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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 273: 113977, 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652110

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Blighia sapida is traditionally used in treating intercostal pain, psychosis, stomach ache, back pain, and skin diseases. However, there is limited information on the scientific basis for its use traditionally in the treatment of pain. AIM OF STUDY: To identify the major constituents in the aqueous leaf extract of Blighia sapida (AEBS) and to assess its analgesic properties in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bioactive compounds were identified and quantified in AEBS by High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Photodiode Array Detector (HPLC/DAD). Analgesic activity of AEBS was assessed at doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg p.o., using animal models. RESULTS: Chlorogenic acid, saponins, tannins, caffeic acid, quercetin, gallic acid, pyrogallol, quinine, caffeine, and nicotine were identified. At doses 250 mg/kg (p < 0.05) and 500 mg/kg (p < 0.01), AEBS significantly inhibited acetic acid induced writhing in comparison with the control. It also significantly inhibited pain in the inflammatory phase of the formalin induced paw licking test at 250 mg/kg (p < 0.01) and 500 mg/kg (p < 0.05) doses, in comparison with the control. It did not inhibit pain in the neurogenic phase of the formalin paw licking and in the hot plate tests. CONCLUSION: Blighia sapida leaf extract possesses analgesic activity that is mediated by peripheral mechanisms but not through central mechanisms.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Blighia/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Analgésicos/química , Analgésicos/toxicidade , Animais , Feminino , Dose Letal Mediana , Masculino , Camundongos , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656407

RESUMO

With the rapid increase in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment for diverse applications and to contribute to the understanding of suitability of nanoparticles (NPs) in pharmaceutical effluent treatment, this study was conceptualized. Here, we profiled the concentration of selected heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu and Ni) in pharmaceutical effluent samples over three sampling periods using atomic absorption spectroscopy and evaluated the effectiveness of B. sapida synthesized copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) in pharmaceutical effluent treatment. The results showed that there was no significant (p > 0.05) difference in the heavy metals concentration of the pharmaceutical effluents across the three sampling periods. This observation could be attributed to the low environmental concentration of the metals that prevented significant leaching into the company's water source through rainfall or the highly effective water treatment pathways that successfully reduced the metals concentration. Despite the observed increase in Cu ions in the treated samples due to the synthesized NPs, its concentration still conforms to the internationally accepted admissible limit in drinkable water. Studies seeking to understand the suitability and toxicological implications of use of the NP-treated effluents are highly encouraged and efforts are underway in this direction.


Assuntos
Blighia/metabolismo , Cobre/química , Nanopartículas/química , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Purificação da Água/métodos , Cobre/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/química , Metais Pesados/isolamento & purificação , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/química , Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(49): 14603-14609, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33233889

RESUMO

Ackee fruits (Blighia sapida), an important food source in some tropical countries, can be the cause of serious poisoning. Ackees contain hypoglycin A and methylenecyclopropylglycine. Experiments were undertaken by a volunteer to elucidate the metabolic details of poisoning. Rapid intestinal absorption of the toxins was followed by their slow degradation to methylenecyclopropylacetyl and methylenecyclopropylformyl conjugates. Impairment of the metabolism of branched chain amino acids and ß-oxidation of fatty acids was found. Reduced enzyme activities were observed for several days after ingestion. A defined dose of fruit material caused significantly higher concentrations of metabolites when consumed 24 h after a previous ingestion than when consumed only once. The accumulation of toxins, toxin metabolites, and products of the intermediate metabolism after repeated consumption may, at least partly, explain the high frequency of fatal cases observed during harvesting. No inhibition of enzymes that degrade long-chain acyl compounds was observed in the experiments.


