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1.
Environ Int ; 157: 106803, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365320

RESUMO

Human exposure to OPEs is pervasive and should be of great concern due to associations with adverse health effects, especially in susceptible populations. In this study, body burdens and exposure pathways of OPEs were investigated for 76 healthy elderly people in Jinan, China based on the measured OPE and metabolite concentrations in human bio-samples (whole blood and urine) and paired environmental matrices (air and dust), as well as food frequency questionnaire. Eight of 16 OPEs and 5 of 11 metabolites were detected in > 50% of whole blood and urine samples, respectively. Tri(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tri-phenyl phosphate (TPHP), and 2-ethylhexyl di-phenyl phosphate (EHDPP) were frequently detected and abundant in whole blood, while their corresponding metabolites were detected at low frequencies or levels in urine. The reduced metabolic and/or excretory capacity of elderly people may be an important reason, implying a higher health risk to them. Fourteen OPEs had over 50% detection frequencies in indoor air and dust, while 6 di-esters in indoor dust. Tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) in indoor dust and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TnBP) in indoor air were positively correlated with paired levels in blood but not with their metabolites (BEHP and DnBP) in urine. Combined with the direct intakes of BEHP and DBP from dust, blood is indicated as more suitable biomarker for TEHP and TnBP exposure. High consumption frequencies of several foods were associated with higher blood concentrations of three OPEs and urinary levels of four di-OPEs, indicating the importance of dietary exposure pathway. Estimated daily total intakes of OPEs via inhalation, dust ingestion, and dermal absorption ranged from 2.78 to 42.0 ng/kg bw/day, which were far less than the reference dosage values. Further studies were warranted to explore the potential health effects of OPE exposure in the elderly populations.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Retardadores de Chama , Idoso , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , China , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ésteres/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Humanos , Organofosfatos/análise
2.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(6): 792-796, 2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139822

RESUMO

Concentrations of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like PCBs (ndl-PCBs) in 26 serum samples of the residents from Hubei Province were analyzed via high-resolution gas chromatograph tandem high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC-HRMS) method. Total concentrations of twelve dl-PCBs (Σdl-PCBs) were in range of 366.30-4 945.77 pg/g fat, with the mean value (2 093.76 pg/g fat), and PCB 118 was the predominant congener. For six ndl-PCBs, total concentrations (Σndl-PCBs) were in range of 2 671.32-20 626.26 pg/g fat (mean 12 505.45 pg/g fat), and PCB 153 was the predominant congener. Mean concentration of Σdl-PCBs were significantly and positively associated with age (rs=0.574, P=0.002). The mean World Health Organization toxicity equivalent (WHO-TEQ) of dl-PCBs (ΣTEQdl-PCBs) were range from 0.07 to 8.69 pg/g fat.


Assuntos
Dioxinas , Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Dioxinas/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Humanos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise
3.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 235: 113773, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034039

RESUMO

Lead exposure is still a major concern for occupations that regularly train or work with firearms, such as law enforcement and military personnel. Due to the increasing number of women of fertile age in such professions, there is a strong incentive to monitor lead exposures during firearms training. Personal air sampling was performed during two sessions of a nine-day urban combat training (UCT) course for cadets in the Swedish Armed Forces, one session employing leaded ammunition (leaded scenario) and one session employing unleaded ammunition (unleaded scenario). Blood lead levels (BLLs) were measured before and after the course for 42 cadets and five instructors. During the leaded scenario, the instructors' airborne exposure (geometric mean, GM, 72.0 µg/m3) was higher than that of cadets (GM 42.9 µg/m3). During the unleaded scenario, airborne concentrations were similar for instructors and cadets and considerably lower than during the leaded scenario (GM 2.9 µg/m3). Despite comparably low external lead exposures during the course, we saw a statistically significant increase in systemic exposure for cadets (BLL GM increased from 1.09 to 1.71 µg/dL, p < 0.001). For the five instructors, notable differences were seen depending on task. The largest increase was seen for the two instructors performing close supervision during the leaded scenario (BLL GM increased from 2.41 µg/dL to 4.83 µg/dL). For the remaining three instructors the BLLs were unchanged (BLL GMs were 1.25 µg/dL before the course and 1.26 µg/dL after). None of the participants exceeded the applicable biological exposure limits, but extrapolating our findings shows that instructors in the leaded scenario may reach levels around 10 µg/dL after a year of repeated exposures. We conclude that comparably low airborne concentrations can contribute to the body burden of lead and that additional measures to reduce exposure are warranted, particularly for instructors.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Militares , Exposição Ocupacional , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Feminino , Humanos , Chumbo/análise , Motivação , Exposição Ocupacional/análise
4.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 235: 113757, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962122

