Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.314
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0265912, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35385503

RESUMO

Vented tumble dryers release moist warm air from the drying process to the external environment, usually through pipework linking the appliance to a vent in an exterior wall. Although such dryers contain a lint filter to remove fibers from this air stream, recent reports suggest that this process is incomplete, leading to microfibers being released in the ducted warm air and subsequently polluting the external environment. Microfiber release from wash loads comprising 10 100% cotton and 10 100% polyester T-shirts (total load mass ratio 48% cotton, 52% polyester) was measured at different stages of the washing and drying process to compare the quantities of fibers released 'down the drain', collected in the dryer lint filter, and released to air from the tumble dryer. Testing under both European and North American washing conditions found that the quantities of microfibers released to air during tumble drying were significant and comparable to levels released 'down the drain' during washing. Use of conventional rinse-added liquid fabric conditioner increased microfiber accumulation on the dryer lint filter, with reduced release from the dryer exhaust observed at the highest fabric conditioner dose tested (21.6% and 14.2% reduction under North American and European conditions, respectively). Conventional liquid fabric conditioner did not significantly impact microfiber release from the washing machine, in line with previous studies. A fabric conditioner specially designed for anti-wrinkle performance reduced microfiber release from the dryer exhaust at all levels tested (by 17.6-35.6%, depending on dose), apparently by increasing the efficiency of microfiber accumulation in the lint filter. Tumble dryer sheets were also found to cause a reduction in microfiber release from the dryer exhaust (by 14.1-34.9%, depending on the dose/product), likely driven by collection of liberated fibers on the sheet during the drying process. The use of both antiwrinkle liquid fabric conditioner and dryer sheet enabled a 44.9% reduction in microfiber emissions from the dryer exhaust. In all studies, the fiber mass collected on the lint filter or emitted from the dryer exhaust was richer in cotton fibers (range 83.4-96.3% on the lint filter, 93.0-99.8% from the dryer exhaust) than the wash load composition (48% cotton). Moreover, fibers collected by the lint filter contained a higher proportion of polyester than emissions from the dryer exhaust (range 3.7-16.6% on the lint filter, 0.2-7.0% from the dryer exhaust). There is significant variation in the porosity of lint filters among installed vented tumble dryers. Single-variable testing of the impact of lint filter design concluded that reducing screen pore size significantly reduces airborne microfiber release during tumble drying; a reduction in lint filter pore size from 0.2 mm2 to 0.04 mm2 reduced release by 34.8%. As some lint filters have pore sizes of around 1 mm2, there is enormous scope to reduce microfiber release from dryers though improved lint filter design. However, it is suggested that a step-change in appliance design away from vented dryers to only fully-sealed condenser dryers might be necessary to eliminate the contribution of tumble drying to airborne microfiber pollution.


Assuntos
Lavanderia , Plásticos , Poliésteres , Têxteis , Resíduos
2.
AORN J ; 115(4): 310-324, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35333380

RESUMO

Personnel follow hospital policies and regulatory guidelines to prevent surgical site infections. However, a potentially contaminated item may be overlooked-the linen. When perioperative team members transport patients to the OR, the linen on the beds and transport carts can contain a variety of microorganisms. Textile surfaces can serve as reservoirs for microorganisms that can be transferred to health care providers, patients, and the environment. These pathogens may then infect patients, particularly those who are immunocompromised or have direct portals of entry (eg, catheters, incision sites). This article provides an overview of how microorganisms that cause health care-associated infections can survive and thrive on hospital linen and related equipment; discusses the linen laundering, transport, and storage processes and best practices; and discusses antimicrobial interventions-including a silver-ion laundering additive that was added as an infection prevention measure to the laundry production cycle at a medical center's contracted laundry facility.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar , Lavanderia , Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Têxteis
3.
Int J Drug Policy ; 103: 103652, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35334339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The illegal drug trade is often, and plausibly, asserted to be the largest illegal market, globally and in many individual countries. It is also claimed that a large share of its revenues is laundered, though there are no estimates of that volume. We provide rough estimates of that proportion and its primary determinants. METHODS AND DATA: This paper presents a model of a multi-tiered drug distribution network that is parameterized with data based on one typical, well-studied case, namely British Colombia's market for illegal opioids, supplemented by a corresponding economic interpretation of what determines the share of drug trade revenues that need to be laundered. Sensitivity with respect to key parameters is analyzed. FINDINGS: We suggest that less than half and perhaps no more than a quarter of revenues from established drug markets need laundering. Key parameters governing this proportion include the price mark-up across distribution levels, transaction volumes at each market level, and the capacity of market participants to spend cash on daily living expenses. CONCLUSION: This model permits estimation of the scale of money laundering associated with a particular drug market. It suggests that there are limits on money laundering controls as a way of reducing drug supply - although money laundering investigations may still be an effective way to identify and investigate high-level drug traffickers.