Assuntos
Blighia/metabolismo , Alimentos em Conserva/efeitos adversos , Frutas/toxicidade , Adulto , Blighia/toxicidade , Ciclopropanos/metabolismo , Ciclopropanos/toxicidade , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Alimentos em Conserva/análise , Frutas/metabolismo , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/metabolismo , Glicina/toxicidade , Humanos , Hipoglicinas/metabolismo , Hipoglicinas/toxicidade
4.
Phytochemistry ; 176: 112392, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512361

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) in a multifactorial autoimmune disease in which reliable biomarkers are needed for therapeutic monitoring and diagnosis. Autoantibodies (autoAbs) are known biomarker candidates although their detection in biological fluids requires a thorough characterization of their associated antigens. Over the past twenty years, a reverse chemical-based approach aiming to screen putative autoantigens has underlined the role of glycans, in particular glucose, in MS. Despite the progress achieved, a lack of consensus regarding the nature of innate antigens as well as difficulties proposing new synthetic glucose-based structures have proved to be obstacles. Here is proposed a strategy to extend the current methodology to the field of natural glycosides, in order to dramatically increase the diversity of glycans that could be tested. Triterpene saponins from the Sapindaceace family represent an optimal starting material as their abundant description in the literature has revealed a prevalence of glucose-based oligosaccharides. Blighia welwitschii (Sapindaceae) was thus selected as a case study and twelve triterpene saponins were isolated and characterized. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR as well as mass spectrometry, revealing seven undescribed compounds. A selection of natural glycosides exhibiting various oligosaccharide moieties were then tested as antigens in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to recognize IgM antibodies (Abs) in MS patients' sera. Immunoassay results indicated a correlation between the glycan structures and their antibody recognition capacity, allowing the determination of structure-activity relationships that were coherent with previous studies. This approach might help to identify sugar epitopes putatively involved in MS pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood.


Assuntos
Blighia , Esclerose Múltipla , Saponinas , Triterpenos , Glicosídeos , Humanos
5.
Med Hypotheses ; 137: 109555, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991365

RESUMO

Discovering novel means of protection from harmful substances in toothpaste is essential due to its mass production, and frequent exposure to its ingredients by consumers. This method of safeguarding through discovery demonstrates toothpaste safety, which is at risk of being stifled by other commercial priorities. Among the ingredients in toothpaste that cause adverse effects is sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS). An understanding of this source and its effects therefore allows for investigating preventative strategies through the use of safer alternatives. Saponin, a naturally occurring chemical in several plant species was discovered to be an alternative compound that may parallel the effects of sodium lauryl sulphate, yet exude less ill effects. This article highlights the benefits of saponin and its presence in a heavily consumed and exported fruit in Jamaica (ackee, Blighia sapida). The possibility of extracting saponin from ackee, and its use in the toothpaste industry as an alternative to sodium lauryl sulphate are discussed. Through consideration of this alternative, the potential exists to improve the safety of toothpastes and consequently improve oral health.


Assuntos
Blighia , Saponinas , Humanos , Jamaica , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio , Cremes Dentais
6.
Polim Med ; 50(2): 65-73, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant-extract-reduced metal nanoparticles provide means of overcoming microbial resistance. Incorporating them into appropriate pharmaceutical formulations will enhance their portability and ease of administration. OBJECTIVES: To synthesize silver nanoparticles using methanol extracts of the seeds of Blighia sapida as capping agents and formulating the products in antimicrobial films. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Phytochemical screening of the methanol extract of Blighia sapida K.D. Koenig (ackee) seeds was performed and its antioxidant properties were determined using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assay. The green synthesis of ackee seed extract silver nanoparticles (ASAgNPs) was accomplished with reacting 1 mM of aqueous silver nitrate (AgNO3) and the methanol extract in a flask; the bioreduction was performed at 37°C for 72 h. The resulting nanoparticles were lyophilized and characterized using UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and photomicrography. The nanoparticles were further formulated into films using starch and carboxymethyl cellulose using the solvent evaporation method. The extract, biosynthesized nanoparticles and film formulations were screened for antimicrobial activity against several pathogens using the agar well diffusion method. RESULTS: The methanol seed extracts of the ackee fruit contained saponins, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, and anthraquinones. The extract exhibited significant antioxidant properties. The nanoparticles and film formulations had a broader range of activity against microbes than the plant extract, exhibiting significant activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 700728, Salmonella typhi ATCC 14028, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Activity was also observed with Candida krusei, C. albicans, and Penicillium sp. It is noteworthy that this last organism showed resistance to fluconazole. CONCLUSIONS: Ackee seed extract silver nanoparticles exhibited a synergistic antimicrobial activity against several pathogens. Film formulations of the nanoparticles retained this antimicrobial activity and allowed the product to be presented in a consumer-ready form.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Blighia , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pichia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes , Prata/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
7.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180140, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508662