RESUMO

Elevated perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) levels, one of many manmade per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), were detected in public water systems/private wells in New Jersey communities. Interventions to end exposure through drinking water were carried out from 2014 to 2016. To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions, a community biomonitoring study was conducted for the communities between 2017 and 2020. A convenience sampling design was used with 120 participants in Year 1 between ages of 20-74 who consumed PFNA-contaminated water. Three blood samples, one year apart, were drawn from each participant and completed for 99 participants. Separated serum samples were measured for 12 PFAS including PFNA. Questionnaires were administered to collect information on demographics and potential sources. Drinking water and house dust collected at the first visit were analyzed for 14 PFAS including PFNA. The PFNA sera levels (Year 1) found 84 out of 120 (70%) participants were higher than the 95th percentile of a nationally representative sample of US adults (NHANES2015-16). Current drinking water and house dust were not significant contributing sources for the study participants. On average, PFNA sera levels were 12 ± 16% (Year 2) and 27 ± 16% (Year 3) lower than the level measured in Year 1 (p < 0.01). The PFNA half-life was estimated around 3.52 years, using a mixed model from 68 high-exposed participants (>95th percentile of NHANES2015-16) with controlling for physiological covariates. The decline in adult serum PFNA levels seen in the years following a community drinking water intervention suggests the intervention effectively reduced PFNA exposure via drinking water.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Água Potável , Fluorcarbonetos , Adulto , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Monitoramento Biológico , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Água Potável/análise , Ácidos Graxos , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Humanos , New Jersey , Inquéritos Nutricionais
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807211

RESUMO

(1) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were widely produced in the United States until 2004 but remain highly persistent in the environment. The potential for PBDEs to disrupt normal neuroendocrine pathways resulting in depression and other neurological symptoms is largely understudied. This study examined whether PBDE exposure in pregnant women was associated with antenatal depressive symptomatology. (2) Data were collected from 193 African American pregnant women at 8-14 weeks gestation. Serum PBDEs and depressive symptoms were analyzed and a mixture effect was calculated. (3) Urban pregnant African American women in the Southeastern United States had a high risk of depression (27%) compared to the National average. Increased levels of PBDEs were found. BDE-47 and -99 exposures are significantly associated with depressive symptomatology in the pregnant cohort. The weighted body burden estimate of the PBDE mixture was associated with a higher risk of mild to moderate depression using an Edinburgh Depression Scale cutoff score of ≥10 (OR = 2.93; CI 1.18, 7.82). (4) Since antenatal depression may worsen in postpartum, reducing PBDE exposure may have significant clinical implications.


Assuntos
Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Gestantes , Afro-Americanos , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Feminino , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Gravidez , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(4)2021 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805401

RESUMO

A pilot study to investigate the occurrence of 10 mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, DON; 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 3-ADON; 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-ADON; fusarenon-X, FUS-X; diacetoxyscirpenol, DAS; nivalenol, NIV; neosolaniol, NEO; zearalenone, ZON; zearalanone, ZAN; T-2 toxin, T-2; and HT-2 toxin, HT-2) in esophageal cancer patients was performed with the urinary biomarkers approach in Golestan, Iran. Urine multimycotoxin analysis was performed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) analysis, and values were normalized with urinary creatinine (µg/g). Four mycotoxins, namely NEO (40%), HT-2 (17.6%), DON (10%), and HT-2 (5.8%), were detected in the analyzed urine samples. DON was only detected in the control group (5.09 µg/g creatinine), while T-2 (44.70 µg/g creatinine) was only present in the esophageal cancer group. NEO and HT-2 were quantified in both control and case groups, showing average of positive samples of 9.09 and 10.45 µg/g creatinine for NEO and 16.81 and 29.09 µg/g creatinine for HT-2, respectively. Mycotoxin co-occurrence was observed in three samples as binary (NEO/HT-2 and T-2/HT-2) and ternary (DON/NEO/HT-2) combinations, reaching total concentrations of 44.58, 79.13, and 30.04 µg/g creatinine, respectively. Further investigations are needed to explore a causal association between mycotoxin contamination and esophageal cancer. For this pilot study in Golestan, the low sample size was a very limiting factor.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/urina , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Micotoxinas/urina , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Microextração em Fase Líquida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
7.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(3)2021 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803043