Assuntos
Tráfico de Drogas , Lavanderia , Analgésicos Opioides , Crime , Humanos
4.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 36(4): e23000, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35156261

RESUMO

Evaluation of the compounds and metabolites, and studying their side effects in the workplace is essential. This study was designed to evaluate the exposure of dry  cleaning workers to perchloroethylene (PEC), and its liver and kidney damage, and oxidative stress in B-lymphocytes isolated from the workers. Blood samples were evaluated for liver (alanine transaminase [ALT] and aspartate transaminase [AST]) and kidney (BUN and creatinine) markers. For measurement of PEC, exhaled, personal, and ambient air samples were collected and analyzed gas chromatography (GC-FID) through the NIOSH 1003 and 3704 methods. Also, the parameters of oxidative stress including the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in B-lymphocytes were evaluated. The results showed that the levels of liver enzymes ALT and AST in dry cleaning workers are higher than in the control group. The personal exposure levels and exhaled air concentration of PEC in dry cleaning workers were above the recommended national occupational exposure limits (OELs) and the biological exposure index (BEI). The levels of ROS, LPO, and GSSG in B-lymphocytes from the dry cleaning workers are higher than the control group, and the levels of GSH in dry cleaning workers are lower. The results suggested that exposure of dry cleaning workers to PEC could be associated with liver damage and oxidative damage in B-lymphocytes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Lavanderia , Tetracloroetileno , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Dissulfeto de Glutationa/análise , Humanos , Lavanderia/métodos , Linfócitos , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Tetracloroetileno/análise , Tetracloroetileno/toxicidade
5.
Indoor Air ; 32(1): e12944, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661313

RESUMO

This research investigates sorption of PCBs to fabrics in a contaminated indoor environment and the effect of laundering on PCB removal from the fabrics. Eight articles of clothing were exposed to the air in a PCB-contaminated building. The background air concentration was 670 ng/m3 PCBtotal with PCB-52 being the main congener. Air and fabric samples were collected for analysis before and periodically throughout the experiment. After 25 weeks, the remaining fabrics were washed and cut into three pieces each. One part was dried in the contaminated building, second in a PCB-free building and third in a mechanical drier. The PCB mass concentration increased during the first 6-10 weeks for all investigated fabrics, after which some fabrics approached equilibrium for more volatile congeners. Mass-normalized cloth-air partition coefficients were quantified for 9 congeners; for PCB-52, these ranged from 106 . 1 to 107.0 which were consistent with previously reported values. Partition coefficients of PCBs were observed to increase with their respective octanol-air partition coefficients. Washing and drying clothes resulted in the removal between 22% and 84% of PCBs. There was no difference in removal percentage after air-drying in clean or contaminated air. Drying in a mechanical drier removed significantly more PCBs than air-drying.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Lavanderia , Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Têxteis
6.
J Appl Microbiol ; 132(2): 1435-1448, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465009