RESUMO

Ackee (Blighia sapida K. D. Koenig) is an exotic fruit widely consumed in the Caribbean countries. While there is extensive research on the presence of hypoglycin A, other bioactive compounds have not been studied. We identified and quantified the changes in bioactive molecules (total phenol, ascorbic acid, hypoglycin A, squalene, D: A-Friedooleanan-7-ol, (7.alpha.), and oleic acid), antioxidant potential, and volatile compounds during two stages of ripe. A clear reduction in hypoglycin A, ascorbic acid, and total polyphenols during the maturation process were observed. On the contrary, oleic acid, squalene, and D: A-Friedooleanan-7-ol, (7.alpha.) contents increased about 12, 12, and 13 times, respectively with advancing maturity. These bioactive molecules were positively correlated with radical scavenging (DDPH and ABTS). Solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis revealed more than 50 compounds with 3-penten-2-one and hexanal as the major compounds in the fully ripe stage. The results suggested that ripe ackee arilli could serve as an appreciable source of natural bioactive micro-constituents.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Blighia/química , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hipoglicinas/química , Polifenóis/química , Esqualeno/química
8.
Rev Neurol (Paris) ; 175(10): 631-640, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542178

RESUMO

The consumption by humans of plants with potential to induce neurological disorders is widespread, but overt disease surfaces only when the subject's toxic threshold is exceeded. Excessive intake arising from food dependency in the setting of hunger, chronic undernutrition, vitamin deficiency, inadequate detoxication, or other individual susceptibility, can trigger acute encephalopathy (lychee, ackee fruits), sub-acute spastic paraparesis (grasspea, cassava root/leaves) or ataxic neuropathy (cassava root flour). While these disorders are very rarely encountered in high-income countries, they are not only common among impoverished populations but also often occur as outbreaks that impact a significant proportion of an affected community. Unfamiliarity with the adverse effects of plant toxins has sometimes led to the mistaken attribution of nutritional neurotoxic disease to a neurotropic viral or synthetic pesticidal etiology. The combination of human population growth, food and water insecurity, poverty and, with climate change, increased dependency on environmentally tolerant plants with neurotoxic potential, predictably may result in an increased prevalence of nutritional neurotoxic disorders, especially in certain parts of Africa and Asia.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/induzido quimicamente , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Plantas/toxicidade , Blighia/efeitos adversos , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Litchi/efeitos adversos , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Manihot/efeitos adversos , Manihot/toxicidade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/complicações , Intoxicação por Plantas/epidemiologia , Áreas de Pobreza
9.
Phytochemistry ; 162: 260-269, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031211

RESUMO

A phytochemical investigation of Blighia unijugata led to the isolation of eleven hederagenin glycosides. Among these compounds, six are previously undescribed, two are described in their native forms for the first time and three are known whereas firstly isolated from Blighia unijugata. The structure of the undescribed compounds was elucidated on the basis of 2D NMR and mass spectrometry analyses as 3-O-ß-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-arabinopyranosylhederagenin, 3-O-ß-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-3-O-acetyl-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-arabinopyranosylhederagenin, 3-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-arabinopyranosylhederagenin, 3-O-ß-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-ß-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-arabinopyranosylhederagenin, 3-O-ß-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-ß-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-3-O-acetyl-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-arabinopyranosylhederagenin, 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-arabinopyranosylhederagenin 28-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-ß-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-arabinopyranosylhederagenin 28-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl ester and 3-O-ß-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-arabinopyranosylhederagenin 28-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl ester. These results revealed the existence of several conserved structural features that could be used as chemotaxonomic markers for the Blighia genus such as the glycosidic sequence 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl, the occurrence of 3-O-acetylated ß-D-glucopyranosyl units and the systematic presence of hederagenin as aglycone.