RESUMO

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is one of the most frequently encountered seafood poisoning syndromes; it is caused by the consumption of marine finfish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The majority of CFP cases result from eating fish flesh, but a traditional belief exists among people that the head and viscera are more toxic and should be avoided. Unlike the viscera, scientific data to support the legendary high toxicity of the head is scarce. We prepared tissue samples from the fillet, head, and eyes taken from five yellow-edged lyretail (Variola louti) individuals sourced from Okinawa, Japan, and analyzed the CTXs by LC-MS/MS. Three CTXs, namely, CTX1B, 52-epi-54-deoxyCTX1B, and 54-deoxyCTX1B, were confirmed in similar proportions. The toxins were distributed nearly evenly in the flesh, prepared separately from the fillet and head. Within the same individual specimen, the flesh in the fillet and the flesh from the head, tested separately, had the same level and composition of toxins. We, therefore, conclude that flesh samples for LC-MS/MS analysis can be taken from any part of the body. However, the tissue surrounding the eyeball displayed CTX levels two to four times higher than those of the flesh. The present study is the first to provide scientific data demonstrating the high toxicity of the eyes.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Ciguatera , Ciguatoxinas/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Perciformes/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Cromatografia Líquida , Olho/metabolismo , Cabeça , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Distribuição Tecidual
8.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 420: 115532, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845054

RESUMO

Limited information is available regarding the effects of arsenic exposure on immune function. We have recently reported that chronic exposure to As was associated asthma, as determined by spirometry and respiratory symptoms. Because T helper 2 (Th2)-driven immune responses are implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, including asthma, we studied the associations of serum Th1 and Th2 mediators with the As exposure markers and the features of asthma among individuals exposed to As. A total of 553 blood samples were selected from the same study subjects recruited in our previous asthma study. Serum levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines were analyzed by immunoassay. Subjects' arsenic exposure levels (drinking water, hair and nail arsenic concentrations) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Arsenic exposure levels of the subjects showed significant positive associations with serum Th2-mediators- interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, and eotaxin without any significant changes in Th1 mediators- interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α. The ratios of Th2 to Th1 mediators were significantly increased with increasing exposure to As. Notably, most of the Th2 mediators were positively associated with serum levels of total immunoglobulin E and eotaxin. The serum levels of Th2 mediators were significantly higher in the subjects with asthma than those without asthma. The results of our study suggest that the exacerbated Th2-driven immune responses are involved in the increased susceptibility to allergic asthma among individuals chronically exposed to As.


Assuntos
Arsênio/efeitos adversos , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Citocinas/sangue , Células Th1/efeitos dos fármacos , Equilíbrio Th1-Th2/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th2/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/imunologia , Asma/metabolismo , Bangladesh , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/metabolismo , Células Th2/imunologia , Células Th2/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(4)2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917988

