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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17957, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504125

RESUMO

Yawn contagion occurs when individuals yawn in response to the yawn of others (triggers). This is the first account of yawn contagion in wild geladas (Theropithecus gelada), a monkey species that shows yawn contagion in captivity and is organized in core units (one-male/bachelor groups) forming multilevel associations. In a population of geladas from the Kundi plateau (Ethiopia) we found that the yawning response was highest when geladas could perceive a triggering yawn, which confirms that yawn contagion is present in the wild. Yawn duration, mouth-opening degree and presence/absence of vocalisation (possibly modulating yawn detectability) did not affect the likelihood of contagion. Males and females, known to be both implicated in movement initiation within groups, were similarly powerful as yawn triggers. Instead, group membership and responder sex had a significant role in shaping the phenomenon. Yawn contagion was highest between individuals belonging to different core units and males were most likely to respond to others' yawns. Because males have a non-negligible role in inter-group coordination, our results suggest that yawn contagion may have a communicative function that goes beyond the basic unit level.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento Imitativo/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Theropithecus/fisiologia , Bocejo/fisiologia , Animais , Etiópia , Feminino , Masculino , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia
2.
Hum Nat ; 32(2): 301-325, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255275

RESUMO

Contrary to spontaneous yawning, which is widespread in vertebrates and probably evolutionary ancient, contagious yawning-yawning triggered by others' yawns-is considered an evolutionarily recent phenomenon, found in species characterized by complex sociality. Whether the social asymmetry observed in the occurrence of contagious yawning is related to social and emotional attachment and may therefore reflect emotional contagion is a subject of debate. In this study we assessed whether yawn contagion was enhanced in pregnant women, a cohort of subjects who develop prenatal emotional attachment in preparation for parental care, via hormonal and neurobiological changes. We predicted that if yawn contagion underlies social and emotional attachment, pregnant women would be more likely to contagiously yawn than nonpregnant, nulliparous women of reproductive age. We gathered data in two different settings. In the experimental setting, 49 women were exposed to video stimuli of newborns either yawning or moving their mouth (control) and we video-recorded the women during repeated trials to measure their yawning response. In the naturalistic setting, 131 women were observed in a social environment and their yawning response was recorded. We tested the factors influencing the yawning response, including the reproductive status (pregnant vs. not pregnant). In both settings, yawn contagion occurred significantly more in pregnant than nonpregnant women. By showing that pregnant women were most likely to respond to others' yawns, our results support the hypothesis that the social variation observed in yawn contagion may be influenced by emotional attachment and that yawning in highly social species might have been coopted for emotional contagion during evolution.


Assuntos
Bocejo , Animais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Imitativo , Recém-Nascido , Paridade , Gravidez , Comportamento Social
3.
Hist Psychiatry ; 32(4): 449-461, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278821

RESUMO

Yawning is a fascinating physiological behaviour that has been poorly addressed except in old medical books. Whereas the purpose of this behaviour is still not clearly identified, the ancient authors made it a clinical symptom, especially a psychological one. After presenting some current notions about yawning, we review publications on yawning written by physicians, from antiquity to the twentieth century, and, in particular, those dealing with psychological and psychiatric aspects.


Assuntos
Médicos , Psiquiatria , Bocejo , Livros , Humanos
4.
Behav Processes ; 189: 104444, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129937

RESUMO

Yawning is an involuntary action that begins with a slow opening of the mouth with inhalation, followed by a maximum gaping phase, and ends with a short exhalation and the closing of the mouth. A wide variety of vertebrate species, including humans, yawn. Here, we report underwater yawn-like behavior in three captive common bottlenose dolphins, inferred from 119-h of observations. Five cases of yawn-like behavior were selected out of 2045 open-mouth behaviors, after removing intentional open-mouth behaviors. Yawn-like behaviors were chosen that had a mouth open-close duration ratio of ≤ 1 (duration of Phase 3, the period of mouth closing after maximum opening, divided by the duration of Phase 1, the period of mouth opening from start to maximum opening). Naïve human evaluators selected "yawn-like" behaviors. All five cases of yawn-like behavior occurred during inactive periods, similar to human yawns. In three of the five cases, inactivity levels significantly decreased within 4 min after the yawn-like behavior; therefore, yawn-like behavior in dolphins may increase their arousal level in drowsy states. Thus, the yawn-like behavior of dolphins, without breathing, is similar to yawning in terrestrial animals, including humans.