RESUMO

AIMS: Contaminated laundry can spread infections. However, current directives for safe laundering are limited to healthcare settings and not reflective of domestic conditions. We aimed to use quantitative microbial risk assessment to evaluate household laundering practices (e.g., detergent selection, washing and drying temperatures, and sanitizer use) relative to log10 reductions in pathogens and infection risks during the clothes sorting, washer/dryer loading, folding and storing steps. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using published data, we characterized laundry infection risks for respiratory and enteric pathogens relative to a single user contact scenario and a 1.0 × 10-6 acceptable risk threshold. For respiratory pathogens, risks following cold water wash temperatures (e.g. median 14.4℃) and standard detergents ranged from 2.2 × 10-5 to 2.2 × 10-7 . Use of advanced, enzymatic detergents reduced risks to 8.6 × 10-8 and 2.2 × 10-11 respectively. For enteric pathogens, however, hot water, advanced detergents, sanitizing agents and drying are needed to reach risk targets. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Conclusions provide guidance for household laundry practices to achieve targeted risk reductions, given a single user contact scenario. A key finding was that hand hygiene implemented at critical control points in the laundering process was the most significant driver of infection prevention, additionally reducing infection risks by up to 6 log10 .


Assuntos
Lavanderia , Têxteis , Detergentes
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150495, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34844332

RESUMO

From the onset of Covid-19 pandemic, the use of face masks has been adapted as one of the main measures to slow down the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus worldwide. The inadequate handling and management of face masks lead to a massive dispersal in the environment, resulting in a new source of microfibers because of their breakdown and/or degradation. In addition, the laundering of reusable face masks of different polymeric composition can represent an additional sources of microfibers to natural ecosystems, but it was largely neglected. The present study explored the release of synthetic or natural microfibers from reusable and disposable face masks of five different fabrics when subjected to a cycle of laundering in a domestic washing machine. After a single wash, face masks released an average (± SE) of 284.94 ± 73.66 microfibers, independently of the fabrics. Focusing on the fabrics composing the face masks, polyurethane (541.33 ± 51.84 microfibers) and cotton-based (823.00 ± 112.53 microfibers) face masks released the highest amount of synthetic and natural microfibers, respectively. Considering the crucial role of face masks to counteract the pandemic and the increasing trend of their use, further studies represent a priority to estimate the contribution of face mask-derived microfibers to freshwater contamination.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Lavanderia , Ecossistema , Humanos , Máscaras , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(5): 525-535, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34971711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic raised concerns towards domestic laundering of healthcare worker (HCW) uniforms; this is common practice in countries such as the United Kingdom (UK) and United States. Previous research suggested 4-32% of nurses did not adhere to laundry policies, which could be an infection control risk. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of UK healthcare workers towards domestic laundering of uniforms during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Online and paper questionnaires were distributed to HCWs and nursing students who regularly wear uniforms. Differences in knowledge between HCWs were analyzed by Chi-squared tests and attitudes were examined using exploratory factor analysis. RESULTS: About 86% of participants (n = 1099 of 1277) laundered their uniforms domestically. Respondents were confident in laundering their uniforms appropriately (71%), however 17% failed to launder at the recommended temperature (60°C). Most participants (68%) would prefer their employer launder their uniforms, with mixed negative emotions towards domestic laundering. Limited provision of uniforms and changing and/or storage facilities were a barrier to following guidelines. CONCLUSION: Most HCWs domestically launder their uniforms, despite a preference for professional laundering. One-fifth of HCWs deviated from the UK National Health Service uniform guidelines; onsite changing facilities were the most significant barrier towards adherence.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Lavanderia , Atitude , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Medicina Estatal
9.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0250346, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242234

