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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1417, 2022 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35883126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to food and non-alcoholic beverage advertisements (F&B ads) on television, which can affect children's nutrition knowledge, food consumption, diet quality, and purchasing preferences, is one aspect of the obesogenic environment. This aspect has been well-studied and assessed in many countries. In China, however, only few studies have been done in earlier years and all of them were focus on regular days. This study aimed to assess the extent and nature of F&B ads on television (TV) during the public holiday directed towards children aged 4-14 years in Beijing. METHOD: Top 3 channels viewed by children aged 4-14 years in Beijing were selected by TV viewership data, survey, and expert consultation. Each channel was recorded for 7 days (24 h) during the public holiday of the Chinese New Year in 2019. F&B ads were coded and analyzed following the adapted food promotion module of INFORMAS protocol. Three nutrient profile models were used to classify F&B ads as healthy or unhealthy F&B ads. RESULTS: Of the 10,082 ads in 504-hour recorded programs, 42.9% were F&B ads. The hourly average ads and F&B ads per channel were 19.8 (SD 15.32) and 8.6 (SD 9.84), while that was higher on the national children's channel (17.15, SD 12.25) than other channels (p < 0.05). Of F&B ads classified with the three nutrient profile models, more than 55% were unhealthy for children. The categories most frequently advertised were savory snacks, milk drinks, nonpermitted milk drinks, cakes/sweet biscuits, and beverages. Unhealthy F&B ads were more likely to use promotional characters, brand benefit claims, and health claims than permitted F&B ads (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Children in Beijing were exposed to a high proportion of unhealthy F&B ads during the Chinese New Year holiday. Our findings support the need to assess and regulate TV F&B ads marketing for children.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Televisão , Pequim , Bebidas , Criança , China , Alimentos , Indústria Alimentícia , Humanos , Lanches
2.
Nature ; 607(7918): 246, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35821424
3.
Nutrients ; 14(15)2022 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35893917

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate whether dietary habits at age 2 associate with sleep duration trajectories through age 5 in children from north and central Appalachia. A total of 559 children from the Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA) cohort 2 were followed via caregiver phone interviews up to six times between ages 2 and 5. Exposures included data from the year 2 interview: sleep habits, household and demographic characteristics, meal patterns and consumption frequencies of fruits, vegetables, water, juice, milk, and soda. Sleep duration trajectories were identified using group-based trajectory models from ages 2 to 5. Three distinct nightly sleep duration trajectories were identified: short, increasing duration (4.5% of the study population); steady, 9 h of sleep (37.3%); and longer, slightly decreasing sleep duration (58.2%). Using multinomial logistic models that accounted for confounders, children with consistent meal patterns (i.e., meals and snacks at same time every day) and with higher fruit and vegetable consumption were more likely to follow the longer duration sleep trajectory compared to the steady sleep trajectory. In contrast, children who drank milk more frequently at age 2 were less likely to be in the longer duration sleep trajectory than the steady sleep trajectory.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Pré-Escolar , Frutas , Humanos , Sono , Lanches , Verduras
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12347, 2022 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35853931

RESUMO

Presentation of foods is essential to promote the acceptance of diversified and novel products. This study examined the color profile, browning index (BI), and structural properties of 3D-printed and traditional biscuits from whole-grain (WG) sourdough and germinated flours. The processed flours and composite/multigrain flours comprising cowpea sourdough (CS) and quinoa malt (QM) were used to prepare the snacks, and their structural characteristics were determined. Compared with the traditional biscuits, the 3D-printed biscuits showed considerable distinction in terms of consistent structural design and color intensities. The in-barrel shearing effect on dough biopolymers, automated printing of replicated dough strands in layers, and expansion during baking might have caused the biscuits' structural differences. The composite biscuit formulations had a proportional share of CS and QM characteristics. The 80% CS and 20% QM printed biscuit had a low redness and BI, increased cell volume, average cell area, and total concavity. The 60% CS and 40% QM printed snack showed improved lightness and yellowness, increased average cell elongation, and less hardness. The 3D-printed composite biscuits may be recommended based on their unique structural characteristics. Such attributes can enhance the acceptability of printed foods and reinvent locally prepared meals as trendy, sustainable, and functional foods.


