Henan Province, Central China. Twenty-three species of pet birds from four orders, from local pet trading markets, parks, and individuals, were sampled. All DNA samples were investigated by PCR, and positive samples were sequenced to analyze the gene subtypes based on the small ribosomal subunit (SSU rRNA) gene. Blastocystis spp. was detected in 0.8% of the samples. Further DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses resulted in the identification of two known zoonotic subtypes, ST1 (n = 2) and ST7 (n = 1). As far as we know, this is the first time that ST1 subtype has been reported in Chinese birds. It is found that pet birds may be the hosts of zoonotic Blastocystis spp. subtypes, and the role of birds in transmitting Blastocystis spp. to humans needs to be further studied.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Animais , Aves , Blastocystis/genética , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , China/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Prevalência
17.
Trop Biomed ; 39(2): 160-169, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35838085

RESUMO

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) is a highly contagious disease in poultry. The outbreaks can lead to flock mortality up to 100% in two to three days. In July 2018, high mortality in a commercial layer farm in Kauluan village, Sabah was reported. Samples were sent to Veterinary Research Institute Ipoh for diagnosis. Virus isolation and molecular detection is carried out simultaneously. The causative agent was then identified as AI H5N1 virus by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The virus was then subjected for further nucleotide sequencing of full length hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene. The PQRERRRKR/GLF motif at the HA cleavage site indicated that the isolate was of HPAI virus. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA gene showed that the isolate was belonged to the clade 2.3.2.1c virus. In the HA gene, besides the S133A substitution, the virus possesses conserved amino acid at most of the avian receptor binding sites including the glutamine (Q) and glycine (G) at position 222 and 224 respectively, indicating that the virus retains the avian-type receptor binding preference. As such, the zoonotic potential of the virus was relatively low. On the other hand, though the N154D and T156A substitution were detected in the same gene, the pandemic potential of this Sabah 2.3.2.1c virus is low in the absence of the Q222L, G224S, H103Y, N220K and T315I. A typical 20 amino acid deletion with loss of four corresponding glycosylation sites in the NA stalk region was visible. Though three NA resistance markers were detected, the virus was predicted to be sensitive to NA inhibitor. This is the first HPAI H5N1 outbreak in Sabah. The introduction of this virus into East Malaysia for the first time raised an alert alarm of the future epidemic potential. Strict farm biosecurity, continuous surveillance programme in poultry, wild birds, migratory birds; molecular epidemiology as well as risk assessment for the virus with pandemic potential are needed in dealing with emergence of new influenza virus in the country.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1 , Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária , Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Aves , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/genética , Hemaglutininas/genética , Humanos , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Malásia/epidemiologia , Neuraminidase/genética , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas
18.
Trop Biomed ; 39(2): 191-196, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35838089

RESUMO

Birds are known to be the most mobile hosts and are therefore considered to be hosts with potential to contribute to the long-distance spread and transmission of tick-borne pathogens. In the present study, ticks were collected from a hornbill nest at Chaiyaphum Province, Thailand. They were screened for the presence of Coxiella bacteria using conventional PCR. The evolutionary relationships of positive Coxiella-like bacteria (CLB) were analysed based on the gene sequences of 16S rRNA, groEL and rpoB. Among all 22 tested ticks, CLB infections were found in 2 Haemaphysalis wellingtoni individuals. In a phylogenetic analysis, the Coxiella 16S rRNA gene detected in this study formed a separate clade from sequences found in ticks of the same genus. In contrast, the phylogenetic relationships based on groEL and rpoB revealed that these two genes from H. wellingtoni ticks grouped with CLB from the same tick genus (Haemaphysalis). This study is the first to report the presence of CLB in H. wellingtoni ticks associated with the Great Hornbill, Buceros bicornis in Thailand. Three genes of CLB studied herein were grouped separately with Coxiella burnetii (pathogenic strain). The effects of CLB in the ticks and Buceros bicornis require further investigation.


Assuntos
Ixodidae , Carrapatos , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Aves/genética , Coxiella/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Humanos , Ixodidae/genética , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Carrapatos/microbiologia
19.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 13(5): 102001, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35863119

RESUMO

The Maltese Archipelago is situated in the middle of the Mediterranean Basin, between Europe and Africa, therefore representing an important stopover site for migratory birds between these two continents. Despite this, up-to-date information is not available on tick species associated with birds in Malta. Therefore, in this study, birds mist-netted for ringing by BirdLife Malta were examined for the presence of ticks between September, 2019 and May, 2021. Ticks were identified morphologically and molecularly, using three genetic markers. During the study period, 57 individuals of 22 bird species were found tick-infested, from which altogether 113 ixodid ticks were collected. The majority of developmental stages were nymphs, but 13 larvae and one female were also found. These ticks belonged to nine species: Ixodes cumulatimpunctatus (n=1), Ixodes ricinus (n=2), Ixodes acuminatus (n=2), Ixodes frontalis (n=5), Ixodes festai (n=1), one species of the Amblyomma marmoreum complex (n=8), Hyalomma rufipes (n=78), Hyalomma marginatum (n=7) and Hyalomma lusitanicum (n=1). Eight Hyalomma sp. ticks could only be identified on the genus level. Regarding seasonality, all Palearctic Ixodes species were carried by birds exclusively in the autumn (i.e., north to south), whereas H. rufipes (with predominantly Afrotropical distribution) was exclusively collected in the spring (i.e., carried south to north). Two tick species that occurred on birds in Malta, i.e., a species of the A. marmoreum complex and I. cumulatimpunctatus are only indigenous in the Afrotropical zoogeographic region. This is the first finding of the latter tick species in Europe, and four tick species were identified for the first time in Malta. In conclusion, the diversity of tick species regularly arriving in Europe from Africa is most likely higher than reflected by data obtained in Mediterranean countries of mainland Europe. Most notably, ticks of the genus Amblyomma appear to be underrepresented in previous datasets. Ticks of the subgenus Afrixodes (represented by I. cumulatimpunctatus) might also be imported into Europe by migratory birds.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Ixodes , Ixodidae , Infestações por Carrapato , África , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Aves , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malta/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
20.
Mol Biol Evol ; 39(8)2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35880574

RESUMO

Animal species differ considerably in their ability to fight off infections. Finding the genetic basis of these differences is not easy, as the immune response is comprised of a complex network of proteins that interact with one another to defend the body against infection. Here, we used population- and comparative genomics to study the evolutionary forces acting on the innate immune system in natural hosts of the avian influenza virus (AIV). For this purpose, we used a combination of hybrid capture, next- generation sequencing and published genomes to examine genetic diversity, divergence, and signatures of selection in 127 innate immune genes at a micro- and macroevolutionary time scale in 26 species of waterfowl. We show across multiple immune pathways (AIV-, toll-like-, and RIG-I -like receptors signalling pathways) that genes involved genes in pathogen detection (i.e., toll-like receptors) and direct pathogen inhibition (i.e., antimicrobial peptides and interferon-stimulated genes), as well as host proteins targeted by viral antagonist proteins (i.e., mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein, [MAVS]) are more likely to be polymorphic, genetically divergent, and under positive selection than other innate immune genes. Our results demonstrate that selective forces vary across innate immune signaling signalling pathways in waterfowl, and we present candidate genes that may contribute to differences in susceptibility and resistance to infectious diseases in wild birds, and that may be manipulated by viruses. Our findings improve our understanding of the interplay between host genetics and pathogens, and offer the opportunity for new insights into pathogenesis and potential drug targets.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata , Vírus da Influenza A , Animais , Aves , Genômica , Sistema Imunitário , Imunidade Inata/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/genética
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