RESUMO

Synthetic fibers are increasingly seen to dominate microplastic pollution profiles in aquatic environments, with evidence pointing to textiles as a potentially important source. However, the loss of microfibers from textiles during laundry is poorly understood. We evaluated microfiber release from a variety of synthetic and natural consumer apparel textile samples (n = 37), with different material types, constructions, and treatments during five consecutive domestic laundry cycles. Microfiber loss ranged from 9.6 mg to 1,240 mg kg-1 of textile per wash, or an estimated 8,809 to > 6,877,000 microfibers. Mechanically-treated polyester samples, dominated by fleeces and jerseys, released six times more microfibers (161 ± 173 mg kg-1 per wash) than did nylon samples with woven construction and filamentous yarns (27 ± 14 mg kg-1 per wash). Fiber shedding was positively correlated with fabric thickness for nylon and polyester. Interestingly, cotton and wool textiles also shed large amounts of microfibers (165 ± 44 mg kg-1 per wash). The similarity between the average width of textile fibers here (12.4 ± 4.5 µm) and those found in ocean samples provides support for the notion that home laundry is an important source of microfiber pollution. Evaluation of two marketed laundry lint traps provided insight into intervention options for the home, with retention of up to 90% for polyester fibers and 46% for nylon fibers. Our observation of a > 850-fold difference in the number of microfibers lost between low and high shedding textiles illustrates the strong potential for intervention, including more sustainable clothing design.


Assuntos
Lavanderia , Têxteis/análise , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Águas Residuárias/química
10.
Wiad Lek ; 74(5): 1250-1255, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090300

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: Characteristic of corruptive incomings laundering in the medical sphere and research of components for counteraction to this phenomenon. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Some methods were used to ensure the completeness and complexity of scientific research: dialectical, formal, legal, epistemological, and systemstructural methods. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: It was concluded that corruptive incomings laundering in the medical sphere is becoming commonplace. New ways, means, and schemes for the commission of this crime are appearing. The authors analyze the main methods for corruptive incomings laundering in the medical sphere: during the purchase of medicines and medical equipment, during the procurements of medical preparations and medical equipment, building restoration and renovation, where health care facilities are located, price-fixing and gifting of chief medical officers. A comprehensive system of organizational, legal, and economic measures must be formed that will provide effective counteraction to the corruptive incomings laundering in the medical sphere.


Assuntos
Lavanderia , Crime , Humanos
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 791: 148060, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119782

RESUMO

As global production of textiles rapidly grows, there is urgency to understand the persistence of fabrics in the marine environment, particularly from the microfibers they shed during wearing and washing. Here, we show that fabrics containing polyester (one of the most common plastics) remained relatively intact (viz., with a limited biofilm) after >200 days in seawater off the Scripps Oceanography pier (La Jolla, CA), in contrast to wood-based cellulose fabrics that fell apart within 30 days. We also show similar results under experimental aquaria (in open circuit with the pier waters) as well as bioreactor settings (in close circuit, using microbial inoculum from the North Sea, off Belgium), using nonwoven fabrics and individual fibers, respectively. The fact that fibers released from synthetic textiles remain persistent and non-biodegradable despite their small (invisible) size, highlights concern for the growing industry that uses polyester from recycled plastics to make clothing.


Assuntos
Lavanderia , Reatores Biológicos , Celulose , Plásticos , Têxteis , Madeira
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(41): 58570-58582, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115293

RESUMO

Microplastic particles are a burgeoning population crisis in the marine environment. This research examines the emission of microfibers from three different jeans (garments) during domestic washing. The jeans types, washing temperature, washing duration, spin speed, detergent types, and addition of conditioner are the main factors for this research work. The average length and diameter of the microfibers for the 100% PET jeans (jeans-P) has 7800 ± 4000 µm and 11.9±3.2 µm and for polyester/cotton jeans (jeans-PB) has 4900 ± 2200 µm 17.4±4.8 µm, respectively. The maximum microfiber released was observed in the rigorous washing treatment (90 min, 60°C, 1400 rpm, powder detergent with the presence of conditioner). The surmised number of microfibers discharged from the 1 kg wash load of jeans-P was calculated within the extent of 2300000-4900000 microfibers, and it is varied by the washing treatments.


