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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247071, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285609

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition, antioxidant activity and hypoglycemic effects of whole kumquat (Ku) powder in diabetic rats fed a high-fat-high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet. The antioxidant activities were evaluated using stable 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method, 2,2´-azinobis (3-ethyl benzo thiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS) and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Total phenolic content was (51.85 mg GAE/g) and total flavonoid content was (0.24 mg Cateachin Equivalent, CE/g). DPPH and ABTS values were 3.32 and 3.98 mg Trolox equivalent (TE)/g where FRAP value was 3.00 mM Fe2+/kg dry material. A total of 90 albino rats were used in the present study. Rats group were as follows: normal diet; normal treated (2, 4, and 6% Ku.), diabetic rats (non-treated), diabetic + HFHC diet (non-treated), HFHC (non-treated), Diabetic (treated), HFHC (treated) and Diabetic + HFHC (treated). The diets were followed for 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experiment. Serum glucose was recorded and thyroid hormones (T4, Thyroxine and T3, Triiodothyronine) were conducted. Diet supplemented with Kumquat at different concentrations have a hypoglycemic effect and improve the thyroid hormones of both diabetic rats and HFHC diabetic rats.


Resumo O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a composição química, a atividade antioxidante e os efeitos hipoglicêmicos do pó de kumquat (Ku) em ratos diabéticos alimentados com uma dieta rica em gordura e colesterol (HFHC). As atividades antioxidantes foram avaliadas usando o método de eliminação de radicais livres de 1,1-difenil 2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis (ácido 3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfônico) radical cátion (ABTS) e antioxidante redutor férrico potência (FRAP). O conteúdo fenólico total foi (51,85 mg GAE / g) e o conteúdo total de flavonoides foi (0,24 mg Cateachin Equivalent, CE / g). Os valores de DPPH e ABTS foram 3,32 e 3,98 mg equivalente de Trolox (TE) / g, em que o valor de FRAP foi de 3,00 mM Fe2 + / kg de material seco. Um total de 90 ratos albinos foi usado ​​no presente estudo. O grupo dos ratos foi o seguinte: dieta normal: tratados normais (2, 4 e 6% Ku.), ratos diabéticos (não tratados), diabéticos + dieta HFHC (não tratados), HFHC (não tratados), diabéticos (tratados), HFHC (tratados) e diabéticos + HFHC (tratados). As dietas foram seguidas por 8 semanas. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas ao final do experimento. A glicose sérica foi registrada e os hormônios tireoidianos (T4, Tiroxina e T3, Triiodotironina) foram conduzidos. A dieta suplementada com kumquat em diferentes concentrações tem um efeito hipoglicêmico e melhora os hormônios tireoidianos tanto de ratos diabéticos quanto de ratos diabéticos com HFHC.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Rutaceae , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Pós , Hormônios Tireóideos , Glicemia , Frutas
2.
Food Chem ; 398: 133951, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35987009

RESUMO

In this paper, we developed a sensor for on-site measuring beverage sucrose level based on cascade enzyme particles and a blood glucose meter. The cascade enzyme particles with sucrose hydrolyzing capability were prepared by co-precipitation of manganese carbonate, in which the stability of the enzymes was substantially enhanced by the particle encapsulation effect. The quantitative measurement of glucose produced by the hydrolysis of sucrose was performed using a commercial glucose meter, a commonly owned electrochemical device in homes, greatly improving detection accuracy and expanding applications. Actual sample testing demonstrated the high sensitivity and selectivity of the sensor, allowing for accurate detection of sucrose in beverages. This sensing strategy can also be further expanded to a variety of analytical assays, using blood glucose meters for portable quantitative testing.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Glicemia , Bebidas , Catálise , Glucose , Sacarose
3.
Food Chem ; 399: 133999, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037688