Assuntos
Blighia/química , Frutas/química , Glicosídeos/química , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Ácido Oleanólico/química
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 235: 446-459, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685434

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ackee plant (Blighia sapida K. D. Koenig) (Sapindaceae) is used in Sub-Saharan Africa (where it has its origin) and in different parts of the world (The Caribbean, North and South America, Europe). Traditionally it is used to manage numerous ailments like backache, constipation, cancer, fever in young children, gonorrhea, dysentery, psychosis, hernia, stomach ache, malaria, rheumatism, typhoid etc. It is also used as a cosmetic and food source. The fruit aril is the main constituent of the Jamaican National Dish. This review summarizes its phytochemistry, nutritional properties, ethnobotany and pharmacology. The need to gather up to date information on this plant, to facilitate in vivo and in vitro investigations for verification of some of the local claims necessitated this review. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was performed on Ackee using ethno botanical text books and scientific databases such as PubMed, Scopus, EBSCO, Science-direct, Google, Google Scholar and other web sources like records from PROTA, PROSEA, JSTOR and Botanical Dermatology Database. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: This review highlights the traditional uses of parts of the Ackee plant: the bark, the leaves, capsules, roots and seeds. They are used in the management of diverse disease conditions such as diarrhoea, conjunctivitis, fever, internal hemorrhage, dysentery, cutaneous skin infections, and bacterial infections amongst others. Only nineteen compounds have been reportedly isolated from the parts of B. sapida; Alkaloids, quinines, polyphenols, and steroids, their glycosides, sesquiterpenes and triterpenes. Some of the plant extracts and its isolated compounds showed anticancer, antimicrobial, antidiarrheal, antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities both in vitro and in vivo. The seed/leaves have also been used as insect repellants and the leaves have been reported to have lethal effects on larvae of various mosquitoes' species. The oil contains a lot of nutrients and may be considered for edible consumption after safety has been confirmed. Hypoglycin A and the less malignant hypoglycin B are found in the unripe aril of Ackee and consumption results in hypoglycemia, vomiting, gluconeogenesis disruption which can result in coma and death. The untapped economic potential of its fruits is glaring in West Africa countries. CONCLUSION: Though B.sapida has been put to enormous traditional use, the pharmacological studies conducted are not sufficient, most studies are either in-vivo or in-vitro. More work is required (well-designed pharmacological tests, randomized clinical trials) to evaluate these medicinal claims. This review provides a basis for future research. The isolation of more compounds,detailed pharmacological investigations, exploration of food use and detoxification techniques are key areas to investigate.


Assuntos
Blighia/química , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Fitoterapia/métodos
11.
Niger J Physiol Sci ; 34(2): 191-199, 2019 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343270

RESUMO

Blighia unijugata (Sapindaceae) is an indigenous tree belonging to the tropical forests of West Africa. It is called "Ako Isin" by the Yoruba people of Southern-Western part of Nigeria, where it is among plants used traditionally in the management of depressive psychosis. The aim of this present study was to evaluate the anti-depressant activity of ethanol extract of Blighia unijugata leaves in-vivo using acute and chronic experimental models of depression. The antidepressant activity of ethanol extract of B. unijugata leaves was investigated using acute and chronic unpredictable mild stress. Depression tests used included forced swimming, tail suspension, yohimbine induced lethality and reserpine induced depression tests. Oxidative stress markers were also assessed in the brain homogenates after chronic unpredictable mild stress. The acute toxicity studied using oral route of administration was 1414 mg/kg. The results showed that, B. unijugata produced significant reduction in immobility time in forced swimming and tail suspension tests without stimulating in locomotor activity in open field test. It was also found that B. unijugata significantly reversed diarrhea, ptosis and hypothermia in reserpine model of depression. 2.5 mg/kg B. unijugata potentiated yohimbine induced lethality in mice and also reduced the oxidative stress markers. The ethanol extract of B. unijugata leaves possessed antidepressant action, thus justifying its use in the management of mental illness.