Assuntos
Lavanderia , Plásticos , Microplásticos , Poliésteres , Têxteis
13.
Microbiologyopen ; 10(2): e1174, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970541

RESUMO

Human body malodour is a complex phenomenon. Several types of sweat glands produce odorless secretions that are metabolized by a consortium of skin-resident microorganisms to a diverse set of malodorous substances. Isovaleric acid, a sweaty-smelling compound, is one major malodorous component produced by staphylococci with the skin-derived amino acid L-leucine as a substrate. During wearing, fabrics are contaminated with sweat and microorganisms and high humidity propagates growth and microbial malodour production. Incomplete removal of sweat residues and microorganisms from fabrics during laundry with bleach-free detergents and at low temperatures elevate the problem of textile malodour. This study aimed to analyze the inhibitory effect of the antimicrobial 4,4' dichloro 2-hydroxydiphenyl ether (DCPP) on the formation of isovaleric acid on fabrics. Therefore, GC-FID- and GC-MS-based methods for the analysis of isovaleric acid in an artificial human sweat-mimicking medium and in textile extracts were established. Here, we show that antimicrobials capable to deposit on fabrics during laundry, such as DCPP, are effective in growth inhibition of typical malodour-generating bacteria and prevent the staphylococcal formation of isovaleric acid on fabrics in a simple experimental setup. This can contribute to increased hygiene for mild laundry care approaches, where bacterial contamination and malodour production represent a considerable consumer problem.


Assuntos
Corynebacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Corynebacterium/metabolismo , Hemiterpenos/análise , Ácidos Pentanoicos/análise , Prolina/análogos & derivados , Piridinas/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Hemiterpenos/biossíntese , Humanos , Lavanderia , Leucina/metabolismo , Odorantes , Oligopeptídeos , Prolina/farmacologia , Pele/microbiologia , Têxteis/microbiologia
14.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(14): e0300220, 2021 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962979

RESUMO

Laundering of textiles-clothing, linens, and cleaning cloths-functionally removes dirt and bodily fluids, which prevents the transmission of and reexposure to pathogens as well as providing odor control. Thus, proper laundering is key to controlling microbes that cause illness and produce odors. The practice of laundering varies from region to region and is influenced by culture and resources. This review aims to define laundering as a series of steps that influence the exposure of the person processing the laundry to pathogens, with respect to the removal and control of pathogens and odor-causing bacteria, while taking into consideration the types of textiles. Defining laundering in this manner will help better educate the consumer and highlight areas where more research is needed and how to maximize products and resources. The control of microorganisms during laundering involves mechanical (agitation and soaking), chemical (detergent and bleach), and physical (detergent and temperature) processes. Temperature plays the most important role in terms of pathogen control, requiring temperatures exceeding 40°C to 60°C for proper inactivation, while detergents play a role in reducing the microbial load of laundering through the release of microbes attached to fabrics and the inactivation of microbes sensitive to detergents (e.g., enveloped viruses). The use of additives (enzymes) and bleach (chlorine and activated oxygen) becomes essential in washes with temperatures below 20°C, especially for certain enteric viruses and bacteria. A structured approach is needed that identifies all the steps in the laundering process and attempts to identify each step relative to its importance to infection risk and odor production.


Assuntos
Vestuário , Higiene , Lavanderia/métodos , Microbiota , Odorantes , Humanos , Lavanderia/instrumentação , Têxteis
15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 651-659, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957200

RESUMO

Electroless silver plating on fabrics can obtain conductive and antibacterial bifunctional materials which can be used as electrodes in wearable electronic products. However, these activities are deteriorated easily after washing because of the falling off of silver coating resulted from the weak adhesion. In order to improve the binding force between silver and cellulose fabrics, 3-mercaptopropytrimethoxysilane (MPTS) was applied to modify cellulose fabrics before silver electroless plating to develop the durable conductive fabrics with excellent antibacterial. The silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) deposition process was observed via field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), thermal properties were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). A dense and uniform silver layer was formed on the fabric. The initial electrical resistance of the conductive fabric was 0.04 Ω/sq and lowered than 2 Ω/sq after 200 washing cycles. The antibacterial efficiency of the fabric after 200 washing cycles remained 92.82%, compared to 100% with the fabric before washing. Moreover, the inhibition rate was determined by optical density of bacteria suspension at 260 nm and further substantiated by releasing of Ag+ from the fabric. The conductive fabrics were applied as wearable electrodes to capture electrocardiogram (ECG) signals of human in static states and running states.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Celulose/química , Eletrocardiografia/instrumentação , Eletrodos , Prata/química , Têxteis , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Celulose/farmacologia , Impedância Elétrica , Desenho de Equipamento , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Lavanderia , Masculino , Compostos de Organossilício/química , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Corrida , Prata/farmacologia , Propriedades de Superfície
16.
mSphere ; 6(2)2021 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910996