RESUMO

Melastoma dodecandrum Lour. (MDL) extracts have shown potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, suggesting MDL might be a good source of α-glucosidase inhibitors. The aim of the study was to identify compounds in MDL extracts with α-glucosidase inhibitory activities and evaluate their effect on postprandial blood glucose as well as elucidating the underlying mechanisms of inhibition. A total of 34 polyphenols were identified in MDL fruits, among which 10 anthocyanins and three proanthocyanidin derivatives were discovered for the first time. Dosing mice with MDL extracts (100 mg/kg body weight, by gavage) was associated with a significantly decrease in postprandial blood glucose concentrations after oral administration of maltose. The most potent α-glucosidase inhibitor was identified as casuarictin (IC50 of 0.21 µg/mL). Casuarictin bound competitively to α-glucosidase, occupying not only the catalytic site but also forming strong hydrogen bonds with α-glucosidase residues. Therefore, casuarictin derived from MDL fruits might be used as novel α-glucosidase inhibitor in functional foods or other dietary products.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Melastomataceae , Animais , Antocianinas , Glicemia/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Melastomataceae/metabolismo , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
4.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(2): 84-93, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130569

RESUMO

Long-term glycemic fluctuation has been associated with cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the findings are inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis to summarize the association between parameters of long-term glycemic variability and risk of cardiovascular events in T2DM patients. Medline, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched for longitudinal follow-up studies comparing the incidence of cardiovascular events in T2DM patients with higher or lower long-term glycemic variability. A random-effect model incorporating the potential heterogeneity among the included studies was used to pool the results. Twelve follow-up studies with 146 653 T2DM patients were included. The mean follow-up duration was 4.9 years. Pooled results showed that compared to those with the lowest glycemic variability, patients with the highest glycemic variability had significantly increased risk of cardiovascular events, as evidenced by the standard deviation of glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c-SD: relative risk (RR)=1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23 to 1.69, p<0.001; I2=70%], HbA1c coefficient of variation (HbA1c-CV: RR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.19 to 1.79. p<0.001; I2=83%), standard deviation of fasting plasma glucose (FPG-SD: RR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.65, p=0.009; I2=0%), and FPG coefficient of variation (FPG-CV: RR=1.29, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.64, p=0.04; I2=47%). In conclusion, increased long-term glycemic variability may be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events in T2DM patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Glicemia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Jejum , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
5.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(2): 94-103, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130570

RESUMO

Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) variability is emerging as an indicator of long-term glycemic control, which may play a significant role during vascular complications. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the association between the scope of HbA1c variability and vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PubMed and Embase were searched for studies that evaluated the association of HbA1c variability with vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. Two reviewers independently completed data extraction. Random-effects meta-analysis was conducted with stratification according to the type of vascular complications. Nine studies were eligible for inclusion in our systematic review and meta-analysis. Six studies evaluated the impact of the standard deviation of HbA1c (HbA1c-SD) on cardiovascular events and showed an association of HbA1c-SD with cardiovascular events (HR: 1.25, 95% CI 1.18-1.32, 5 studies). Six studies evaluated renal disease associated with HbA1c-SD and showed that HbA1c-SD was correlated with an increased risk of renal disease (HR: 1.19, 95% CI 1.13-1.24). Two studies evaluated HbA1c-SD and the risk of retinopathy and showed that no significant association was found between retinopathy and HbA1c-SD (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.92-125). For HbA1c-SD ranging from 0.6 to 0.8%, HbA1c-SD was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events (HR: 1.25, 95% CI 1.15-1.35) and renal disease (HR: 1.16, 95% CI 1.11-1.22). For individuals with index HbA1c variability greater than or equal to 0.6%, HbA1c variability was significantly associated with vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Glicemia/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(2): 104-112, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130571

RESUMO

Some studies have suggested that diabetes may be a risk factor for osteoarthritis. However, whether prediabetes is also associated with osteoarthritis has not been comprehensively examined. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between prediabetes and osteoarthritis. This meta-analysis included relevant observational studies from Medline, Embase, and Web of Science databases. A random-effect model after incorporation of the intra-study heterogeneity was selected to pool the results. Ten datasets from six observational studies were included, which involved 41 226 general adults and 10 785 (26.2%) of them were prediabetic. Pooled results showed that prediabetes was not independently associated with osteoarthritis [risk ratio (RR): 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00 to 1.14, p=0.06, I2=0%]. Sensitivity limited to studies with adjustment of age and body mass index showed consistent result (RR: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.14, p=0.09, I2=0%). Results of subgroup analyses showed that prediabetes was not associated with osteoarthritis in cross-sectional or cohort studies, in studies including Asian or non-Asian population, or in studies with different quality scores (p for subgroup difference>0.10). Besides, prediabetes was not associated with osteoarthritis in men or in women, in studies with prediabetes defined as impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or HbA1c (approximately 39-46 mmol/mol). Moreover, prediabetes was not associated with overall osteoarthritis, and knee or hip osteoarthritis. Current evidence does not support that prediabetes is independently associated with osteoarthritis in adult population.