RESUMO

Mycotoxins are naturally occurring food toxins worldwide that can cause serious health effects. The measurement of mycotoxin biomarkers in biological fluids is needed to assess individuals' exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of mycotoxins in the Qatari population. Serum samples from 412 adults and urinary samples from 559 adults were analyzed for the presence of mycotoxin biomarkers. Multimycotoxin approaches have been applied, using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry methods. Samples were further analyzed for the oxidative stress markers and compared with regard to the incidence of mycotoxins. The presence of mycotoxins was identified in 37% of serum samples and in less than 20% of urine samples. It was found that 88% of positive of the samples were positive for only one mycotoxin, while 12% of positive samples had two or more mycotoxins. Trichothecenes and zearalenone metabolites were most commonly detected mycotoxins, followed by aflatoxins, roquefortine C and mycophenolic acid. The presence of mycotoxins was found to positively correlate with oxidative stress markers. The obtained results illustrate the importance of mycotoxin biomonitoring studies in humans and the need to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of mycotoxin-induced toxicity.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico , Contaminação de Alimentos , Micotoxinas/sangue , Micotoxinas/urina , Estresse Oxidativo , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dano ao DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Catar , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 779: 146358, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752009

RESUMO

Pesticides are being applied at a greater extent than in the past. Once pesticides enter the ecosystem, many environmental factors can influence their residence time. These interactions can result in processes such as translocation, environmental degradation, and metabolic activation facilitating exposure to target and non-target species. Most anurans start off their life cycle in aquatic environments and then transition into terrestrial habitats. Their time in the aquatic environment is generally short; however, many important developmental stages occur during this tenure. Post-metamorphosis, most species spend many years on land but migrate back to the aquatic environment for breeding. Due to the importance of both the aquatic and terrestrial environments to the life stages of amphibians, we investigated how the route of exposure (i.e., uptake from contaminated soils vs. uptake from contaminated surface water) influences pesticide bioavailability and body burden for four pesticides (bifenthrin (BIF), chlorpyrifos (CPF), glyphosate (GLY), and trifloxystrobin (TFS)) as well as the impact on the hepatic metabolome of adult leopard frogs (Gosner stage 46 with 60-90 days post-metamorphosis). Body burden concentrations for amphibians exposed in water were significantly higher (ANOVA p < 0.0001) compared to amphibians exposed to contaminated soil across all pesticides studied. Out of 80 metabolites that were putatively identified, the majority expressed a higher abundance in amphibians that were exposed in pesticide contaminated water compared to soil. Ultimately, this research will help fill regulatory data gaps, aid in the creation of more accurate amphibian dermal uptake models and inform continued ecological risk assessment efforts.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Animais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Ecossistema , Metaboloma , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Rana pipiens
11.
Chemosphere ; 276: 130184, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725619

RESUMO

The historical body burden of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153) in the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) population was simulated on the basis of localized exposure factors and dietary data, which present a preliminary attempt to quantify the influence of high lipid dietary patterns, grain transported from inland China, and atmospheric transport on human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Herdsman with large animal-based food consumption exhibited the highest body burden that was comparable with that in inland China. The body burden of other residents was within the range of low-to-moderate level. High-lipid diet of urban residents caused their body burden being 1.5--2.5 times higher than that of rural residents. The consumption of grain transported from higher polluted areas can also result in 50%-115% increase in the body burden of Tibetan rural residents compared with when local produced grain is consumed, suggesting that the influence of grain logistic can be as important as dietary patterns. The exposure risk for rural residents associated with grain logistic should not be ignored even if they consumed less high-lipid food. By splitting the inventory, over 80% of the PCB-153 pollution in the TAR was identified to be induced by atmospheric transport from foreign countries. However, the grain logistic contributed approximately half of the overall human body burden of Tibetan residents recently if assuming that the grain shortage was supplied by adjacent Sichuan Province. The combined influence of high-lipid diet, atmospheric transport and food logistic highlights the difficulties of risk control in remote regions that accumulate POPs, such as TAR.


Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados , Animais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , China , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Tibet
12.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 419: 115483, 2021 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722667