Assuntos
Farinha , Vigna , Farinha/análise , Impressão Tridimensional , Lanches , Vigna/química , Grãos Integrais
5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 881899, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35677657

RESUMO

Early childhood caries (ECC) is not only the most common chronic childhood disease but also disproportionately affects underserved populations. Of those, children living in Thailand have been found to have high rates of ECC and severe ECC. Frequently, the cause of ECC is blamed on a handful of cariogenic organisms, such as Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. However, ECC is a multifactorial disease that results from an ecological shift in the oral cavity from a neutral pH (~7.5) to an acidic pH (<5.5) environment influenced by the host individual's biological, socio-behavioral, and lifestyle factors. Currently, there is a lack of understanding of how risk factors at various levels influence the oral health of children at risk. We applied a statistical machine learning approach for multimodal data integration (parallel and hierarchical) to identify caries-related multiplatform factors in a large cohort of mother-child dyads living in Chiang Mai, Thailand (N=177). Whole saliva (1 mL) was collected from each individual for DNA extraction and 16S rRNA sequencing. A set of maternal and early childhood factors were included in the data analysis. Significantly, vaginal delivery, preterm birth, and frequent sugary snacking were found to increase the risk for ECC. The salivary microbial diversity was significantly different in children with ECC or without ECC. Results of linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) analysis of the microbial community demonstrated that S. mutans, Prevotella histicola, and Leptotrichia hongkongensis were significantly enriched in ECC children. Whereas Fusobacterium periodonticum was less abundant among caries-free children, suggesting its potential to be a candidate biomarker for good oral health. Based on the multimodal data integration and statistical machine learning models, the study revealed that the mode of delivery and snack consumption outrank salivary microbiome in predicting ECC in Thai children. The biological and behavioral factors may play significant roles in the microbial pathobiology of ECC and warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Microbiota , Nascimento Prematuro , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Saliva/microbiologia , Lanches , Streptococcus mutans/genética , Tailândia/epidemiologia
6.
Environ Res ; 212(Pt E): 113643, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688224

RESUMO

AIM: Urbanized environments may stimulate unhealthy food choices and stress. Several theories explain that exposure to green nature can counter these stress effects. Since we spend most time indoors, integrating nature in the interior could be a promising health promotion tool. Hence, we tested whether the beneficial effect of nature for stress recovery is also present in indoor settings via the use of plants or green colors, and whether it is applicable on eating behavior as a new outcome. METHODS: The 92 participants (18-30y, 16% men) were divided into four groups. Each viewed a 6-min slideshow with room pictures containing either green plants, green objects, greyscale plants or greyscale objects to allow distinction between color- and plant-effects. Group differences were tested for the perceived restorativeness scale, psychological recovery and eating behavior. To allow psychological recovery testing, participants were exposed to a stressor before the picture slideshow via the Trier Social Stress Test. The change of self-reports (stress, positive and negative affect) and psychophysiology (heart rate and vagal-induced heart rate variability RMSSD) post-slideshow versus pre-slideshow was checked. Eating behavior outcomes included change in hunger, craving, and food choice (for fruits, vegetables and snacks). RESULTS: From the four picture sets, the green plants pictures were reported as most mentally restorative and appeared most beneficial for post-stressor recovery of positive affect, but not for negative affect or stress recovery. The green plants group also had higher preference for vegetables and lower preference or craving for (unhealthy) snacks. Those significant group differences were mainly due to the presence of plants and only occasionally due to the green color. CONCLUSION: Indoor green plant pictures were associated with higher mental restorativeness and healthier food choices. Integrating plants in the interior seems to be a relevant health promotion approach, while applying green colors seems less relevant.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Preferências Alimentares , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Lanches , Verduras
7.
Food Res Int ; 156: 111172, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35651095

RESUMO

Acrylamide is a process contaminant and neurotoxic with growing evidence of cancer in human. Potato-based products majorly contribute towards acrylamide dietary intake thereby posing major food safety threat that necessitates formulation of acrylamide reduction strategies. This review highlights the recent research work on acrylamide formation mechanism, dietary intake, toxicity and potential reduction strategies at various levels in the food supply chain to ensure safety of potato-based products. Acrylamide formation in potato-based products depends on several factors involved in potato supply chain. Depending on the variety, application of nitrogen and sulphur fertilization may show positive, negative, or no effect on acrylamide formation. Heat and water stress faced by potato crops may increase the risk of acrylamide formation in processed products. Various pre-processing (e.g., blanching, chemical treatments etc.) and processing (e.g., methods, temperature, time) strategies may also reduce acrylamide formation (37-98%) in potato-based products at commercial and domestic levels. The acrylamide reduction strategies from farm to fork level have been discussed with special emphasis on mechanism of chemical treatments with pictorial representation.