Assuntos
Intolerância à Glucose , Osteoartrite , Estado Pré-Diabético , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Osteoartrite/complicações , Osteoartrite/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
7.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 22(3): 16-24, sep.-dic. 2022. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-396

RESUMO

Attention is a very important aspect for school and physic performance and, regular breakfast consumption has been associated with better student performance. In addition, adequate glycemia levels are related to better quality of life. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of breakfast consumption andglycemia levels on concentrated and distributed attention levels of high school students. This is a quantitative and cross-sectional research. The sample was composed by 54 students with average ages of 16±0.89, regularly enrolled in high school at an institution of the public school system. For this research we used the following data collection instruments: I) food records; II) capillary blood glucose testing with electronic device; III) Toulouse-Piéron's concentrated attention test, and; IV) Grid-type test. The data was collected on visits to the research site from 8:00 a.m. and 9:00 a.m. The sample was divided into fed group (who had breakfast) and fasting group (who had no breakfast). The fed group showed statistically better results for glycemia levels (87.25±14.76 mg/dl), concentrated attention (116.21±36.49 points), and distributed attention (20.89±4.08 points). Mild correlations between the glycemia and attention levels were found. The results suggest a positive association between breakfast consumption and glycemia levels adequate to health with concentrated and distributed attention levels. (AU)


La atención es un aspecto muy importante para el desempeño escolary,el consumo regular de desayuno se ha asociado con un mejor desempeño de los estudiantes. Además, los niveles adecuados de glucemia están relacionados con una mejor calidad de vida. Por lo tanto, el propósito de este estudio es analizar los efectos del consumo de desayuno y los niveles de glucemia en los niveles de atención concentrada y distribuida de los estudiantes de secundaria. Se trata de una investigación cuantitativa y transversal. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 54 estudiantes con edad promedio de 16 ± 0.89, matriculadosregularmente en la escuela secundaria en una institución del sistema escolar público. Para esta investigación utilizamos los siguientes instrumentos de recolección de datos: I) registros de alimentos; II) prueba de glucosa en sangre capilar con dispositivo electrónico; III) Prueba de atención concentrada de Toulouse-Piéron, y; IV) Ensayo tipo cuadrícula. Los datos se recolectaron en visitas al sitio de investigación de 8:00 a.m. a 9:00 a.m. La muestra se dividió en grupo alimentado (que desayunó) y grupo en ayunas (que no desayunó). El grupo alimentado mostró estadísticamente mejores resultados para los niveles de glucemia (87,25 ± 14,76 mg / dl), atención concentrada (116,21 ± 36,49 puntos) y atención distribuida (20,89 ± 4,08 puntos). Se encontraron levescorrelaciones entre la glucemia y los niveles de atención. Los resultados sugieren una asociación positiva entre el consumo de desayuno y los niveles de glucemia adecuados a la salud con los niveles de atención concentrada y distribuida. (AU)