RESUMO

The number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) on the illicit drug market increases fast, posing a need to urgently understand their toxicity and behavioural effects. However, with currently available rodent models, NPS assessment is limited to a few substances per year. Therefore, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and larvae have been suggested as an alternative model that would require less time and resources to perform an initial assessment and could help to prioritize substances for subsequent evaluation in rodents. To validate this model, more information on the concordance of zebrafish larvae and mammalian responses to specific classes of NPS is needed. Here, we studied toxicity and behavioural effects of opioids in zebrafish early life stages. Synthetic opioids are a class of NPS that are often used in pain medication but also frequently abused, having caused multiple intoxications and fatalities recently. Our data shows that fentanyl derivatives were the most toxic among the tested opioids, with toxicity in the zebrafish embryo toxicity test decreasing in the following order: butyrfentanyl>3-methylfentanyl>fentanyl>tramadol> O-desmethyltramadol>morphine. Similar to rodents, tramadol as well as fentanyl and its derivatives led to hypoactive behaviour in zebrafish larvae, with 3-methylfentanyl being the most potent. Physico-chemical properties-based predictions of chemicals' uptake into zebrafish embryos and larvae correlated well with the effects observed. Further, the biotransformation pattern of butyrfentanyl in zebrafish larvae was reminiscent of that in humans. Comparison of toxicity and behavioural responses to opioids in zebrafish and rodents supports zebrafish as a suitable alternative model for rapidly testing synthetic opioids.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/toxicidade , Fentanila/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacocinética , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Biotransformação , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Fentanila/análogos & derivados , Fentanila/farmacocinética , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/metabolismo , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Especificidade da Espécie , Toxicocinética , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
13.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(2)2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535530

RESUMO

The extensive exposure to multiple mycotoxins has been demonstrated in many countries; however, realistic assessments of the risks related to cumulative exposure are limited. This biomonitoring study was conducted to investigate exposure to 23 mycotoxins/metabolites and their determinants in 227 adults (aged 20-88 years) in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Eight mycotoxins were detected in 110 urine samples, and multiple mycotoxins co-occurred in 51/227 (22.47%) of urine samples, with deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B1 (FB1), and zearalenone (ZEN) being the most frequently occurring. For single mycotoxin risk assessment, FB1, ZEN, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), and ochratoxin A (OTA) all showed potential adverse effects. However, for the 12 samples containing DON and ZEN, in which none had a hazard risk, the combination of both mycotoxins in two samples was considered to pose potential endocrine disrupting risks to humans by hazard index (HI) method. The combined margin of exposure (MOET) for AFB1 and FB1 could constitute a potential health concern, and AFB1 was the main contributor. Our approach provides a blueprint for evaluating the cumulative risks related to different types of mycotoxins and opens a new horizon for the accurate interpretation of epidemiological health outcomes related to multi-mycotoxin exposure.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico , Fungos/metabolismo , Micotoxinas/urina , Rios/microbiologia , Microbiologia da Água , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micotoxinas/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Urinálise , Adulto Jovem
14.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(2)2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572356

RESUMO

Lobster species can accumulate paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) in their hepatopancreas following the consumption of toxic prey. The Southern Rock Lobster (SRL), Jasus edwardsii, industry in Tasmania, Australia, and New Zealand, collectively valued at AUD 365 M, actively manages PST risk based on toxin monitoring of lobsters in coastal waters. The SRL supply chain predominantly provides live lobsters, which includes wet holding in fishing vessels, sea-cages, or processing facilities for periods of up to several months. Survival, quality, and safety of this largely exported high-value product is a major consideration for the industry. In a controlled experiment, SRL were exposed to highly toxic cultures of Alexandrium catenella at field relevant concentrations (2 × 105 cells L-1) in an experimental aquaculture facility over a period of 21 days. While significant PST accumulation in the lobster hepatopancreas has been reported in parallel experiments feeding lobsters with toxic mussels, no PST toxin accumulated in this experiment from exposure to toxic algal cells, and no negative impact on lobster health was observed as assessed via a wide range of behavioural, immunological, and physiological measures. We conclude that there is no risk of PST accumulation, nor risk to survival or quality at the point of consumption through exposure to toxic algal cells.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Hepatopâncreas/química , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Nephropidae/química , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar , Frutos do Mar/análise , Animais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
15.
Eur J Nutr ; 60(6): 3365-3374, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615415