Assuntos
Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa , Golfinhos Comuns , Bocejo , Animais , Respiração
8.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 503, 2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958700

RESUMO

Recent studies indicate that yawning evolved as a brain cooling mechanism. Given that larger brains have greater thermolytic needs and brain temperature is determined in part by heat production from neuronal activity, it was hypothesized that animals with larger brains and more neurons would yawn longer to produce comparable cooling effects. To test this, we performed the largest study on yawning ever conducted, analyzing 1291 yawns from 101 species (55 mammals; 46 birds). Phylogenetically controlled analyses revealed robust positive correlations between yawn duration and (1) brain mass, (2) total neuron number, and (3) cortical/pallial neuron number in both mammals and birds, which cannot be attributed solely to allometric scaling rules. These relationships were similar across clades, though mammals exhibited considerably longer yawns than birds of comparable brain and body mass. These findings provide further evidence suggesting that yawning is a thermoregulatory adaptation that has been conserved across amniote evolution.


Assuntos
Aves/fisiologia , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Neurônios/citologia , Bocejo , Animais , Aves/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mamíferos/anatomia & histologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Tamanho do Órgão
9.
Am J Primatol ; 83(7): e23263, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955009

RESUMO

Here we show for the first time that the plasticity in morphology and duration of yawning in Macaca tonkeana can be associated with different functional contexts. Macaca tonkeana is classified as a tolerant macaque species characterized by social interactions minimally constrained by dominance rank or kinship. Tonkean macaques, as other egalitarian species, rely on a complex facial communicative system. We found that the degree of mouth opening (ranging from covered to uncovered tooth yawns) and the duration of yawning were not strictly dependent. The shortest uncovered tooth yawns were associated with an intense locomotor/physical activity and peaked immediately after stressful social events thus indicating an increase in arousal. In contrast, longer yawns, independently from teeth exposure, were primarily associated with a relaxed state of the subject. In conclusion, our study suggests that to explore the potential different functions of yawning, it is necessary to focus on the variability of its expression both in terms of morphology and duration, because not all yawns tell the same story.


Assuntos
Bocejo , Animais , Nível de Alerta , Macaca
10.
J Clin Neurosci ; 86: 38-44, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775344

RESUMO

The relationship between right to left shunt (RLS) and non-headache symptoms (NHS) in episodic migraine is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and classification of RLS in episodic migraineurs, calculate the occurrence rate of NHS, and analyze the associations between RLS and NHS. We consecutively recruited 204 episodic migraine patients. Contrast-enhanced transcranial doppler was adopted to screen RLS. Structured questionnaire via face-to-face survey was conducted to collect clinical data. A total of 172 episodic migraineurs were included in the final analysis, of which 20 cases were migraine with aura. The positive rate of RLS was 47.1%, of which 50 cases (29.0%) had small shunt (Grade 1) and 31 cases (18.1%) had mid-large shunt (Grade 2-4). The most common NHS was nausea (115 (66.9%)), followed by headache aggravation with physical activity (96 (55.8%)), dizziness (93 (54.1%)), vomiting (77 (44.8%)) and phonophobia (74 (43.0%)). Yawning was more common in Grade 2-4 group than Grade 0 group (p = 0.012), while no statistical differences among other groups. Grade 2-4 group had a higher rate of headache aggravation with physical activity than grade 0 group (p = 0.008). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that yawning at premonitory phase, headache aggravation with physical activity and cranial autonomic symptoms during attack are independent predictors of RLS. In conclusion, yawning and headache aggravation with physical activity are more common in migraine patients with RLS. Besides aura, particular NHS may also serve as indicators for screening RLS in episodic migraineurs.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/complicações , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Bocejo
11.
Dev Sci ; 24(2): e13024, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617103