A atenção é um aspecto bastante relevante para o rendimento físico e escolar, do mesmo modo, o consumo regular do café da manhã tem sido associado ao melhor desempenho de estudantes. Em complemento, índices adequados de glicemia estão relacionados a melhor qualidade de vida. Portanto, a presente pesquisa tem como objetivo analisar o impacto do consumo do café da manhã e dos índices de glicemia nos níveis de atenção concentrada e distributiva de escolares do ensino médio. A pesquisa caracteriza-se como quantitativa e transversal. A amostra foi composta por 54 escolares com idade média de 16±0,89, regularmente matriculados no ensino médio de uma instituição da rede pública de ensino. Foram utilizados como instrumentos de coleta de dados: I) recordatório alimentar; II) teste de glicemia capilar por dispositivo eletrônico; III) teste de atenção concentrada de Toulouse-Piéron e; IV) teste do tipo Grelha. Os dados foram coletados em visitas ao local de pesquisaentre às 08h00min e 09h00min. A amostra foi dicotomizada em grupo alimentado (que consumiu café da manhã) e grupo jejum (sem consumo de café da manhã). O grupo alimentado apresentou resultados estatisticamente melhores de índice de glicemia (87,25±14,76 mg/dl), atenção concentrada (116,21±36,49 pontos) e atenção distributiva (20,89±4,08 pontos). Foram identificadas correlações leves entre o índice de glicemia e os níveis de atenção. Os resultados sugerem uma associação positiva entre o consumo do café da manhã e índices de glicemia adequados à saúde com os níveis de atenção concentrada e distributiva. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Desjejum , Atenção , Estudantes , Glicemia , Estudos Transversais , Brasil , Jejum
8.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 612, 2022 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, the rates of suicide among young people have been increasing, and major depressive disorder (MDD) is regarded to be its main cause. Many factors such as thyroid dysfunction and metabolic abnormalities are thought to mediate this process, but the conclusions are inconsistent. This study investigated the rate of suicide attempts and associated risk factors among young, first-episode and drug-naïve Chinese Han patients with MDD. METHODS: A total of 917 patients with MDD (aged 18 ~ 35 years) were recruited. Demographic and clinical data were collected and thyroid function, fasting blood glucose and lipid profiles were measured. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 items (HAMD-17), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA), positive symptom subscale of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and clinical global impression of severity scale (CGI-S) were adopted to assess depression, anxiety, psychotic symptoms and disease severity respectively. RESULTS: The rate of suicide attempts was 19.5% in young MDD patients. There were significant differences in age (p = 0.003), education level (p = 0.001), age of onset (p = 0.004) and disease duration (p = 0.001) between patients with and without suicide attempts. Compared with patients without suicide attempts, patients with suicide attempts had significantly higher scores on the HAMD-17, HAMA, PANSS positive symptom subscale and CGI-S (all p < 0.001). Patients with suicide attempts had significantly higher levels of TSH (p < 0.001), TgAb (p = 0.004), TPOAb (p < 0.001), TG (p = 0.016), TC (p < 0.001), LDL (p < 0.001), and fasting glucose (p < 0.001), but significantly lower levels of HDL (p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that marital status (OR = 0.515, 95%CI: 0.280-0.950, p = 0.515), disease duration (OR = 1.100, 95%CI: 1.013-1.194, p = 0.024), HAMA score (OR = 1.313, 95%CI: 1.205-1.430, p < 0.001), CGI-S score (OR = 1.875, 95%CI: 1.339-2.624, p < 0.001), levels of FT3(OR = 0.717, 95%CI: 0.536-0.959, p = 0.025), TPOAb (OR = 1.004, 95%CI: 1.002-1.006, p < 0.001), TC (OR = 1.330, 95%CI: 1.011-1.750, p = 0.042) and LDL (OR = 0.736, 95%CI: 0.558-0.971, p = 0.030) were all independently associated with suicide attempts in young MDD patients. CONCLUSIONS: In China, the rate of suicide attempts in young patients with MDD is quite high and thyroid dysfunction and metabolic abnormalities may be implicated in its pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Tentativa de Suicídio , Adolescente , Glicemia , China , Humanos , Lipídeos , Fatores de Risco , Tireotropina
9.
Nutr J ; 21(1): 59, 2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36155628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among candidate genes related to type 2 diabetes (T2DM), one of the strongest genes is Transcription factor 7 like 2 (TCF7L2), regarding the Genome-Wide Association Studies. We aimed to conduct a systematic review of the literature on the modification effect of TCF7L2 on the relation between glycemic parameters and lifestyle factors. METHODS: A systematic literature search was done for relevant publications using electronic databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and Web of Science, from January 1, 2000, to November 2, 2021. RESULTS: Thirty-eight studies (16 observational studies, six meal test trials, and 16 randomized controlled trials (RCTs)) were included. Most observational studies had been conducted on participants with non-diabetes showing that TCF7L2 modified the association between diet (fatty acids and fiber) and insulin resistance. In addition, findings from meal test trials showed that, compared to non-risk-allele carriers, consumption of meals with different percentages of total dietary fat in healthy risk-allele carriers increased glucose concentrations and impaired insulin sensitivity. However, ten RCTs, with intervention periods of less than ten weeks and more than one year, showed