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dietary intake is a primary source of cadmium (Cd) exposure in the non-smoking population. Plant foods containing metal-binding plant compounds such as polyphenols, phytates, and phytochelatins may reduce Cd bioavailability and result in lower Cd body burden. In this study, we investigated the association between plant food intake and urinary creatinine-adjusted Cd (uCd), a well-established marker of Cd body burden. METHODS: Participants were from a cross-sectional sample of 1901 adults in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort. Dietary intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. We created a 12-point plant food score (PFS) based on reported intake across seven categories (fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts/seeds, whole grains, tea, and wine). Higher scores indicated higher consumption and diversity of plant food intake. Multivariable linear regression models were used to estimate the association between PFS and uCd. Due to the influence of age and smoking on Cd status, stratified analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Mean PFS was 5.4 (SD 2.2) and mean uCd was 0.53 µg/g creatinine (SD 0.39). In adjusted models, PFS was not associated with uCd (p > 0.05). In stratified analyses, PFS was inversely associated with uCd (p = 0.047) with a 1-point higher PFS associated with 0.018 µg/g lower uCd among middle-aged (45-59) adults. No significant association was observed between PFS and uCd in older (≥ 60) adults. The association of PFS and uCd did not differ by smoking status. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest higher plant food intake is associated with lower Cd body burden in middle-aged but not older adults.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Dieta , Idoso , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(2)2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546479

RESUMO

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungal species that commonly have a toxic effect on human and animal health. Different foodstuff can be contaminated and are considered the major source of human exposure to mycotoxins, but occupational and environmental exposure can also significantly contribute to this problem. This review aims to provide a short overview of the occurrence of toxigenic fungi and regulated mycotoxins in foods and workplaces, following the current literature and data presented in scientific papers. Biomonitoring of mycotoxins in plasma, serum, urine, and blood samples has become a common method for determining the exposure to different mycotoxins. Novel techniques are more and more precise and accurate and are aiming toward the simultaneous determination of multiple mycotoxins in one analysis. Application of liquid chromatography (LC) methodologies, coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) or high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) has become a common and most reliable method for determining the exposure to mycotoxins. Numerous references confirm the importance of mycotoxin biomonitoring to assess the exposure for humans and animals. The objectives of this paper were to review the general approaches to biomonitoring of different mycotoxins and the occurrence of toxigenic fungi and their mycotoxins, using recent literature sources.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico , Fungos/metabolismo , Micotoxinas/análise , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Cromatografia Líquida , Exposição Dietética , Cadeia Alimentar , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Micotoxinas/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional , Medição de Risco , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111686, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396018

RESUMO

Human exposure to mercury is a major public health concern, causing neurological outcomes such as motor and visual impairment and learning disabilities. Currently, human exposure in the Amazon is among the highest in the world. A recent systematic review (doi:10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.12.001), however, highlighted the lack of high-quality studies on mercury-associated neurotoxicity. There is, therefore, a need to improve research and much to still learn about how exposure correlates with disease. In this review, we discuss studies evaluating the associations between neurological disturbances and mercury body burden in Amazonian populations, to generate recommendations for future studies. A systematic search was performed during July 2020, in Pubmed/Medline, SCOPUS and SCIELO databases with the terms (mercury*) and (Amazon*). Four inclusion criteria were used: original article (1), with Amazonian populations (2), quantifying exposure (mercury levels) (3), and evaluating neurological outcomes (4). The extracted data included characteristics (as year or origin of authorship) and details of the research (as locations and type of participants or mercury levels and neurological assessments). Thirty-four studies, most concentrated within three main river basins (Tapajós, Tocantins, and Madeira) and related to environmental exposure, were found. Mercury body burden was two to ten times higher than recommended and main neurological findings were cognitive, vision, motor, somatosensory and emotional deficits. Important insights are described that support novel approaches to researching mercury exposure and intoxication, as well as prevention and intervention strategies. As a signatory country to the Minamata Convention, Brazil has the opportunity to play a central role in improving human health and leading the research on mercury intoxication.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Mercúrio/etiologia , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Rios/química , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Brasil , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Masculino , Mercúrio/análise , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Mercúrio/epidemiologia , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Mercúrio/metabolismo
18.
Toxicol Lett ; 340: 43-51, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440227