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) persists on stainless steel and plastic for up to 7 days, suggesting that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could be spread by fomite transmission. There is limited research on the stability of SARS-CoV-2 on textiles, with the risk of textiles acting as fomites not being well understood. To date, there does not appear to be any published research on the stability of coronaviruses during laundering, which is required to determine the efficacy of current laundering policies in the decontamination of health care textiles. The aim of this study was to investigate the environmental stability of human coronaviruses HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E on different textile fiber types and the persistence of HCoV-OC43 on textiles during domestic and industrial laundering. This study demonstrated that human coronaviruses (5 log10 50% tissue culture infective doses [TCID50]) remain infectious on polyester for ≥72 h, cotton for ≥24 h, and polycotton for ≥6 h; HCoV-OC43 was also able to transfer from polyester to PVC or polyester after 72 h. Under clean conditions, HCoV-OC43 was not detectable on cotton swatches laundered with industrial and domestic wash cycles without temperature and detergent (≥4.57-log10-TCID50 reduction), suggesting that the dilution and agitation of wash cycles are sufficient to remove human coronaviruses from textiles. In the presence of interfering substances (artificial saliva), ≤1.78 log10 TCID50 HCoV-OC43 was detected after washing domestically without temperature and detergent, unlike industrial laundering, where the virus was completely removed. However, no infectious HCoV-OC43 was detected when washed domestically with detergent.IMPORTANCE Synthetic textiles such as polyester could potentially act as fomites of human coronaviruses, indicating the importance of infection control procedures during handling of contaminated textiles prior to laundering. This study provides novel evidence that human coronaviruses can persist on textiles for up to 3 days and are readily transferred from polyester textile to other surfaces after 72 h of incubation. This is of particular importance for the domestic laundering of contaminated textiles such as health care uniforms in the United Kingdom and United States, where there may be a risk of cross-contaminating the domestic environment. It was demonstrated that human coronaviruses are removed from contaminated textiles by typical domestic and commercial wash cycles, even at low temperatures without detergent, indicating that current health care laundering policies are likely sufficient in the decontamination of SARS-CoV-2 from textiles.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Resfriado Comum/transmissão , Coronavirus Humano 229E/efeitos dos fármacos , Coronavirus Humano OC43/efeitos dos fármacos , Detergentes/farmacologia , Têxteis/virologia , Linhagem Celular , Fibra de Algodão/virologia , Fômites/virologia , Humanos , Lavanderia , Poliésteres , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 39(2): 224-227, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892975

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Hospital floors are underappreciated reservoir for microbes; therefore, floor cleaning should warrant reduction of microbial load for decreasing risk of infection transmission and has to be aesthetically acceptable. It was aimed to study the impact of mechanized laundering of floor mops in reducing microbial load compared to manual washing. METHODS: An interventional study was conducted from January to July 2019 in various inpatient areas of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Culture of floor mops were taken after manual washing (pre-intervention) and mechanized laundering(intervention). During intervention, mops were equally divided into two piles, with one pile soaked in sodium hypochlorite for 15-20 min before mechanized laundering and other were put directly for mechanized laundering. Bacterial load in floor mops was observed in each group. RESULTS: Significant difference (P Value 0.001) in bacterial load was observed in manually washed (502 cfu/plate) and mechanized laundering (278 cfu/plate) of floor mops. Presoaking of floor mops with sodium hypochlorite (262 cfu/plate) did not show any significant difference (P-value 0.59) in reduction of bacterial load compared to mops which were cleaned using mechanized laundering (294 cfu/plate). The bacterial load of floor mops which were manually washed showed increase in mean value of microbial load from 609 cfu/plate from day one to 4015 cfu/plate on day five. CONCLUSION: Mechanized laundering of floor mops standardizes the mop cleaning process and brings down the microbial load significantly compared to manual washing. Disinfection of floor mops before mechanized laundering using sodium hypochlorite did not have significant impact on reduction of microbial load.