that TCF7L2 did not modify glycemic parameters in response to a dietary intervention involving different macronutrients. However, two weight loss dietary RCTs with more than 1-year duration showed that serum glucose and insulin levels decreased and insulin resistance improved in non-risk allele subjects with overweight/obesity. Regarding artichoke extract supplementation (ALE), two RCTs observed that ALE supplementation significantly decreased insulin concentration and improved insulin resistance in the TT genotype of the rs7903146 variant of TCF7L2. In addition, four studies suggested that physical activity levels and smoking status modified the association between TCF7L2 and glycemic parameters. However, three studies observed no effect of TCF7L2 on glycemic parameters in participants with different levels of physical activity and smoking status. CONCLUSION: The modification effects of TCF7L2 on the relation between the lifestyle factors (diet, physical activity, and smoking status) and glycemic parameters were contradictory. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020196327.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Gorduras na Dieta , Ácidos Graxos , Humanos , Insulina , Estilo de Vida , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fator 1 de Transcrição de Linfócitos T/genética , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/genética
10.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 734, 2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited evidence exists on the correlation between the pre-pregnancy low-carbohydrate (LC) diet and maternal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) levels during pregnancy. Our aim was to compare the differences in maternal OGTT levels among women who had been diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during pregnancy and adopted different dietary patterns in the pre-pregnancy period. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in 20 women with GDM who adhering to an LC diet (carbohydrate intake < 130 g/d) during pre-conception (LC/GDM,cases). Control subjects, who were matched in a 4:1 ratio, were 80 women with GDM and conventional diet (Con/GDM,control), and 80 women with conventional diet but without GDM (Con/Healthy,control). Women diagnosed with GDM using 75-g OGTT between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. We used unadjusted raw data to compare the dietary composition data and biomarkers of the three study groups. RESULTS: The average pre-conception BMI in each group suggested a similar body size from the three study groups(19.12 ± 2.00 LC/GDM, 19.65 ± 2.32 Con/GDM, 19.53 ± 2.30 Con/Healthy; P = 0.647). Compared with the Con/GDM group, the OGTT-1 h and OGTT-2 h values in LC/GDM group were significantly higher (10.36 ± 1.28 mmol/L vs. 9.75 ± 0.98 mmol/L; 9.12 ± 0.98 mmol/L vs. 8.29 ± 1.06 mmol/L). Furthermore, the percentage of women who had more than one abnormal OGTT value (OGTT-1 h and OGTT-2 h) was 40% in the LC/GDM group, which was significantly higher than in the Con/GDM group (16.3%). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a relationship between the pre-pregnancy LC diet and more detrimental OGTT values in patients with GDM. This finding warrants further studies to understand the effect of pre-pregnancy LC diet practice on maternal glucose tolerance.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Glicemia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Gravidez
11.
J Diabetes ; 14(9): 606-619, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36163589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to explore the associations of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with the remission and progression along the glycemic continuum. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was performed among the general population in 2010-2015. NAFLD was defined as ultrasound-detected hepatic steatosis with absence of excessive alcohol consumption and other hepatic diseases. Remission of type 2 diabetes referred to glycated hemoglobin <6.5% without hypoglycemic agents for ≥3 months. Prediabetes remission referred to normalization of blood glucose. Multivariable logistic analysis was applied to identify the risk of glycemic metabolic transition. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 4.3 years, participants with NAFLD had a significantly higher risk of progressing from normal glucose tolerance to diabetes (3.36 [1.60-7.07]) and lower likelihood of diabetes remission (0.48 [0.30-0.78]). Associations in participants with overweight or obesity and higher probability of hepatic fibrosis remained consistent. Results related to the effect of NAFLD on the specific glucose parameters were generally in line with the changes of glycemic status. NAFLD improvement decreased the risk of prediabetes progressing to diabetes (0.50 [0.32-0.80]) and increased the probability of prediabetes remission (2.67 [1.49-4.79]). NAFLD tended to show the most significant association with glycemic progression and decreased the likelihood in remission of prediabetes and diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Presence of NAFLD increased risk of glycemic progression and decreased likelihood of remission. NAFLD improvement mitigated glycemic deterioration, whereas NAFLD progression impeded the chance of remission. The results emphasized joint management of NAFLD and diabetes and further focused on liver-specific subgroups of diabetes to tailor early intervention.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Estado Pré-Diabético , Glicemia , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
12.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e065287, 2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36167361