RESUMO

In France, part of the population is overexposed to cadmium by the diet. In our work, we first revised the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.36 µg Cd.kg bw.d.-1 proposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), derived from effects on kidneys and based on the critical urinary Cd concentration of 1.0 µg Cd.g-1 creatinine for humans. After reviewing the epidemiological data on Cd toxicity published after 2011, bone effects were selected as the critical effects. Body burden data of 0.5 µg.g-1 creatinine was chosen for the critical threshold for human urinary cadmium concentrations. To be used for the derivation of the new oral toxicological reference value, we used a modified physiologically based pharmacokinetic model (PBPK). The reverse calculation on the PBPK model gave a TDI of 0.35 µg Cd.kg bw-1.day-1. This TDI is compatible with a urinary Cd concentrations not exceeding 0.5 µg Cd.g-1 creatinine, in a 60 year-old adult, assuming that ingestion is the only source of exposure to Cd at 60 years. After implementing the PBPK model with French physiological data, Cd biological reference values as a function of age were modelled so as to remain below the revised health-based guidance values.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/administração & dosagem , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Dieta , Contaminação de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , França , Humanos , Medição de Risco
19.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 412: 115395, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421504

RESUMO

Vanadium is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that exists in multiple oxidation states. Humans are exposed to vanadyl (V4+) and vanadate (V5+) from dietary supplements, food, and drinking water and hence there is a concern for adverse human health. The current investigation is aimed at identifying vanadium oxidation states in vitro and in vivo and internal concentrations following exposure of rats to vanadyl sulfate (V4+) or sodium metavanadate (V5+) via drinking water for 14 d. Investigations in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids showed that V4+ was stable in gastric fluid while V5+ was stable in intestinal fluid. Analysis of rodent plasma showed that the only vanadium present was V4+, regardless of the exposed compound suggesting conversion of V5+ to V4+ in vivo and/or instability of V5+ species in biological matrices. Plasma, blood, and liver concentrations of total vanadium, after normalizing for vanadium dose consumed, were higher in male and female rats following exposure to V5+ than to V4+. Following exposure to either V4+ or V5+, the total vanadium concentration in plasma was 2- to 3-fold higher than in blood suggesting plasma as a better matrix than blood for measuring vanadium in future work. Liver to blood ratios were 4-7 demonstrating significant tissue retention following exposure to both compounds. In conclusion, these data point to potential differences in absorption and disposition properties of V4+ and V5+ salts and may explain the higher sensitivity in rats following drinking water exposure to V5+ than V4+ and highlights the importance of internal dose determination in toxicology studies.


Assuntos
Vanadatos/farmacocinética , Compostos de Vanádio/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Animais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Água Potável , Feminino , Suco Gástrico/química , Absorção Gastrointestinal , Secreções Intestinais/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Oxirredução , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Distribuição Tecidual , Toxicocinética , Vanadatos/administração & dosagem , Vanadatos/sangue , Vanadatos/toxicidade , Compostos de Vanádio/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Vanádio/sangue , Compostos de Vanádio/toxicidade
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467108

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis is a disease having adverse effects on bone health and causing fragility fractures. Osteoporosis affects approximately 200 million people worldwide, and nearly 9 million fractures occur annually. Evidence exists that, in addition to traditional risk factors, certain environmental substances may increase the risk of osteoporosis. METHODS: The European Human Biomonitoring Initiative (HBM4EU) is a joint program coordinating and advancing human biomonitoring in Europe. HBM4EU investigates citizens' exposure to several environmental substances and their plausible health effects aiming to contribute to policymaking. In HBM4EU, 18 priority substances or substance groups were selected. For each, a scoping document was prepared summarizing existing knowledge and health effects. This scoping review is based on these chemical-specific scoping documents and complementary literature review. RESULTS: A possible link between osteoporosis and the body burden of heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), and industrial chemicals such as phthalates and per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) was identified. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence shows that environmental substances may be related to osteoporosis as an adverse health effect. Nevertheless, more epidemiological research on the relationship between health effects and exposure to these chemicals is needed. Study results are incoherent, and pervasive epidemiological studies regarding the chemical exposure are lacking.


Assuntos
Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Osteoporose/induzido quimicamente , Monitoramento Biológico , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Osteoporose/epidemiologia
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