RESUMO

The authors tested susceptibility to contagious itching, laughter, and yawning in 55 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ages 8-14, and 106 typically developing (TD) children, ages 5-14. Children with ASD were less likely to yawn or laugh contagiously compared with TD peers, but showed increased susceptibility to contagious itching, under naturalistic conditions. Contagious yawning and laughter were positively correlated with emotional empathy in the TD group. In contrast, contagious itching showed no relationship to empathy, and was positively correlated with autism symptom severity in the ASD group. The authors explore the implications of these findings in terms of psychological theories about ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Bocejo , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Emoções , Empatia , Humanos , Prurido/etiologia
12.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(2): 102896, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445037

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to propose a novel and effective throat swab collection method for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The subjects were randomly divided into two groups. The subjects were asked to open their mouth to make "ah" sound (traditional method) or simulate yawn (improved method) for throat swab collection. The usage of tongue depressor, collection time, adverse reactions and subjective discomfort (VAS score) were compared. The collection time, comprehensive indicators of adverse reactions and VAS score were also compared among three collectors. RESULTS: The tongue depressor was less used in the improved group (χ2 = 40.186, P < 0.01). The average collection time of the traditional group was 5.44 ± 2.97 and that of the improved group was 4.00 ± 2.31 (P < 0.01). The subjects in the improved group had fewer and milder adverse reactions. The VAS score of subjects in the improved group was lower than that in the traditional group (P < 0.01). Among different collectors, the collection time, comprehensive indicators of adverse reactions and VAS were the same as the overall trend. CONCLUSION: Simulating yawn is a safer and faster throat swab collection method.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Faringe/virologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Bocejo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição Aleatória , Fatores de Tempo , Escala Visual Analógica , Adulto Jovem
13.
Anim Cogn ; 24(3): 583-592, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386468

RESUMO

While the origin of yawning appears to be physiologic, yawns may also hold a derived communicative function in social species. In particular, the arousal reduction hypothesis states that yawning signals to others that the actor is experiencing a down regulation of arousal and vigilance. If true, seeing another individual yawn might enhance the vigilance of observers to compensate for the reduced mental processing of the yawner. This was tested in humans by assessing how exposure to yawning stimuli alters performance on visual search tasks for detecting snakes (a threatening stimulus) and frogs (a neutral stimulus). In a repeated-measures design, 38 participants completed these tasks separately after viewing yawning and control videos. Eye-tracking was used to measure detection latency and distractor fixation frequency. Replicating previous evolutionary-based research, snakes were detected more rapidly than frogs across trials. Moreover, consistent with the view that yawning holds a distinct signaling function, there were significant interactions for both detection latency and distractor fixation frequency showing that vigilance was selectively enhanced following exposure to yawns. That is, after viewing videos of other people yawning, participants detected snakes more rapidly and were less likely to fixate on distractor frogs during trials. These findings provide the first experimental evidence for a social function to yawning in any species, and imply the presence of a previously unidentified psychological adaptation for preserving group vigilance.


Assuntos
Bocejo , Animais , Nível de Alerta , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Comportamento Imitativo , Serpentes
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1851, 2021 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33473157

RESUMO

Contrary to spontaneous yawning-an ancient phenomenon common to vertebrates-contagious yawning (elicited by others' yawns) has been found only in highly social species and may reflect an emotional inter-individual connection. We investigated yawn contagion in the domestic pig, Sus scrofa. Owing to the complex socio-emotional and cognitive abilities of Sus scrofa, we posited that yawn contagion could be present in this species (Prediction 1) and influenced by individual/social factors (Prediction 2). In June-November 2018, on 104 semi-free ranging adolescent/adult pigs, 224 videos were recorded for video analysis on yawning. Kinship information was refined via genetic analyses. Statistical elaboration was conducted via GLMMs and non-parametric/randomization/cross-tabulation tests. We found yawn contagion in Sus scrofa, as it was more likely that pigs yawned when perceiving rather than not perceiving (yawning/control condition) others' yawns (response peak in the first out of three minutes). Yawn contagion was more likely: (1) in response to males' yawns; (2) as the age increased; (3) within short distance (1 m); (4) between full siblings, with no significant association between kinship and distance. The influence of kinship suggests that-as also hypothesized for Homo sapiens-yawn contagion might be linked with emotional communication and possibly contagion.