Assuntos
Blighia , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Reserpina
12.
J Complement Integr Med ; 14(3)2017 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28306534

RESUMO

Background In West Africa, the fruit, seed, leaf and stem of Blighia sapida K.D. Koenig are commonly used as remedy against a variety of diseases, including diabetes mellitus. This study investigated the ameliorative potential of B. sapida K.D. Koenig stem bark ethanol extract against pancreatic ß-cell dysfunction in diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (65 mg/kg body weight) for 21 days, and orally administered with glibenclamide (5 mg/kg body weight), 50-150 mg/kg body weight of B. sapida stem bark ethanol extract once daily for 21 days. Results The blood glucose levels of rats induced with alloxan were significantly and gradually reduced (p<0.05) in B. sapida stem bark ethanol extract treated animals at the dose of 50-150 mg/kg body weight, and in glibenclamide-treated animals. The significant increase in the lipid peroxidation (malonaldehyde), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance scores (HOMA-IR) and decrease in serum insulin, pancreatic ß-cell scores as well as antioxidant marker enzymes in untreated diabetic rats compared to normal control rats were reversed by the B. sapida stem bark ethanol extract and glibenclamide. Similarly, histopathological changes in the pancreas were also reversed by the extract and glibenclamide. However, these effects were most prominent in the animals treated with 150 mg/kg body weight of B. sapida bark. Conclusions These findings indicate that B. sapida stem bark possess anti-hyperglycemic activity and exhibits ameliorative potential in managing diabetes.


Assuntos
Blighia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoterapia , Casca de Planta , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Aloxano , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Esquema de Medicação , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 65(12): 2603-2608, 2017 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28290200

RESUMO

Consumption of ackee (Blighia sapida) and lychee (Litchi chinensis) fruit has led to severe poisoning. Considering their expanded agricultural production, toxicological evaluation has become important. Therefore, the biochemical effects of eating 1 g/kg canned ackee, containing 99.2 µmol/kg hypoglycin A, and 5 g/kg canned lychee, containing 1.3 µmol/kg hypoglycin A, were quantified in a self-experiment. Using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, hypoglycin A, methylenecyclopropylacetyl-glycine, and methylenecyclopropylformyl-glycine, as well as the respective carnitine conjugates, were found in urine after ingesting ackee. Hypoglycin A and its glycine derivative were also present in urine after eating lychee. Excretion of physiological acyl conjugates was significantly increased in the ackee experiment. Ingestion of ackee led to up to 15.1 nmol/L methylenecyclopropylacetyl-glycine and traces of methylenecyclopropylformyl-carnitine in the serum. These compounds were not found in the serum after eating lychee. Hypoglycin A accumulated in the serum in both experiments.


Assuntos
Blighia/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Alimentos em Conserva/análise , Frutas/química , Hipoglicinas/análise , Litchi/química , Blighia/metabolismo , Blighia/toxicidade , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Alimentos em Conserva/toxicidade , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/toxicidade , Humanos , Hipoglicinas/metabolismo , Hipoglicinas/toxicidade , Litchi/metabolismo , Litchi/toxicidade , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
14.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 93(5): 1122-3, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26324727

RESUMO

Ackee apple fruit is a native fruit to Jamaica and some parts of west Africa. Its toxicity known as "Jamaican vomiting sickness" dates back to the nineteenth century. However, there is a dearth of reported published data on toxicity from Nigeria where it is popularly known in the southwest as "ishin." We report a case series of eight previously well Nigerian siblings who presented at various intervals after ingestion of roasted seeds and aril of the ackee fruit.


Assuntos
Blighia/efeitos adversos , Frutas/efeitos adversos , Intoxicação por Plantas/diagnóstico , Sementes/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Nigéria , Saúde Pública , Sementes/toxicidade , Irmãos
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 61(12): 1771-7, 2015 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26354965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients with severe sepsis or septic shock may need relatively high colistin daily doses for efficacy against multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant gram-negative rods. However, acute kidney injury (AKI) may represent a major dose-limiting adverse effect of colistin. We sought to determine AKI occurrence and to identify factors influencing AKI risk in severely ill patients receiving colistin according to a recently proposed dosing strategy. METHODS: A prospective, observational, cohort study involving patients with severe sepsis or septic shock who received colistin was performed. AKI was defined according to Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria. Colistin administration was driven by a modified pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK/PD)-based dosing approach. RESULTS: Of 70 patients who received colistin at a median daily dose of 9 million IU (MIU; interquartile range, 5.87-11.1 MIU), 31 (44%) developed AKI. In univariate analysis, age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), score and baseline renal impairment were significantly associated with AKI. Moreover, patients with AKI were less frequently treated with adjuvant ascorbic acid (P = .003). In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of AKI were baseline renal impairment (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-9.2; P < .001) and age (1.03; 1.0-1.05; P = .028), whereas a strong independent renal-protective role emerged for ascorbic acid (0.27; .12-.57; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: In severely ill patients receiving colistin according to a PK/PD-driven dosing approach, baseline renal impairment and older age strongly predict AKI occurrence, but concomitant administration of ascorbic acid markedly reduces AKI risk, allowing safer use of colistin.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Colistina/administração & dosagem , Colistina/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antídotos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Blighia , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
16.
Food Chem ; 176: 314-8, 2015 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25624239