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in children and adolescents have risen globally over the past few years. While a few diabetes pharmacotherapies have been used in this population, their comparative benefits and harms are unclear. Thus, we will conduct a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to compare the efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapies for managing paediatric T2DM. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will include RCTs that enrolled T2DM patients ≤18 years of age and who were randomised to monotherapy or combination pharmacotherapies with or without lifestyle interventions. Comparator groups will include placebo or non-pharmacological treatments including lifestyle interventions.Treatment outcomes will include change from baseline in glycated haemoglobin A1c, body mass index z-score, weight, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin and lipid profiles, T2DM-related complications, as well as the incidence of treatment-related adverse events.Literature searches will be conducted in Medline, Embase, CINAHL, CENTRAL and Web of Science. We will also search the grey literature and the reference list of included trials and relevant reviews. Two reviewers will assess the eligibility of articles identified through our searches and will extract data from eligible studies independently. We will use a modified Cochrane instrument to evaluate the risk of bias. Disagreements will be resolved through consensus or arbitration by a third reviewer.A frequentist random-effects model will be used for conducting NMA. The quality of evidence will be assessed using the Confidence in Network Meta-Analysis platform. We will assess the effect modification through network meta-regression and subgroup analyses for sex, age at study inclusion, duration of T2DM, follow-up duration and risk of bias ratings. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study will not require ethics approval. We will disseminate our findings through publication in a peer-reviewed journal and conference presentations. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42022310100.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adolescente , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Lipídeos , Metanálise como Assunto , Metanálise em Rede , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077198