Assuntos
Acrilamida , Solanum tuberosum , Ingestão de Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Lanches
8.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 521, 2022 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Very few older adults meet current muscle strengthening exercise guidelines, and several barriers exist to supervised, community-based resistance exercise programs. Older adults therefore require access to feasible resistance exercise modalities that may be performed remotely. This pilot study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of undertaking a four-week home-based resistance 'exercise snacking' intervention (performed either once, twice, or thrice daily) when delivered and monitored remotely in older adults. METHODS: Thirty-eight community-dwelling older adults [mean ± SD age 69.8 ± 3.8 y, 63% female] were randomised to complete resistance 'exercise snacks' (9-minute sessions) either once (n = 9), twice (n = 10), or thrice (n = 9) daily, or allocated to usual-activity control (n = 10). Exercise adherence and adverse events were assessed using an exercise diary, and acceptability of the intervention was explored using an online questionnaire. Physical function [balance, 5-times sit-to-stand (STS), and 30-second STS tests] was assessed remotely at baseline and follow-up using videoconferencing. RESULTS: The intervention was feasible and safe, with 100% participant retention, high adherence (97, 82, and 81% for once, twice, and thrice daily, respectively), and only two adverse events from a total of 1317 'exercise snacking' sessions. The exercise intervention was rated as enjoyable (75% reported their enjoyment as ≥4 on a 5-point Likert scale), easy to perform, and most (82%) planned to continue similar exercise at home. We also found it was feasible to assess measures of physical function via videoconferencing, although effect sizes for 4-week changes in both 5-STS (d range, 0.4-1.4) and 30-STS (d range, 0.7-0.9) following the exercise intervention were similar to controls (d = 1.1 and 1.0 for 5-STS and 30-STS, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Resistance 'exercise snacking' may be a feasible strategy for engaging older adults in home-based resistance exercise when delivered and monitored remotely. The findings of this pilot feasibility trial support the need for longer-term studies in larger cohorts to determine the effectiveness of resistance 'exercise snacking' approaches for improving physical function in older adults. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was retrospectively registered on 10/11/2021 with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) ( ACTRN12621001538831 ).


Assuntos
Vida Independente , Lanches , Idoso , Austrália , Terapia por Exercício , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
9.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1249, 2022 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity have been described as a global epidemic that seriously affects the health of adults and children. Front of Package (FOP) Nutrition Labeling can increase consumers' awareness of unhealthy foods. The purpose of this study is to find effective deterrence and improve children's health awareness via the FOP. METHODS: This study examined children's health awareness of snack packaging using the four labels: guideline daily amounts (GDA), traffic light system (TLS), Apple label (designed in this study), and Warning label. This study recruited 343 children in the sixth grade, including 223 children living in cities and 120 children living in rural areas. First, 30 children in grades 3 to 6 selected 8 snacks that they often buy. Then, each snack was synthesized into these four labels according to their nutritional content for a total of 32 samples. Finally, a questionnaire was used to evaluate the health of snack packaging and the visibility of nutrition labels. RESULTS: Four results can be drawn: (1) GDA, Apple label and TLS can help children determine healthier snack choices, (2) black Warning label cannot induce children to make healthier choices, (3) children who often buy snacks have low health awareness, and (4) rural children have weak health awareness of snack packaging. CONCLUSIONS: These results can provide a packaging label design, which can effectively improve children's health awareness.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Criança , Comportamento de Escolha , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Lanches
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10244, 2022 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35715497