RESUMO

The maturation of fruits is characterized by numerous compositional changes during ripening and these changes contribute in their quality attributes. This study aimed to assess the contents of saccharides and potential fructooligosaccharides (FOS) of ackee (Blighia sapida Köenig), carambola (Averrhoa carambola) and June plum (Spondias dulcis), at green and ripe stages. Beside glucose and fructose and lower sucrose content, three short chain fructooligosaccharides were identified in ackee fruit, namely 1-kestose (1(F)-ß-d-fructofuranosyl sucrose), nystose (1(F)(1-ß-d-fructofuranosyl)2 sucrose) and DP5 (1(F)(1-ß-d-fructofuranosyl)3 sucrose), while in carambola and June plum DP5 (1(F)(1-ß-d-fructofuranosyl)3 sucrose) was not detected. Ripening stage also affected significantly the contents of these saccharides and sFOS.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae/química , Averrhoa/química , Blighia/química , Frutas/química , Oligossacarídeos/química , Humanos
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 157: 309-19, 2014 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25172468

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Blighia sapida leaves are used in the management of diabetes in Nigeria. Thus the antidiabetic activity of methanolic Blighia sapida leaf extract and its capability to halt oxidative stress and dyslipidemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats were investigated. METHODS: In vitro antioxidant activity of the extract (0.2-1.0mg/mL) was investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide ion, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radical and ferric ion reducing system. Antidiabetic was evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. RESULTS: The methanolic extract of Blighia sapida leaves at 1.0mg/mL scavenged DPPH, superoxide ion, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radical at 80.34%, 57.39%, 72.36% and 77.0% respectively, while ferric ion was significantly reduced. Single oral dose of the extract significantly reduced blood glucose level in a dose dependent manner with highest dose producing 18.6% reduction after 240min. Similar reduction was produced after 28 days of extract administration with the highest dose producing 65.65% reduction which compared significantly (P<0.05) with the control group and glibenclamide treated groups. Alloxan-induced diabetic mediated alterations in liver and serum cholesterol, triacylglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDLc) were significantly (P<0.05) restored by the extract. Methanolic extract of Blighia sapida leaves significantly attenuated the decrease in the activities of reactive oxygen species detoxifying enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase) in the liver and pancreas of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Elevation in the concentrations of malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl, and fragmented DNA was significantly (P<0.05) lowered by Blighia sapida leaves extract. CONCLUSION: Overall, methanolic extract of Blighia sapida leaves at all doses used reduced blood glucose level and prevented oxidative stress and dyslipidemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Blighia/química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Aloxano , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Nigéria , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
18.
West Indian med. j ; 63(1): 9-12, Jan. 2014. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045779

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To re-investigate the composition of ackee oil and unequivocally determine its principal fatty acid components. METHODS: Oil was extracted from the edible portion of ackees harvested in three different studies (I - III) by several analysts; studies I and II utilized composite samples from several trees while study III consisted of ackees from seven separate trees. The oils were either saponified and methylated or trans-methylated and the fatty acid methyl ester content analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Relative fatty acid composition was quantified based on chromatographic peak areas while fatty acids were identified by mass spectrometry. The degree of unsaturation of the ackee oils was characterized by determination of the iodine value. RESULTS: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data from the three studies were assessed. Relative fatty acid composition for the ackee oils was consistent across the three studies. The major fatty acid components were oleic acid (55.44%), palmitic acid (25.57%) and stearic acid (12.59%); linoleic acid was present in minor to undetectable amounts. An iodine value of 49 was determined which is consistent with the high oleic acid content of the ackee oil. CONCLUSION: The ackee samples analysed were rich in the monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) oleic acid.Consideration should be given to potential protective health effects of diets which include ackee.