RESUMO

Adropin is a peptide hormone encoded by Energy Homeostasis Associated gene. Adropin modulates energy homeostasis and metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates. There is growing evidence demonstrating that adropin enhances insulin sensitivity and lowers hyperlipidemia in obese mice. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of daily administration of adropin for four weeks in mice with experimentally induced type 2 diabetes (T2D). Adropin improved glucose control without modulating insulin sensitivity. Adropin reduced body weight, size of adipocytes, blood levels of triacylglycerol and cholesterol in T2D mice. T2D mice treated with adropin had lower liver mass, reduced hepatic content of triacylglycerol and cholesterol. Furthermore, adropin attenuated elevated blood levels of hepatic enzymes (ALT, AST, GGT and ALP) in T2D mice. In T2D mice, adropin increased the circulating adiponectin level. Adropin had no effects on circulating insulin and glucagon levels and did not alter pancreatic islets morphology. These results suggest that adropin improves glucose control, lipid metabolism and liver functions in T2D. In conjunction with reduced lipid content in hepatocytes, these results render adropin as an interesting candidate in therapy of T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077491

RESUMO

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a metabolic disease affecting an increasing number of pregnant women around the world. It is not only associated with numerous perinatal complications but also has long-term consequences impacting maternal health and fetal development. To prevent them, it is important to keep glucose levels under control. As much as 15-30% of GDM patients will require treatment with insulin, metformin, or glyburide. With that in mind, it is crucial to keep searching for novel and improved pharmacotherapies. Nowadays, there are ongoing studies investigating the use of other groups of drugs that have proven successful in the treatment of T2DM. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor are among the drugs targeting the incretin system and are currently receiving significant attention. The aim of our review is to demonstrate the potential of these medications in treating GDM and preventing its later complications. It seems that both groups may be successful in the GDM management used alone or as an addition to better-known drugs, including metformin and glyburide. However, more clinical trials are needed to confirm their importance in GDM treatment and to demonstrate effective therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Gestacional , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV , Metformina , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Glibureto/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Incretinas/uso terapêutico , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Gravidez
15.
Rom J Morphol Embryol ; 63(1): 83-97, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vertebral abnormalities in offspring of diabetic mothers make major challenges worldwide and were not sufficiently studied before. AIM: To investigate the effects of alloxan-induced diabetes on rats' lumbar vertebrae, and to assess the potential beneficial impact of arachidonic acid. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pregnant rats were randomly equally divided into four groups: control, alloxan-induced diabetes received alloxan injection 150 mg∕kg, alloxan + arachidonic acid group received arachidonic acid 10 µg∕animal then given alloxan injection, and arachidonic acid group received it, until offspring age of three weeks. Six male offspring from each group were included in this study at ages of newborn, three-week-old, two-month-old, and their body measurements were recorded. Lumbar vertebrae and pancreas specimens were examined by light microscopy, morphometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and immunohistochemistry for insulin expression. RESULTS: In alloxan-induced diabetes newborn, three-week-old, and two-month-old rats, body measurements were significantly declined, histomorphometry of 6th lumbar vertebrae revealed disorganized chondrocytes, with vacuolated cytoplasm, empty lacunae, diminished matrix staining, with areas devoid of cells. TEM showed shrunken reserve and proliferative cells, with irregular nuclei, and damaged mitochondria. In contrast, alloxan + arachidonic acid group had cytoarchitecture of lumbar vertebrae that were like control group. Histomorphometry of pancreas in alloxan-induced diabetes group showed significant reduction in pancreatic islets number and surface area, damaged pancreatic islet cells appeared atrophied with apoptotic nuclei, and very weak insulin immunostaining. Whereas alloxan + arachidonic acid group displayed healthy features of pancreatic islets, which resembled control group, with strong insulin immunostaining. CONCLUSIONS: Arachidonic acid mitigated alloxan-induced diabetes by its antidiabetic activity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Ilhotas Pancreáticas , Aloxano/efeitos adversos , Aloxano/metabolismo , Animais , Ácido Araquidônico/efeitos adversos , Ácido Araquidônico/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Feminino , Insulina , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Vértebras Lombares/metabolismo , Masculino , Gravidez , Ratos
16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 153: 113526, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076607

RESUMO

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been rising alarmingly and it has now become a global concern causing an enormous economic burden on the health care system. MetS is generally linked to complications in lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and low grade inflammation. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of rosuvastatin, co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ10), and their combination on blood pressure, blood sugar, dyslipidemia, and liver function in rats with MetS induced by high fructose and high fat diet (HF-HFD) and the possible underlying mechanism. Oral administration of rosuvastatin (10 mg/kg/day), CoQ10 (10 mg/kg/day) and their combination for 4 weeks in HF-HFD-fed rats elevated serum high density lipoprotein and reduced glutathione. On the other hand, treatment with rosuvastatin, CoQ10 or their combination decreased the serum levels of malondialdehyde, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol as well as systolic blood pressure, body weight and fasting blood glucose level. In addition, the drugs or their combination declined serum pro-inflammatory cytokines, namely tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1ß. In conclusion, our results showed that rosuvastatin or CoQ10 protected against HF-HFD-induced MetS through the regulation of dyslipidemia, elevated blood glucose, elevated blood pressure, antioxidant defenses and inflammatory response. Rosuvastatin or CoQ10 also alleviated the impairment of liver function that was induced by HF-HFD. Interestingly, CoQ10 augmented rosuvastatin's effect in ameliorating MetS, via exerting synergistic modulatory effects on oxidative stress and inflammation. Thus, rosuvastatin and CoQ10 combination therapy may have possible applications in ameliorating metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias , Síndrome Metabólica , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Colesterol/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Frutose , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/efeitos adversos
17.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 2988-2992, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086068

RESUMO

Understanding how macronutrients (e.g., carbohydrates, protein, fat) affect blood glucose is of broad interest in health and dietary research. The general effects are well known, e.g., adding protein and fat to a carbohydrate-based meal tend to reduce blood glucose. However, there are large individual differences in food metabolism, to where the same meal can lead to different glucose responses across individuals. To address this problem, we present a technique that can be used to simultaneously (1) model macronutrients' effects on glucose levels over time and (2) capture inter-individual differences in sensitivity to macronutrients. The model assumes that each macronutrient adds a basis function to the differences in macronutrient metabolism. The technique performs a linear decomposition of glucose responses, alternating between estimating the macronutrients' effect over time and capturing an individual's sensitivity to macronutrients. On an experimental dataset containing glucose responses to a variety of mixed meals, the technique is able to extract basis functions for the macronutrients that are consistent with their hypothesized effects on PPGRs, and also characterize how macronutrients affect individuals differently.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Individualidade , Glicemia/metabolismo , Glucose , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Nutrientes
18.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 1074-1077, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086105