RESUMO

Understanding the impacts of microplastics on living organisms in aquatic habitats is one of the hottest research topics worldwide. Despite increased attention, investigating microplastics in underwater environments remains a problematic task, due to the ubiquitous occurrence of microplastic, its multiple modes of interactions with the biota, and to the diversity of the synthetic organic polymers composing microplastics in the field. Several studies on microplastics focused on marine invertebrates, but to date, the benthic sea slugs (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Heterobranchia) were not yet investigated. Sea slugs are known to live on the organisms on which they feed on or to snack while gliding over the sea floor, but also as users of exogenous molecules or materials not only for nutrition. Therefore, they may represent a potential biological model to explore new modes of transformation and/or management of plastic, so far considered to be a non-biodegradable polymer. In this study we analysed the stomachal content of Bursatella leachii, an aplysiid heterobranch living in the Mar Piccolo, a highly polluted coastal basin near Taranto, in the northern part of the Ionian Sea. Microplastics were found in the stomachs of all the six sampled specimens, and SEM/EDX analyses were carried out to characterize the plastic debris. The SEM images and EDX spectra gathered here should be regarded as a baseline reference database for future investigations on marine Heterobranchia and their interactions with microplastics.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Dieta , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Polímeros , Lanches , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
11.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1129, 2022 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unhealthy snacking habits in adolescents are typically triggered by obesogenic food environments and possibly perpetuated through interactions between socio-environmental factors and personal perceptions, attitudes, and motivations to change eating behaviors. This study attempted to address the knowledge gap regarding the association of intrapersonal, socioeconomic, and food environmental characteristics with unhealthy snack consumption in Indian adolescents, presenting several targets for effective interventions. METHODS: A representative sample of 10-12 years old adolescents (n 712) completed a cross-sectional survey including eating habits, characteristics of school and home food environments, and perceptions related to affordability, convenience, and barriers within the food environments. The frequency of unhealthy snack consumption was assessed using a validated qualitative food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate regression analyses determined the associated factors of unhealthy snack consumption in adolescents attending private and public schools. RESULTS: The mean age of adolescents was 10.9 (1.1) years, 48.2% were girls and 53.9% attended private schools. The most frequently consumed unhealthy snacks were biscuits/ cookies (5.2d/wk) followed by wafers (3.4d/wk) and Indian fried snacks- samosa/ vada pav (2.8 d/wk). Among the public-school adolescents, the odds of unhealthy snack consumption were 0.89 times lower when meals were had frequently at the dinner table and 4.97 times higher when the perceived barriers related to the affordability of healthy snacks were greater. Maternal education (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.66-0.82, p < 0.001), family income (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.98-2.32, p < 0.001), availability of unhealthy snacks (OR 2.98, 95% CI 1.36-3.46, p < 0.001) and fruits (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.49-0.69, p < 0.001) at home, having evening meals together (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.63-0.81, p 0.031), and perceived parental control during mealtimes (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.62-0.72, p < 0.001) were associated with unhealthy snack consumption in adolescents attending private schools. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlighted a pervasiveness of unhealthy snacks in adolescents' food environments. Improving provisions and affordability of fruits and healthy snacks at schools, encouraging family mealtimes, and limiting the availability of unhealthy snacks at home whilst addressing the perceived barriers within food environments, and inculcating self-efficacy skills can improve snacking habits in Indian adolescents, irrespective of socioeconomic backgrounds.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Lanches , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Nutrients ; 14(11)2022 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684046

RESUMO

A significant increase in the prevalence of short sleep among children has been observed. Short sleep may be associated with unhealthy breakfast and snacking behaviors. The purpose of the current study was to explore the associations of short sleep with breakfast and snacking behaviors among children. Data were obtained from the 2010-2012 China National Nutrition and Health Surveillance (CNNHS). A total of 5254 children aged 6 to 17 years were included. Sleep duration was classified into three categories: moderate sleep, slightly short sleep, and severely short sleep. Breakfast behaviors included skipping breakfast, food diversity, intake of energy and macronutrients, and their proportion of daily total intake. Snack behaviors included snack consumption rate/frequency, types, intake of energy and macronutrients, and proportion of daily total intake. Multiple linear regression and multivariate logistic regression were used for analysis, with models adjusted for the potential effects of gender, age, region, and family income level. The bootstrapping method was used to calculate the 95% confidence intervals of the model statistics. Results showed that slightly short sleep (OR = 1.15, 95%CI: 1.00, 1.33)) and severely short sleep (OR = 1.36, 95%CI: 1.04, 1.77) was related to higher rates of skipping breakfast compared to moderate sleep. Severely short sleep was associated with higher energy (ß = 28.44, 95%CI: 31.97, 44.70), carbohydrate (ß = 6.62, 95%CI: 8.29, 8.84) and protein (ß = 1.17, 95%CI: 1.44, 1.70) intake at breakfast and breakfast accounted for a higher proportion of total daily energy (ß = 1.39, 95%CI: 1.48, 2.52), protein (ß = 2.26, 95%CI: 3.16, 5.84) and carbohydrate (ß = 0.83, 95%CI: 0.07, 3.41). Severely short sleep was associated with higher energy (ß = 27.4, 95%CI: 18.64, 69.41), protein (ß = 0.8, 95%CI: 0.48, 2.40), and fat (ß = 1.40, 95%CI: 1.21, 3.16) intake at snacks and snacks accounted for a higher proportion of total daily protein intake (ß = 1.23, 95%CI: 0.71, 3.58) and fat intake (ß = 2.74, 95%CI: 3.13, 6.09). Slightly short sleep was associated with higher energy (ß = 7.28, 95%CI: 0.15, 28.13) and carbohydrate (ß = 1.67, 95%CI: 0.86, 5.73) intake at snacks and snacks accounted for a higher proportion of total daily carbohydrate intake. Children with severely short sleep were more likely to choose sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) as snacks (16.5%) and intake them more frequently, at a daily consumption of 204.7 g and 26.7 g per night. Overall, short sleep was associated with unhealthy breakfast patterns and snack behaviors among children. Children with short sleep had higher intake of energy and macronutrients at breakfast and snacks compared with those with moderate sleep. Promoting adequate sleep among children may have a positive effect on developing healthy eating behaviors.