OBJETIVO: Re-investigar la composición del aceite del seso vegetal (ackee) y determinar de manera inequívoca sus componentes principales de ácidos grasos. MÉTODOS: Se extrajo el aceite de la porción comestible de sesos vegetales de la Blighia sapida (ackee), cosechados como parte de tres estudios diferentes (I - III) por varios analistas. Los estudios I y II utilizaron muestras combinadas de varios árboles de Blighia sapida, en tanto que el estudio III estuvo formado por muestras de siete árboles de Blighia sapida por separado. Los aceites fueron saponificados y metilados o transmetilados, y el contenido de éster metílico de ácidos grasos fue analizado mediante técnicas de cromatografía de gases y espectrometría de masas (GC-MS). La composición relativa de ácidos grasos se cuantificó sobre la base de las áreas cromatográficas pico, mientras que los ácidos grasos se identificaron mediante espectrometría de masas. El grado de insaturación de los aceites de seso vegetal fue caracterizado mediante la determinación del valor de yodo. RESULTADOS: Se evaluaron los datos de la cromatografía de gases acoplada con espectrometría de masas de los tres estudios. La composición relativa de ácido grasos de los aceites de seso vegetal, fue constante a través de los tres estudios. Los componentes principales del ácido graso fueron el ácido oleico (55.44%), el ácido palmítico (25.57%), y el ácido esteárico (12.59%). El ácido linoleico estuvo presente en cantidades que fluctuaron de menores a indetectables. Se determinó un valor de yodo de 49, el cual está en correspondencia con el alto contenido de ácido oleico en el seso vegetal. CONCLUSIÓN: Las muestras analizadas de sesos vegetales de la Blighia sapida (ackee) eran ricas en ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA por sus siglas en inglés) y ácidos oleicos. Debe prestarse atención a los posibles efectos protectores de la salud de dietas que incluyen sesos vegetales.


Assuntos
Óleos Vegetais/química , Blighia/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Ácido Palmítico/análise , Ácido Oleico/análise , Jamaica , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 93(4): 722-6, 2013 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23172539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ripening of fruits is characterized by physical, chemical and biochemical compositional changes such as color, sugars and phenolic compounds. Ackee fruit is famous in Jamaica and the Caribbean. This study aimed to assess the variation of fatty acids in two varieties (cheese and butter) ackee (Blighia sapida) fruits during five different ripening stages. RESULTS: The total fatty acid content of ackee fruit was much higher in arils and ranged from 283.4 to 465.1 g kg(-1) dry weight (DW), while in husk they ranged from 235.2 to 465.1 g kg(-1) DW in both varieties. Total fatty acid content declined in the arils and the husks as the fruit ripened. Five major fatty acids were found: palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3). In the arils, oleic acid was found at the highest concentration, followed by palmitic, stearic, linoleic and last linolenic acid. The unsaturated:saturated ratio of fatty acids varied from 1.23 to 3.26 in the arils of both varieties, and from 1.03 to 5.05 in the husk. Monounsaturated:polyunsaturated fatty acids ranged from 8.56 to 25.19 in the arils and from 0.62 to 2.33 in the husk. CONCLUSION: The results show that ackee arils contain much higher levels of fats than the husk and the major fatty acid in the arils was oleic acid (Δ9-cis-oleic acid, an omega n-9), while in the husk unsaturated fatty acids were higher than the saturated ones. Oleic acid was the major fatty acid in both varieties, and aril fatty acid content was 10-20 times higher than in the husk. In both varieties, unsaturated fatty acids were relatively higher than saturated ones; however, total fatty acids showed a decline with ripening for arils and husk tissues.


Assuntos
Blighia/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Blighia/classificação , Blighia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Especificidade da Espécie
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