Assuntos
Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Bocejo/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Comportamento Imitativo , Masculino
16.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 121: 18-19, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271163

RESUMO

Palagi et al. (Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 111:149-165, 2020) propose a multidisciplinary approach to the study of spontaneous mimicry, focusing on comparative research on facial mimicry and contagious yawning. In doing so, the authors highlight connections between these behaviors and emotional contagion. The aim of this commentary is to critically evaluate the link between contagious yawning and emotional contagion, address the role of attention in contagious yawning, and promote further research examining the sensory and perceptual factors driving variability in contagious yawning. Contrary to the position of Palagi et al., a strong matching between emotional contagion and contagious yawning has not been established. Variation in contagious yawning appears to be driven by biased attentional processes and yawn detection rather than emotional sharing.


Assuntos
Bocejo , Animais , Atenção , Emoções , Humanos , Comportamento Imitativo , Comportamento Social
17.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 11(1): 261-269, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325397

RESUMO

Clinical, neuropathological and neuroimaging research suggests that pathological changes in Parkinson's disease (PD) start many years before the emergence of motor signs. Since disease-modifying treatments are likely to be most effective when initiated early in the disease process, there has been significant interest in characterizing prodromal PD. Some people with PD describe autonomic symptoms at the time of diagnosis suggesting that autonomic dysfunction is a common feature of prodromal PD. Furthermore, subtle motor signs may be present and emerge prior to the time of diagnosis. We present a series of patients who, in the prodromal phase of PD, experienced the emergence of tremor initially only while yawning or straining at stool and discuss how early involvement of autonomic brainstem nuclei could lead to these previously unreported phenomena. The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) plays a central role in autonomic control including bowel/bladder function, cardiovascular homeostasis and yawning and innervates multiple brainstem nuclei involved in autonomic functions (including brainstem reticular formation, locus ceruleus, dorsal raphe nucleus and motor nucleus of the vagus). The PVN is affected in PD and evidence from related phenomena suggest that the PVN could increase tremor either by increasing downstream cholinergic activity on brainstem nuclei such as the reticular formation or by stimulating the locus ceruleus to activate the cerebellothalamocortical network via the ventrolateral nucleus of the thalamus. Aberrant cholinergic/noradrenergic transmission between these brainstem nuclei early in PD couldlead to tremor before the emergence of other parkinsonian signs, representing an early clinical clue to prodromal PD.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Sintomas Prodrômicos , Tremor/fisiopatologia , Bocejo/fisiologia , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Tremor/etiologia
18.
Anim Cogn ; 24(1): 41-52, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681199

RESUMO

Yawning is a stereotypical behavior pattern commonly associated with other behaviors such as grooming, sleepiness, and arousal. Several differences in behavioral and neurochemical characteristics have been described in high-yawning (HY) and low-yawning (LY) sublines from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats that support they had changes in the neural mechanism between sublines. Differences in behavior and neurochemistry observed in yawning sublines could also overlap in processes needed during taste learning, particularly during conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and its latent inhibition. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze taste memory differences, after familiarization to novel or highly sweet stimuli, between yawning sublines and compare them with outbred SD rats. First, we evaluated changes in appetitive response during long-term sugar consumption for 14 days. Then, we evaluated the latent inhibition of CTA strength induced by this long pre-exposure, and we also measured aversive memory extinction rate. The results showed that SD rats and the two sublines developed similar CTA for novel sugar and significantly stronger appetitive memory after long-term sugar exposure. However, after 14 days of sugar exposure, HY and LY sublines were unable to develop latent inhibition of CTA after two acquisition trials and had a slower aversive memory extinction rate than outbreed rats. Thus, the inability of the HY and LY sublines to develop latent inhibition of CTA after long-term sugar exposure could be related to the time/context processes involved in long-term appetitive re-learning, and in the strong inbreeding that characterizes the behavioral traits of these sublines, suggesting that inbreeding affects associative learning, particularly after long-term exposure to sweet stimuli which reflects high familiarization.