Assuntos
Desjejum , Lanches , Carboidratos , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Sono
13.
Front Public Health ; 10: 877906, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35677765

RESUMO

Objective: Describing the availability and nutritional composition of the most commonly available street foods in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan. Methods: One hundred sixty-one street food vending sites (six public markets) were assessed, through a collection of data on vending sites' characteristics and food availability, and samples of commonly available foods (21 homemade; 11 industrial), for chemical analysis. Results: Fruit, beverages, and food other than fruit were available in 6.8, 29.2, and 91.9% of all vending sites, respectively. Regarding the latter, 52.7% of the vending sites sold only homemade products (main dishes, snacks, cakes, biscuits and pastries, bread, ice-cream chocolate and confectionery, savory pastries and sandwiches), 37.2% only industrial (ice-cream, chocolate and confectionery, cakes, biscuits and pastries, snacks, bread and savory pastries) and 10.1% both. Homemade foods presented significantly higher total fat [homemade 11.6 g (range 6.6-19.4 g); industrial 6.2 g (range 4.0-8.6 g), p = 0.001], monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and trans-fat, and sodium and potassium content per serving. Industrial wafers presented the highest mean saturated (11.8 g/serving) and trans-fat (2.32 g/serving) content. Homemade hamburgers presented the highest mean sodium content (1889 mg/serving). Conclusions: Strategies to encourage the production and sales of healthier street foods, especially homemade, are needed to promote healthier urban food environments in urban Turkmenistan.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Lanches , Valor Nutritivo , Sódio , Turcomenistão
14.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 73(2): 173-181, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35748534

RESUMO

Background: A properly balanced diet should provide multiple valuable nutrients necessary for the proper functioning of the body through the proper frequency of consuming food products that are their source. This is particularly important during the pandemic when there is a need to support the immune system. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of consumption of selected groups of food products and to determine whether this frequency differs among medical and non-medical students in the period before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Material and methods: The study was conducted among 435 Polish and Turkish students using an original questionnaire. The proper study was preceded by a pilot study in 40 participants.The Wilcoxon test was used to assess the differences in the frequency of consumption of selected groups of products among medical and non-medical students both during and before the pandemic. A value of p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Significant differences were observed in the frequency of consumption of: sweets (p=0.02 among medical students), salty snacks (p=0.03 among both groups of students), fast food products (p=0.00 among medical and p=0.01 among non-medical students) and energy drinks (p=0.02 among medical and p=0.00 among non-medical student) in the analysed periods of time before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions: The study showed that during the pandemic, the frequency of food products consumption in the study groups of students from medical and non-medical faculties is mostly satisfactory. There were significant differences in the frequency of consumption of sweets, salty snacks, fast food products and energy drinks in both groups of students.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Comportamento Alimentar , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Projetos Piloto , Lanches
15.
Food Res Int ; 157: 111220, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35761542