RESUMO

Maintaining good glycemic control is a central part of diabetes care. However, it can be a tedious task because many factors in daily living can affect glycemic control. To support management, a growing number of people living with diabetes are now being prescribed continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) for real-time tracking of their blood glucose levels. However, routine use of CGMs is also an invaluable source of patient-generated data for individual and population-level studies. Prior research has shown that festive periods such as holidays can be a notable contributor to overeating and weight gain. Thus, in this work, we sought to investigate patterns of glycemic control around the holidays, particularly Thanksgiving, Christmas, and New Year, by using 3-months of CGM data from 14 patients with Type 1 Diabetes. We leveraged clinically validated metrics for quantifying glycemic control from CGM data and well-established statistical tests to compare diabetes management on holiday weeks versus non-holiday weeks. Based on our analysis, we found that 86% of subjects (12 out of 14) had worse glycemic control (i.e., more ad-verse glycemic events) during holiday weeks compared to non-holiday weeks. This general trend was prevalent amongst most subjects, however, we also observed unique individual patterns of glycemic control. Our findings provide a basis for further research on temporal patterns in diabetes management and data-driven interventions to support patients and caregivers with maintaining good glycemic control all year round.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Controle Glicêmico , Glicemia/análise , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Humanos
19.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 171-176, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086155

RESUMO

Currently, continuous glucose monitoring sensors are used in the artificial pancreas to monitor blood glucose levels. However, insulin and glucagon concentrations in different parts of the body cannot be measured in real-time, and determining body glucagon sensitivity is not feasible. Estimating these states provides more information about the current system status, facilitating improved decision-making by the model-based controller. In this regard, the aim of this paper is to design a nonlinear high-gain observer for a bi-hormonal artificial pancreas in the presence of measurement noises, model uncertainties, and disturbances. The model used in the observer is based on an existing intraperitoneal nonlinear animal model in the literature. This model is modified by assuming that insulin can directly transfer from the peritoneal cavity to the bloodstream. Based on a set of realistic assumptions, one model is considered after each hormone infusion, and two observers are separately designed. The model is divided into the insulin-phase and glucagon-phase models based on a set of realistic assumptions. Thereafter, two high-gain observers are designed separately for these phases contributing to estimating the non-measurable states. The observer error is proven to be locally uniformly ultimately bounded, and it is verified that any asymptotically stable control laws remain stable in the presence of the observer. The performance of the observers with different gains is evaluated for a scenario with multiple insulin and glucagon infusions. The proposed observer converges to a finite error, according to the results. Clinical relevance- In Type 1 diabetic patients, the developed observer can be employed in a closed-loop artificial pan-creas to improve the performance of model-based controllers. It estimates the key states, which are necessary for forecasting the body's response to insulin and glucagon boluses.


Assuntos
Pâncreas Artificial , Glicemia , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Glucagon , Insulina
20.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 4426-4429, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086315

RESUMO

Closed-loop diabetes management has been shown to indicate improved glycaemic control and better compliance over open loop diabetes management. Currently, commercially available diabetes management devices rely on continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors which monitor glucose levels from the interstitial fluid (ISF). As there exists a physiological delay between the blood glucose levels compared to the ISF glucose levels, it is crucial to predict or forecast glucose levels, in order to prevent hyperglycaemic events due to delayed insulin dosing. Accuracy of the forecast also needs to be optimum such that overdosing on insulin does not lead to hypoglycaemia. In this paper, we describe a novel Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) network which follows a wide and deep approach for different features to deliver an accurate glucose prediction output. It achieved a Mean Absolute Relative Difference (MARD) of 2.61 and Root Mean Squared Error (MSE) of 5.04. Clinical relevance- This work is relevant for closed-loop diabetes management devices, which are currently being used to manage Type 1 Diabetes (T1D).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Pâncreas Artificial , Glicemia , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Glucose , Humanos , Insulina
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