Assuntos
Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Lavanderia , Hipoclorito de Sódio , Carga Bacteriana , Desinfecção , Hospitais , Índia
18.
J Oleo Sci ; 70(4): 521-530, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814513

RESUMO

In this study, the interaction between the temperature and the pH of soil containing fatty acids with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) aqueous solution was investigated to elucidate their synergistic effect in cleaning. A tergotometer was used for the cleaning test, and the cleaning results were analyzed by the probability density functional method, using the calculated parameter, µ rl , as an index of the cleaning power. The increase in µ rl by one of the factors was defined as ΔX or ΔY and the increase in µ rl by the both factors was defined as Δ(X + Y). It is assumed that there is a synergistic effect when Δ(X + Y) > ΔX + ΔY. The cleaning of fatty acid stains followed the addition rule pertaining to mechanical force and the pH effect. However, synergy was observed between the temperature and the pH effect. This was also supported by the plot of µ rl vs 1/T and observations using a phase-contrast microscope.


Assuntos
Detergentes , Ácidos Graxos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lavanderia , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio , Tensoativos , Temperatura , Soluções , Água
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112030, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561711

RESUMO

The presence and biodegradability of textile microfibers shed during laundering or use is an important environmental issue. In this research, the influence of common textile finishes on the persistence of cotton fibers in an aerobic aquatic environment was assessed. The biodegradation of cotton knitted fabrics with different finishes, silicone softener, durable press, water repellent, and a blue reactive dye was evaluated. The rate of biodegradation decreased with durable press and water repellant finishing treatments. In terms of the final extent of biodegradation, there was no significant difference between the samples. All samples reached more than 60% biodegradation in 102 days. The biodegradation rates were in agreement with observed trends of the same samples for cellulase mediated hydrolysis and cellulase adsorption experiments, indicating the finishes impact the initial adsorption of enzymes excreted by the microorganisms and the initial rates of biodegradation, however despite this the cellulosic material maintains its biodegradability.


Assuntos
Lavanderia , Adsorção , Vestuário , Corantes , Fibra de Algodão , Poliésteres , Têxteis
20.
Med Sci Law ; 61(3): 198-207, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573465

RESUMO

In some cases of sexual assault that are not reported to judicial authorities within a certain time, it is important to detect and identify seminal stains on laundered fabrics. In this study, we aimed to reveal the effect of the time from staining to laundering on the detectability and identification of seminal stains on laundered clothes. A total of 180 pieces of fabric (four different colours and five different types) were stained with seminal fluids, and three different lag times (12 hours, 1 week and 1 month) from staining to laundering were used. Three different laundering protocols were applied to these fabrics after staining. The built-in camera of the Mobile Multispectral UV-VIS-IR Imaging System® was used to take photos (1260 in total) of the stains with seven different wavelength and filter options, and the obtained images were evaluated. The Seratec® PSA Semiquant test was used to analyse the presence of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the seminal stains laundered after different lag times. We observed that in examining with the forensic light source (FLS) system, the time from staining to laundering affected the detectability of seminal stains on pieces of cloth. The best fluorescence was obtained in the examination of semen-stained fabric with FLS, particularly when the fabric was not laundered for one month after staining. On the other hand, the time from staining to laundering had a more limited effect on PSA test positivity than on the results of the examination with FLS.


Assuntos
Vestuário , Lavanderia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/análise , Sêmen/química , Fluorescência , Humanos , Sêmen/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Tempo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...