RESUMO

This study aimed to use the internal design of 3D food printing (3DFP) technology to obtain freeze-dried pumpkin with controllable crispness and higher shape fidelity. Two internal structural variables, namely filling pattern (honeycomb, rectilinear, grid, and triangular) and filling rate (25, 50, 75, and 100%), were studied to assess the impact on the shape fidelity and crispness characteristic of the product. As the filling rate decreased, the printing accuracy of the samples increased. Regardless of the filling patterns, the 75% filled samples exhibited the greatest deformation. The crispness of the samples was closely related to the filling pattern and filling rate. In the case of the high filling rate, the internal structure of the samples was dense. It was less likely to be broken under the action of force and the crispness was reduced. In addition, the internal structure of the sample influenced its physical properties, and the crispness customization of the product can be achieved by designing the porosity. Morphological differences between printed and cast samples suggested that 3DFP was beneficial for the processing and preparation of highly viscoelastic materials. The crispness of cast sample was obviously less than that of the 100% filled printed samples. The results opened an interesting perspective to create crisp foods with high shape fidelity that meet specific texture requirements and provide new sensory perceptions.


Assuntos
Cucurbita , Lanches , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Liofilização , Impressão Tridimensional
16.
BMC Res Notes ; 15(1): 179, 2022 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570308

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In children, achieving an acceptable degree of accuracy from dietary or physical activity (PA) assessments remains a challenge. Children tend to overestimate their time spent in daily PA and underestimate their dietary intake of fat and sugar. Because parents play a key role in family lifestyle decisions, including children's food choices and PA levels, it is important to investigate the responses of parents regarding their children's lifestyle habits. We aimed to develop a Self-Administered Parental Assessment of Children's Lifestyle (SAPLACL) questionnaire and test its feasibility and reliability in 191 parents (29 fathers and 162 mothers). RESULTS: For each part of the questionnaire, the rate of missing or improper responses ranged from 0 to 24%. The highest proportion of problems in understanding was reported for the dietary intake dimension, especially for snacking in front of the TV. Some difficulty was also found regarding the question on leisure PA. Test-retest agreement was observed in 54.7-100% of the respondents. Overall, the kappa coefficients were favorable. Thus, the parent self-report questionnaire is a valid and accurate tool for analyzing children's lifestyle habits in France.


Assuntos
Dieta , Estilo de Vida , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Lanches , Inquéritos e Questionários , Produtos do Gene vif do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana
17.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1012, 2022 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35590265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a pertinent public health problem in the UK. Consumption of free sugars has been associated with the development of obesity. In 2018, the Change 4Life (C4L) 100 cal snack campaign was launched with the slogan '100 calorie snacks, two a day max', aiming to encourage parents to choose lower sugar, fat and calorie snacks for their children. This study aimed to examine how the campaign has been perceived by parents. METHODS: An online survey was developed to explore parent awareness, perceptions and understanding of the C4L 100 cal snack campaign. Respondents were recruited via Leeds City Council, posters displayed at primary schools and children's centres across Leeds and via social media. Paper surveys were also shared with voluntarily led playgroups. Survey data was analysed using descriptive statistics. Thematic analysis was performed on open text responses. RESULTS: Three hundred forty-two 342 respondents completed the survey. Just over half of the respondents had come across the campaign, most seeing the leaflet or a television advert. Over two-thirds of respondents 'agreed' or 'strongly agreed' that the campaign caught their attention. A similar proportion 'agreed' or 'strongly agreed' that the campaign informed them about 100 cal snacks and just over a half thought it was memorable. Most respondents used positive language to describe the campaign, but there was no clear consensus of a perceived positive impact on healthier snack purchasing, nor preparing more 100 cal snacks at home. Respondents provided examples of how the campaign could be improved to positively impact eating behaviours: better publicity and information delivery; healthier snack examples made more visible; improved nutritional labelling and access to healthier products in supermarkets (availability, promotion, display, choice). CONCLUSIONS: The C4L 100 cal snack campaign was perceived positively by parents and carers, with many agreeing that the campaign was informative and memorable. However, there was no agreement in terms of the parents reporting an impact of the campaign on behaviour change and healthier snack habits. Future social marketing campaigns could be improved through more formal pilot testing to assess the understanding and acceptance of the campaign amongst the target audience.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Lanches , Criança , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Pais , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564446