Assuntos
Paladar , Bocejo , Animais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Açúcares da Dieta , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Açúcares
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22251, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335177

RESUMO

Yawning is highly contagious, yet both its proximate mechanism(s) and its ultimate causation remain poorly understood. Scholars have suggested a link between contagious yawning (CY) and sociality due to its appearance in mostly social species. Nevertheless, as findings are inconsistent, CY's function and evolution remains heavily debated. One way to understand the evolution of CY is by studying it in hominids. Although CY has been found in chimpanzees and bonobos, but is absent in gorillas, data on orangutans are missing despite them being the least social hominid. Orangutans are thus interesting for understanding CY's phylogeny. Here, we experimentally tested whether orangutans yawn contagiously in response to videos of conspecifics yawning. Furthermore, we investigated whether CY was affected by familiarity with the yawning individual (i.e. a familiar or unfamiliar conspecific and a 3D orangutan avatar). In 700 trials across 8 individuals, we found that orangutans are more likely to yawn in response to yawn videos compared to control videos of conspecifics, but not to yawn videos of the avatar. Interestingly, CY occurred regardless of whether a conspecific was familiar or unfamiliar. We conclude that CY was likely already present in the last common ancestor of humans and great apes, though more converging evidence is needed.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Pongo/fisiologia , Bocejo , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Feminino , Masculino , Comportamento Social
20.
J Neurosci ; 40(45): 8683-8697, 2020 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973046

RESUMO

Collectively, the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) and adjacent C1 neurons regulate breathing, circulation and the state of vigilance, but previous methods to manipulate the activity of these neurons have been insufficiently selective to parse out their relative roles. We hypothesize that RTN and C1 neurons regulate distinct aspects of breathing (e.g., frequency, amplitude, active expiration, sighing) and differ in their ability to produce arousal from sleep. Here we use optogenetics and a combination of viral vectors in adult male and female Th-Cre rats to transduce selectively RTN (Phox2b+ /Nmb +) or C1 neurons (Phox2b+/Th +) with Channelrhodopsin-2. RTN photostimulation modestly increased the probability of arousal. RTN stimulation robustly increased breathing frequency and amplitude; it also triggered strong active expiration but not sighs. Consistent with these responses, RTN innervates the entire pontomedullary respiratory network, including expiratory premotor neurons in the caudal ventral respiratory group, but RTN has very limited projections to brainstem regions that regulate arousal (locus ceruleus, CGRP+ parabrachial neurons). C1 neuron stimulation produced robust arousals and similar increases in breathing frequency and amplitude compared with RTN stimulation, but sighs were elicited and active expiration was absent. Unlike RTN, C1 neurons innervate the locus ceruleus, CGRP+ processes within the parabrachial complex, and lack projections to caudal ventral respiratory group. In sum, stimulating C1 or RTN activates breathing robustly, but only RTN neuron stimulation produces active expiration, consistent with their role as central respiratory chemoreceptors. Conversely, C1 stimulation strongly stimulates ascending arousal systems and sighs, consistent with their postulated role in acute stress responses.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The C1 neurons and the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) reside in the rostral ventrolateral medulla. Both regulate breathing and the cardiovascular system but in ways that are unclear because of technical limitations (anesthesia, nonselective neuronal actuators). Using optogenetics in unanesthetized rats, we found that selective stimulation of either RTN or C1 neurons activates breathing. However, only RTN triggers active expiration, presumably because RTN, unlike C1, has direct excitatory projections to abdominal premotor neurons. The arousal potential of the C1 neurons is far greater than that of the RTN, however, consistent with C1's projections to brainstem wake-promoting structures. In short, C1 neurons orchestrate cardiorespiratory and arousal responses to somatic stresses, whereas RTN selectively controls lung ventilation and arterial Pco2 stability.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Expiração/fisiologia , Bulbo/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Células Quimiorreceptoras/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Masculino , Optogenética , Estimulação Luminosa , Ratos , Respiração , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Bocejo
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