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to qualitatively summarise the content of online news articles pertaining to food parenting practices and determine whether this content is substantiated by the scientific literature. News article data were identified and collected from United Kingdom online news published during 2010-2017 period using the News on the Web corpus. A coding framework was used to categorise the content of news articles to identify information related to food parenting practices. Then, claims made about food parenting practices were extracted from relevant news articles. Each claim was evaluated to determine the extent to which any claims were supported by the available scientific research evidence. The study identified ten claims across thirty-two relevant online news articles. Claims made across the news articles reported on the following food parenting practices: food restrictions, food-based threats and bribes, pressure to eat, use of food to control negative emotions, food availability, food preparation, and meal and snack routines. Eight out of the ten claims identified did not refer to scientific research evidence. News articles frequently lacked detail and information to explain to readers why and how the use of certain food parenting practices could have a lasting impact on children's health outcomes. Considering the influence that news media has on parents, the reporting of food parenting practices in news articles should aim to provide a balanced view of the published scientific evidence and recognise the difficulties and barriers that prevent the use of helpful and healthy food parenting practices. The study results in this paper could be used to aid and structure of the dissemination of food parenting practice research findings in the media, inform public health education to influence perceptions of unhelpful food parenting practices, and promote parental use of responsive food parenting practices.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Poder Familiar , Criança , Educação Infantil , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Humanos , Refeições , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Lanches , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
J Nutr ; 152(Suppl 1): 47S-56S, 2022 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food environments play a key role in dietary behavior and vary due to different contexts, regulations, and policies. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to characterize the perceived availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in 3 different settings in 5 countries. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2018 International Food Policy Study, a cross-sectional survey of adults (18-100 y, n = 22,824) from Australia, Canada, Mexico, the United Kingdom (UK), and the USA. Perceived availability of unhealthy (junk food and sugary drinks) and healthy foods (fruit or vegetables, healthy snacks, and water) in the community, workplace, and university settings were measured (i.e. not available, available for purchase, or available for free). Differences in perceived availability across countries were tested using adjusted multinomial logistic regression models. RESULTS: Across countries, unhealthy foods were perceived as highly available in all settings; in university and work settings unhealthy foods were perceived as more available than healthy foods. Australia and Canada had the highest perceived availability of unhealthy foods (range 87.5-90.6% between categories), and the UK had the highest perceived availability of fruits and vegetables for purchase (89.3%) in the community. In university and work settings, Mexico had the highest perceived availability for purchase of unhealthy foods (range 69.9-84.9%). The USA and the UK had the highest perceived availability of fruits and vegetables for purchase (65.3-66.3%) or for free (21.2-22.8%) in the university. In the workplace, the UK had high perceived availability of fruits and vegetables for purchase (40.2%) or for free (18.5%), and the USA had the highest perceived availability of junk food for free (17.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Across countries, unhealthy foods were perceived as highly available in all settings. Variability between countries may reflect differences in policies and regulations. Results underscore the need for the continuation and improvement of policy efforts to generate healthier food environments.


Assuntos
Política Nutricional , Verduras , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Frutas , Humanos , Lanches
20.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604558, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35548684

RESUMO

Objective: To describe the availability and nutritional composition of commonly available street foods in Almaty, Kazakhstan. Methods: 384 street food vending sites (in 10 public markets) were assessed; information on vending sites' characteristics and food availability and samples of the most commonly available street foods (81 homemade; 40 industrial) were collected for chemical analysis. Results: Fruit, beverages and food other than fruit were available in 1.0%, 47.4% and 92.7% of all vending sites. Homemade food other than fruit (e.g., bread, main dishes, snacks, pastries, sandwiches, and cakes) were available in 63.4% of stationary vending sites, while industrial (e.g., snacks, chocolate, cakes, and cookies) in 45.6% of them. Industrial foods were the most energy-dense [median kcal/100 g: 438.8 vs. 267.2, p < 0.001 (homemade)]. Traditional homemade dishes were high in sodium, reaching 2,248 mg/serving (lagman) and major contributors of protein and fat to energy content (shashlik: 22.8% from protein, 68.3% from fat). Industrial chocolate and homemade cake presented the highest saturated (14.6 g/serving) and trans-fat (3.20 g/serving) contents. Conclusion: These findings advocate for the implementation of health promotion strategies targeted at vendors, consumers and other stakeholders.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Lanches , Frutas , Humanos , Cazaquistão , Valor Nutritivo
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